SlideShare a Scribd company logo
WORKING PAPER
Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
A SOCIAL AND
DEMOCRATIC EUROPE?
Obstacles and perspectives for action
Daniel Seikel
SUMMARY
Everywhere in Europe, support for the European integration process de-
creases. More and more Europeans associate the European Union with the
dismantling of social and democratic rights. Fundamental social rights clash
with the market-liberal single market law, the key institutions of the Europe-
an social model are undermined. What are the causes for this develop-
ment? Which changes are necessary to achieve a more social and demo-
cratic Europe? This article reconsiders the concept of Social Democracy
and suggests using it as a blueprint for a fundamental change of course of
the European integration process. Starting point is the finding that the insti-
tutional architecture of the European multi-level system creates a systemat-
ic imbalance between liberalization and social regulation. On the basis of
this problem analysis, I identify three policy fields that are of central im-
portance for creating a social and democratic Europe: an “open” constitu-
tion for Europe, social minimum standards and the recuperation of the fiscal
capacities of the political system.
Inhalt
1. Introduction 3
2. The concept of a social and democratic Europe 4
3. Institutional obstacles to a social and democratic Europe 6
4. Key areas for a social and democratic Europa 8
4.1. Institutional reforms: an ‘open’ constitution for Europe 8
4.2. Minimum requirements for a social Europe 10
4.3. Strengthening the fiscal capacity of member states 10
5. Conclusion 11
Literature 14
page 2 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
1 Introduction1
The European integration process has always been associated with ambi-
tious goals. After two devastating world wars, Europe’s unification was
closely linked to overcoming nationalism and to securing peace on the Eu-
ropean continent. Additionally, from the beginning, the then European Eco-
nomic Community (EEC) also aimed at promoting growth, increasing pros-
perity, enabling full employment and supporting welfare-state development
in the member states. While military conflicts between EEC countries soon
were no realistic threat anymore, against the background of the economic
crises since the late 1960s and the accelerating globalisation, the economic
dimension became increasingly important.
These days, the EU’s policy is being widely criticised. Observers point to a
pronounced market-liberal bias which increasingly shifts the balance be-
tween social regulation and market economy in favour of the latter (Biel-
ing/Deppe 2003; Gill 1998; Höpner/Schäfer 2010, 2012; Scharpf 2010a;
Ziltener 1999). The EU’s policies and institutions have been frequently criti-
cised for being technocratic and undemocratic (Bellamy 2006; Enderlein
2013; Lemb/Urban 2014; Mair 2007; Majone 2014; Oberndorfer 2012;
Scharpf 2009; Streeck 2013; Urban 2013). Moreover, the current crisis
management subjects distressed member states to tough austerity
measures, furthers the dismantling of the welfare state and employees’
rights, and threatens the economic stability of the euro zone (Buntenbach
2014; Busch et al. 2013; Fischer-Lescano 2014; Schulten/ Müller 2013).
Thus, the prospects for a social and democratic Europe are rather bad.
Despite these highly problematic developments, especially from a worker-
oriented perspective, there are good reasons to defend the integration pro-
cess. Given the necessary political majorities, European integration could
potentially provide the historical chance to contain capitalist competition
between states in times of globalisation and unfettered markets. Coopera-
tion at the European level could create the preconditions for transnational
solidarity, stopping the race to the bottom between member states, regulat-
ing markets and restoring the primacy of politics and democracy over the
economy. So far, however, this option is only hypothetical. In practice, Eu-
ropean integration contributes to the exact opposite, not least by directly
exposing the member states’ welfare systems and production regimes to
institutionalised regulative competition.
The European project is undoubtedly one of the greatest achievements of
civilisation in the 20th century. However, this holds also true for the demo-
cratic welfare state, the autonomy of collective bargaining or the right to
strike. Therefore, European integration must not be bought at the expense
1 This working paper is a slightly modified translation of my article ‘Ein soziales und demokratisches Europa? Hindernisse und Hand-
lungsperspektiven‘, published in a special issue of WSI-Mitteilungen (‘Soziales Europa: Fehlentwicklungen und Lösungsansätze‘), 69
(1), 2016. I thank the editors of WSI-Mitteilungen for agreeing to a translation and publication in the WSI Working Paper series. The
translation has been provided by Sebastian Streb.
Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 3
—————————
of democracy and social rights. Europe is important, but so are the welfare
state, rule of law and democracy.2
The social achievements that characterise the ‘European social model’ are
seriously threatened by the current trend of the integration process, with the
euro crisis and its political handling posing the biggest threat. Yet, the ob-
servable imbalance between market regulation and market creation is also
rooted in the institutional architecture of the European multi-level system.
For proponents of a social and democratic Europe it is important to provide
an alternative to these negative developments – an alternative that can
neither be an uncritical ‘more Europe at any cost’ nor a retreat to the nation
state. Focusing on the institutional context, this paper aims at presenting
some ideas on changes that might contribute to the realisation of a social
and democratic Europe. While the paper does not deal with the problematic
management of the euro crisis, it addresses the correction of the EU’s
shortcomings in its ‘normal state’. The article is to be understood as a basis
for further discussions and political debates on the future of Europe.
The paper is structured as follows: I will first introduce the concept of social
democracy as a blueprint for a reorientation of the European integration
process (section 2). Following this, I will elaborate on the main barriers to a
social and democratic Europe (3). On the basis of this analysis, section 4
outlines reform options for three key areas. In the final section, I will sum up
the main results (5).
2 The concept of a social and democratic Europe
This section deals with the question of what should be the guiding principle
of European integration. In this regard, I suggest that European integration
should follow the idea of social democracy. The concept of social democra-
cy is not to be equated with social democratic parties although, obviously,
manifold historical and ideational ties and overlaps exist. It describes a
democratic community that takes the political responsibility for the social
wellbeing of its members (Meyer 2002: 13). Thus, the concept of social
democracy corresponds to a republican understanding of democracy (see
Scharpf 2009). In contrast to the principles of liberal democracy, republi-
canism is not restricted to protecting the individual’s freedom from state
intervention. Rather, republicanism aims at ensuring the freedom of citizens
in and through the state (Meyer 2012: 18f.). Social democracy is based on
the insight that the citizens’ full (democratic) participation in a community’s
economic and social life cannot be guaranteed by individual freedom rights
alone. Accordingly, the status of citizenship is connected with a fundamen-
tal equality of all citizens that is incompatible with excessive economic ine-
quality (cf. Marshall 1950). This is because an uneven distribution of mate-
rial resources that exceeds a certain level also leads to an uneven distribu-
tion of economic and political participation (Marshall 1950: 57f.). Only
2 See also Prantl (2014).
page 4 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
—————————
changes in the economic and social conditions through active government
policies enable a large number of people to actively exercise their civil
rights. This requires that political interventions of the state have priority over
markets and economic power. Consequently, the concept of social democ-
racy demands that basic democratic rights also apply to the economic and
the social domain (Meyer 2002: 13-15, 27f). The primacy of democracy
over the economy is the prerequisite that enables the economically ‘weak’
to exercise their civil rights (Meyer 2002: 14).
The following three elements are of crucial importance for social democra-
cy: social rights of citizenship, economic democracy and an adequate ca-
pacity for political action of the political system. Social rights of citizenship
are fundamental for legitimising modern democracies. Social rights imply
an intrusion of in other respects free contractual relations by the status of
social citizenship. Market prices – e.g. for human labour – are corrected for
reasons of social justice (Marshall 1950: 68, 74). Social rights are the pri-
mary means against material and political inequality and are realised
through an efficient welfare state. The state guarantees a politically defined
minimum provision of essential goods and services and/or a minimum in-
come sufficient for covering needs that are also politically defined (Marshall
1950: 54).
The second basic element of social democracy is the democratisation of
the economy, i.e. expanding the democratic rights of self-determination and
co-determination to the economic sphere (Meyer 2002: 17). Accordingly, all
participants in the economic process should be enabled to shape their own
work environment and should also have a say in major decisions on the
allocation and distribution of resources. This includes institutions such as
co-determination at company level, free collective bargaining, and the right
to strike.3
Finally, it requires an effective political system to realise the above men-
tioned elements. For this purpose, three conditions are necessary. First, the
political decision-making process has to be effective. Second, the political
system must be able to generate the material resources for financing the
implementation of regulatory objectives. Third, the political system must
have the legal freedom to determine the economic order (Bast/Rödl 2013:
7). These characteristics can also be summarised as the problem-solving
ability of the political system.
One of the greatest challenges for social democracy is globalisation (Meyer
2002: 12) which undermines the nation state’s capacity to domesticate cap-
italism democratically (Scharpf 1998: 151). Exposed to international com-
petition for mobile factors, the nation state loses its ability to maintain the
conditions for social democracy in the national context. Open and unregu-
lated competition between national economies causes problems that can
make nation states less social over time, mainly through a mutual race to
3 The remainder of the article does not deal with the aspect of economic democracy.
Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 5
—————————
the bottom in the areas of taxation, social benefits, wages, employees’
rights and environmental standards. Provided the political will to do so
would exist, the European integration process potentially offers the possibil-
ity to master these problems: through international cooperation at the Euro-
pean level, the mutual race to the bottom could be stopped by imposing
‘ratchets’ that prevent member states from increasing their competitiveness
at the expense of social, labour and environmental standards. Thus, Euro-
pean integration opens up the chance to create the conditions for realising
social democracy in a globalised world and to reclaim the lost capacity for
political action. However, emphasising this potential should not conceal the
fact that the current trend of the integration process points in the exact op-
posite direction – a systematic undermining of the central pillars of social
democracy (for detailed analyses of the causes see Höpner 2013;
Höpner/Schäfer 2010, 2012; Scharpf 1999; 2010a, 2010b). Some observ-
ers even believe that the EU’s social and democratic potential is generally
limited and consider the chance to achieve a change of course in European
policy to be low – at least in the medium term (Höpner 2013; Scharpf
2010a). Regardless of the current chances for realisation, this paper asks
what would have to be changed in order to remove the existing barriers to a
social and democratic Europe.
3 Institutional obstacles to a social and democratic
Europe
This section deals with the institutional obstacles that stand in the way of a
social and democratic Europe. I will focus primarily on those barriers that
result from the complex architecture of the European multi-level system.
The first obstacle is the limited problem-solving ability of European politics
(positive integration). Legislative acts of the union require a qualified majori-
ty in the Council, in some policy areas even unanimity, and the agreement
of a majority in the European Parliament (EP). Treaty changes require una-
nimity, too, and must be ratified by national parliaments, in some cases
even by referendum. Thus, the institutional barriers posed by European
legislation are exceptionally high and there are numerous veto points. Poli-
cies that could contribute to the realisation of a social Europe, however, can
only be realised under these demanding political decision-making rules
(Meyer 2002: 156). The difficulties in forming majorities are drastically in-
creased by the political-economic and institutional heterogeneity of the 28
(soon 27) member states (Höpner 2013; Höpner/Schäfer 2008). Reaching
an agreement is especially difficult when core elements of the national pro-
duction regimes are concerned. This holds particularly true for questions
concerning the social, tax, finance and collective bargaining systems, but
also for corporate control including co-determination at company level. In
some of these policy areas that are central to social democracy, the EU
even has no direct legislative competence at all. Thus, especially in the
core areas of social democracy, the EU’s capacity for political action is
constrained (cf. Höpner 2013: 75f.; Meyer 2002: 156; Scharpf 2006, 2008a:
754ff.).
page 6 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
The second fundamental problem is the expansive jurisprudence of the
European Court of Justice (ECJ). In contrast to the political decision-
making mode at the European level, legal integration is highly effective
(Höpner 2014). The European Treaties, as the basis of legal integration,
are by no means neutral in their stance on the relation between state and
the market but are characterised by a predominance of individual economic
liberties. The four so-called fundamental freedoms that guarantee the free
cross-border movement of goods, persons, services and capital increase
the competition between national regulatory systems. In the course of the
integration process they have become ‘highly effective instruments of eco-
nomic liberalization’ (Höpner 2013: 78). Especially the jurisprudence of the
ECJ is responsible for this ‘radicalisation of the single market integration’
(Scharpf 2008b; for details see Höpner 2008). Theoretically, all national
practices, institutions and regulations that render cross-border trade poten-
tially less attractive can be abolished by the ECJ. This affects particularly
forms of social market regulation which naturally restrict individual econom-
ic liberties. The resulting market-liberal spin undermines the collective and
social rights that are essential to social democracy (Scharpf 2008a, 2009,
2010b; Seikel/Absenger 2015).
The market-liberal thrust of integration through law has considerable con-
sequences for the balance of power between social groups. Actors having
an interest in liberalisation can use European law in order to legally bypass
previously insurmountable political opposition within the national arena. By
contrast, actors interested in social regulation, such as trade unions, do not
have this option (cf. Scharpf 2010a: 221f.).
The same obstacles blocking positive integration also impede the political
correction of ECJ rulings. If the ECJ makes a decision on the basis of Eu-
ropean primary law, a correction requires unanimous agreement of all gov-
ernments in the Council.
Since agreement on market-correcting policies is difficult and judicial inte-
gration on the basis of the single market freedoms is highly effective and at
the same time almost always market-creating, the relationship between
state and market shifts systematically in favour of the market (Scharpf
2008a: 49).
The here described – mainly institutional – obstacles hamper the develop-
ment of a social Europe. For example, the weakness of positive integration
is one reason for the fact that the EU neither prevents tax competition nor
takes effective measures to regulate financial markets. The momentum of
legal integration, by contrast, creates a strong impulse for liberalisation.
Legal integration not only intensifies the race to the bottom between mem-
ber states, e.g. in terms of taxes, but as a result of its market-creating thrust
also legally delimits the scope for social and economic policies in the mem-
ber states. However, since positive integration is prone to being blockaded,
the capacity for political action at member state level is not compensated by
additional regulatory capacities at the European level. The result is a dou-
Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 7
ble asymmetry of liberalisation and social regulation at the European and
the national level (Scharpf 2010a).
4 Key areas for a social and democratic Europe
4.1 Institutional reforms: an ‘open’ constitution for Europe
This section deals with proposals for solving the above described problems
of low political effectiveness and excessive integration through law. As Bast
and Rödl (2013: 9) state, the currently most urgent task in Europe is to re-
store the priority of democratic legislation over single market law. They for-
mulate two key questions: First, how can the exercise of member state
competences be protected from dysfunctional restrictions by single market
law without endangering important achievements of economic integration?
Second, what changes of the EU’s institutional architecture are needed to
increase political effectiveness without overburdening the EU in terms of
legitimacy and institutional capacity (Bast/Rödl: 2013: 9)?
Relating to these questions, Fritz Scharpf (2015) has recently presented a
far-reaching proposal. He suggests a constitutional restart in order to ex-
pand the capacity for political action at the European and the national level
and to allow for a correction of integration through law. The goal is a reform
of the EU’s institutional architecture, which, in contrast to the current state,
is open to alternative concepts about the organization of state and market,
including the leitmotif of social democracy. The proposal rests upon the
basic idea of replacing the multiple veto points in the European legislative
process with the possibility of politically controlled opt-outs.
Scharpf’s proposal contains four basic elements. The first element is the
de-constitutionalisation of EU single market law. Accordingly, a European
constitution should be reduced to those components that are typically in-
cluded in constitutions: provisions about institutions, procedures and com-
petences, as well as fundamental social and civil rights. The single market
law would explicitly be no component of the constitutional law but would
remain in effect under the ‘ordinary’ law of the acquis, thus losing its current
quasi-constitutional status (Scharpf 2015: 401). The de-constitutionalisation
of single market law would suspend the supremacy of economic freedoms
over collective social rights.
Second, the proposal aims at eliminating the Commission’s monopoly of
legislative initiatives. Instead, ‘qualified minorities in Parliament and Council
should [also] be able to introduce legislative initiatives’ (Scharpf 2015: 400).
This would prevent the Commission from stopping or diluting measures that
are not in line with the market-liberal preferences of the Directorates-
General for the Internal Market, Competition or Trade (Scharpf 2014: 19).
In addition, this would also significantly upgrade the EP, thus making an
important contribution to the democratization of the EU.
page 8 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
The third element of Scharpf’s proposal intends to reduce the relatively high
majority requirements for ordinary legislation. Accordingly, a simple majority
in the Council and the EP should be sufficient for adopting legislative pro-
posals (Scharpf 2015: 400).
Fourth, for the sake of protection of minorities, the simplification of the deci-
sion-making processes would be balanced by politically controlled opt-out
options for member states (from ordinary legislation only): this ensures that
individual member states or small groups of member states with specific
national characteristics – e.g. particularly extensive forms of co-
determination – are protected from being overruled by simple majorities of
the other countries (e.g. in the case of takeover or company law). However,
opt-outs should be politically controlled, i.e. it should be possible to reject
them by an absolute majority in Parliament and by a qualified majority in
the Council. This could be reasonable when the uniform application of a law
seems necessary, e.g. if non-applicants had a competitive advantage
and/or if the benefits for applicants were reduced by non-uniform applica-
tion. In these cases, member states would have to choose between the
comparatively unproblematic adoption of far reaching solutions by a smaller
group of countries on the one hand and a lengthy and cumbersome search
for consent between all member states on the other hand which, in the end,
might lead to a compromise that represents the lowest common denomina-
tor only (Scharpf 2015: 402f.). The proposal also foresees that member
states are allowed to adopt legislation that contravenes the current acquis
(Scharpf 2015: 401) because the current acquis contains more uniform
rules as it would be the case after a reform. Such conflicting initiatives
should be notified to the Commission beforehand and could also be reject-
ed by joint majorities in Parliament and Council (Scharpf 2015: 403f.).
These measures address the previously identified problems of a poor prob-
lem-solving ability and an uncontrolled integration through law. First, it
would become possible to control and correct the legal development politi-
cally. The member states’ capacity for political action could be freed from
European legal restrictions that no longer correspond to the interests of
political majorities (Scharpf 2015: 404). European politics would be relieved
from the legal constraints of an expansive integration through law, thus
significantly increasing the range of policy alternatives. Second, the institu-
tional constraints of the Community method’s multi-veto system would be
eliminated. This would not only improve the capacity for political action and
make it easier to correct the legal development but would also contribute to
greater public attention for and the politicisation of European decisions both
at the European and the national level (Scharpf 2015: 404). At the same
time, this would also lead to a more active role of national parliaments in
European politics, thus contributing to an improvement of the democratic
quality within member states (cf. Urban 2013: 143f.).
Of course, these measures do not guarantee the realisation of a social Eu-
rope which can only be the result of future political battles. But at least the
institutional barriers to social democracy would be removed. This would be
Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 9
the basic condition for political majorities in Europe to implement alternative
social and economic concepts in democratically legitimised processes.
4.2 Minimum requirements for a social Europe
In order to realise a social and democratic Europe, European integration
should more strongly serve the purpose of promoting welfare state devel-
opment in the member states. Especially in the current crisis, this aspect is
more important than ever. As stated above, high material inequality is in-
compatible with the principles of social democracy. Instead of cutting social
benefits and reducing wages, minimum social standards should be agreed
that provide adequate protection from social risks and also ensure a decent
standard of living. To be clear, this would not be about the introduction of
redistributive social security systems at the European level but about regu-
latory provisions to be implemented by the member states.
For instance, minimum wage replacement rates could be introduced for
social benefits such as social assistance, unemployment benefits and pen-
sions. In order not to financially overburden the countries’ social systems,
following Busch’s idea of a corridor model (Busch 2005), member states
could be divided into groups with different levels of wage replacement rates
according to their economic capacity. In the long term, lower wage re-
placement rates should be adjusted to a higher level.
The crisis in the southern European countries has made it clear that in the
EU not even the delivery of basic services is ensured. Against this back-
ground, it might also make sense to define a minimum level of public ser-
vices. This would involve the coverage of basic needs such as a guaran-
teed basic supply of electricity and gas or comprehensive health care.
A minimum wage policy coordinated at European level could be another
building block of a social Europe (Schulten 2014). This would be an effec-
tive remedy for rising social inequality and increasing in-work poverty. Giv-
en the huge wage differences between member states, however, the aim
cannot be a Europe-wide uniform wage amount but a minimum wage norm
to be implemented in the member states (Schulten 2014: 13f.). For exam-
ple, the minimum wage level could be set to 60% of the respective median
wage of a country.
4.3 Strengthening the fiscal capacity of member states
An important prerequisite for a high problem-solving ability of political sys-
tems is their capacity to generate the material resources needed to imple-
ment ambitious regulatory goals. This requires the solution of two tightly
interconnected problems that interfere with the revenue side of state budg-
ets: the regulation of financial markets and the curbing of tax competition.
page 10 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
As made clear by Nölke (2016) and Rixen (2016), containing financial mar-
kets and tax competition is an important prerequisite for a social and demo-
cratic Europe. Both authors point to the close connection between financial-
isation and tax competition on the one hand and social inequality on the
other. Additionally, financialisation, tax avoidance and tax competition de-
prive nation states to a considerable extent of much needed resources (see
Unger 2013). The liberalisation of capital flows and financial markets has
substantially increased the mobility of capital. Financial market actors,
companies and wealthy individuals can exploit the differences between
national regulatory models in order to achieve a ‘regulatory arbitrage’.
Thereby, nation states are subjected to an intensive competition for invest-
ments and tax revenues. Because of the relatively advanced stage of mar-
ket liberalisation, this competition is particularly intense in the EU, thus in-
creasing the mutual race to the bottom between member states. Legal and
illegal possibilities of tax avoidance as well as an increasingly capital-
friendly financial market regulation and taxation do not only reduce tax rev-
enues but also lead to a general loss of political and democratic control
over financial markets.
In his article, Nölke (2016) calls for a stronger regulation of cross-border
capital movements. This would not only reduce the vulnerability of financial
markets but also facilitate the taxation of capital income and corporate prof-
its. However, as Nölke points out, these measures would be incompatible
with the free movement of capital as enshrined in EU primary law. Moreo-
ver, Nölke supports the introduction of a financial transaction tax which
would also contribute to a deceleration of the financial market business and
generate additional public revenues. In this way, the financial sector would
contribute more to the financing of public tasks. Besides, there is also a
necessity for a more effective regulation of banks, shadow banks and fi-
nancial instruments.
Rixen (2016) shows that while there has been progress in combating tax
evasion in the EU, there are still considerable shortcomings with regard to
the containment of tax competition. Therefore, Rixen proposes a partial
harmonisation of tax policy and argues for the taxation of corporate profits
in the form of a common consolidated corporate tax base in combination
with minimum tax rates.
5 Conclusion
In this paper, I have suggested that European integration should follow the
concept of social democracy. The basic idea is to impose regulative ‘ratch-
ets’ against the mutual race to the bottom and to align the integration pro-
cess in a way that it guarantees and promotes the economic and social
development of the member states in the sense of a complementary institu-
tional level of regulation. First, I have shown how the current architecture of
the European multi-level system systematically prevents the realisation of
social democracy in Europe. Based on this analysis, I have identified three
areas that are crucial for a social and democratic Europe: an ‘open’ Euro-
Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 11
pean constitution, minimum requirements for a social Europe and the
strengthening of the fiscal capacities of member states.
It should be noted that none of the proposals made here will be easy to
implement, because first the obstacles described in section 3 would have to
be overcome. Besides, it is doubtful whether there currently exist political
majorities in Europe that would implement such reforms. This is also and
especially true for the proposal of a constitutional restart of the EU (Scharpf
2015: 397). According to Scharpf (2015: 397), this would even require a
deep and dramatic crisis which would move the political actors to abandon
their blockade positions, thus making possible a comprehensive institution-
al change that goes beyond incremental and path-dependent adjustments.
Although the institutional reform outlined here would considerably increase
the other proposals’ prospects of success, it is not necessarily a prerequi-
site for some of the proposed measures. For example, it is at least con-
ceivable that agreement on proportional minimum conditions in the social
area would also be possible under the current institutional conditions. Opt-
outs, however, could facilitate progress in this area. The best example is
the debate about a European minimum wage norm. So far, a common min-
imum wage policy has been rejected in the European Trade Union Confed-
eration (ETUC) especially by some of those countries that have a high level
of collective bargaining coverage as well as a high level of wages, thus
fearing that European requirements could cause a reduction of their nation-
al standards (see Seeliger 2015).4
The possibility of an opt-out could re-
solve this constellation without undermining common standards, because
the non-participants would be those countries that already have high wage
levels. In view of fundamentally different national interests, however, an
agreement on strict financial market regulations as well as on a partial har-
monisation of corporate tax is more than unlikely at the moment. In these
policy areas, progress would only become possible through opt-outs.
In order to contain the mutual race to the bottom in the mentioned policy
areas, uniform rules would undoubtedly be the most effective solution. Ad-
vancements of an ‘avant-garde’-group of countries in areas that are central
for a social Europe, however, appear to be better than no improvements at
all. In addition, differentiated integration is a matter of fact already today
and even for some of the key integration projects (EMU, Schengen). In this
context, it is important to emphasise that the reform proposed here includes
the political control of opt-outs. It should be possible to reject them by a
qualified majority in the Council. This means if a uniform application of rules
seems necessary, member states would fall back on the procedural logic of
the (classical) Community method. Thus, the reform would by no means
lead to a deterioration compared to the current status quo but would open
up new options for progress that are currently blocked. In those areas
where unanimity is required at present, e.g. tax policy, finding consensus
4 At the 2015 ETUC Congress, the trade unions have agreed to a compromise formula: the ETUC supports the introduction of minimum
wages if this is demanded by national trade unions. This is not to be understood as a call for a uniform European minimum wage.
However, the compromise demonstrates the potential of opt-out solutions.
page 12 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
—————————
would even become much easier, because member states would lose their
veto-right. Moreover, the EP would take a more pro-active agenda-setting-
role and become able to initiate important policies. Besides, it would be-
come possible to bypass currently existing European legal restrictions (e.g.
the free movement of capital) politically.
I expect that opt outs is a hard pill to swallow for many pro-European inte-
grationists, not least for those among the political left who sometimes seem
to believe that member states can be forced against their will via the Euro-
pean level to become ‘more social’. Perhaps it is especially those advocat-
ing a social and democratic Europe who have to realize that member states
cannot be made ‘more social’ by European-level intervention when there
are neither political majorities in the respective member states nor at Euro-
pean level supporting this ambition. The choice is between a standstill for
all for the sake of uniformity – which seriously threatens to undermine Eu-
ropean integration – or progress for some. In addition, I expect that these
changes, by increasing political problem-solving ability and removing struc-
tural market-liberalism from European politics, could effectively reduce pub-
lic discontent with the EU. The remaining discontent would no longer have
to result in a complete rejection of EU membership like in the Brexit-case
but could instead be channeled into less disruptive debates about selective
opt-outs (Seikel 2016).
This paper is primarily intended to serve as a basis for discussion. It aims
at identifying perspectives for action and at outlining selected solutions. It
does not answer the question of how the path to a more social and demo-
cratic Europe could look like, i.e. how the proposals could be put into ac-
tion. Thus, another purpose of this paper is to provide concrete guidance in
case a window of opportunity for fundamental reforms opens up in Europe
– not least in order to be better prepared for the time after the next crisis
(cf. Scharpf 2015: 397).
The outlined medium- and long-term reform prospects should not obscure
the fact that the currently most urgent task is the protection of national so-
cial systems and collective bargaining systems against illegitimate interfer-
ence from Brussels and Luxembourg. Although not in the focus of this pa-
per, the management of the euro crisis is currently the biggest threat to a
social and democratic Europe. In this regard, a fundamental change of
course is urgently needed. An important key to this lies in Germany: being
the biggest creditor, Germany exerts considerable influence on the Euro-
pean crisis management (Bulmer 2014: 1249f.). A change of course in
Germany's European policy would therefore be crucial for changing Eu-
rope’s crisis policy.
Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 13
Literature
Bast J. and Rödl F. (2013) Wohlfahrtsstaatlichkeit und ‘soziales Europa’
im Kontext der Euro-Krise, Europarecht Beiheft 1/2013, Hamburg, VSA, 5-
12.
Bellamy R. (2006) Still in deficit, European Law Journal, 12 (6), 725-742.
Bieling H.-J. and Deppe F. (2003) Die neue europäische Ökonomie und
die Transformation von Staatlichkeit, in Jachtenfuchs M. and Kohler-Koch
B. (eds.) Europäische Integration, Opladen, Leske+Budrich, 513-539.
Bulmer S. (2014) Germany and the Eurozone crisis: between hegemony
and domestic politics, West European Politics, 37 (6), 1244-1263.
Buntenbach A. (2014) Wer hat Recht(e) in Europa?, Supplement der Zeit-
schrift Sozialismus 4/2014, 3-11.
Busch K. (2005) Die Perspektiven des Europäischen Sozialmodells, Ar-
beitspapier 92, Düsseldorf, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung.
Busch K. et al. (2013) Euro crisis, austerity policy and the European Social
Model. How crisis policies in southern Europe threaten the EU’s social di-
mension, International Policy Analysis February 2013, Berlin, Friedrich-
Ebert-Stiftung.
Enderlein H. (2013) Das erste Opfer der Krise ist die Demokratie: Wirt-
schaftspolitik und ihre Legitimation in der Finanzmarktkrise 2008-2013,
Politische Vierteljahresschrift, 54 (4), 714-739.
Fischer-Lescano A. (2014) Austeritätspolitik und Menschenrechte –
Rechtspflichten der Unionsorgane beim Abschluss von Memoranda of Un-
derstanding, Rechtsgutachten im Auftrag der Kammer für Arbeiter/innen
und Angestellte für Wien.
Gill S. (1998) European Governance and new constitutionalism, New Polit-
ical Economy, 3 (1), 5-26.
Höpner M. (2008) Usurpation statt Delegation. Wie der EuGH die Binnen-
marktintegration radikalisiert und warum er politischer Kontrolle bedarf,
Discussion Paper 08/12, Köln, MPIfG.
Höpner M. (2013) Soziale Demokratie?, Europarecht Beiheft 1/2013, 69-
89.
Höpner M. (2014) Wie der Europäische Gerichtshof und die Kommission
Liberalisierung durchsetzen: Befunde aus der MPIfG-Forschungsgruppe
zur Politischen Ökonomie der europäischen Integration, Discussion Paper
14/8, Köln, MPIfG.
page 14 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
Höpner M. and Schäfer A. (2008) Eine neue Phase der europäischen In-
tegration. Legitimationsdefizite europäischer Liberalisierungspolitik, in
Höpner M. and Schäfer A. (eds.) Die Politische Ökonomie der europäi-
schen Integration, Frankfurt a. M., Campus, 129-156.
Höpner M. and Schäfer A. (2010) A new phase of European integration,
West European Politics, 33 (2), 344-368.
Höpner M. and Schäfer A. (2012) Embeddedness and regional integra-
tion, International Organization, 66 (3), 429-455.
Lemb W. and Urban H.-J. (2014) Ist die Demokratie noch zu retten?, Sup-
plement der Zeitschrift Sozialismus 4/2014, Hamburg, VSA, 42-54.
Mair P. (2007) Political opposition and the European Union, Government
and Opposition, 42 (1), 1-17.
Majone G. (2014) From regulatory state to a democratic default, Journal of
Common Market Studies, 52 (6), 1216-1223.
Marshall T. H. (1950) Citizenship and Social Class. And other essays,
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Meyer T. (2002) Soziale Demokratie und Globalisierung. Eine europäische
Perspektive, Bonn, J.H.W. Dietz.
Nölke A. (2016) Finanzialisierung als Kernproblem eines Sozialen Euro-
pas, WSI-Mitteilungen, 69 (1), 41-48.
Oberndorfer L. (2012) Der Fiskalpakt – Umgehung der ‘europäischen Ver-
fassung’ und Durchbrechung demokratischer Verfahren?, juridikum 2/2012,
168-181.
Prantl H. (2014) Wo Europa neue Kraft braucht und woher sie kommen
kann, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund and Friedrich-
Ebert-Stiftung (eds.) Demokratisierung von Gesellschaft und Arbeitswelt.
Impulse für eine soziale Rechtspolitik. Dokumentation des Rechtspoliti-
schen Kongresses, Berlin, 25/26 March 2014.
Rixen T. (2016) Das Soziale Europa im Räderwerk des Steuerwettbe-
werbs, WSI-Mitteilungen, 69 (1), 49-56.
Scharpf F. W. (1998) Demokratie in der transnationalen Politik, in Streeck
W. (ed.) Internationale Wirtschaft, nationale Demokratie. Herausforderun-
gen für die Demokratietheorie, Frankfurt a. M., Campus, 151-174.
Scharpf F. W. (1999) Regieren in Europa. Effektiv und demokratisch?,
Frankfurt a. M., Campus.
Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 15
Scharpf F. W. (2006) The joint-decision trap revisited, Journal of Common
Market Studies, 44 (4), 845-864.
Scharpf F. W. (2008a) Negative und positive Integration, in: Höpner M. and
Schäfer A. (eds.) Die Politische Ökonomie der europäischen Integration,
Frankfurt a. M., Campus, 49-87.
Scharpf F. W. (2008b) Der einzige Weg ist, dem EuGH nicht zu folgen,
Mitbestimmung, 07 + 08/2008, 18-23.
Scharpf F. W. (2009) Legitimität im europäischen Mehrebenensystem,
Leviathan 37 (2), 244-280.
Scharpf F. W. (2010a) The asymmetry of European integration, or why the
EU cannot be a ‘social market economy’, Socio-Economic Review, 8 (2),
211-250.
Scharpf F. W. (2010b) Negative and positive integration in the political
economy of European welfare states, in Scharpf F. W. (ed.) Community
and autonomy. Institutions, policies and legitimacy in multilevel Europe,
Frankfurt a. M., Campus, 91-126.
Scharpf F. W. (2014) After the crash. A perspective on multilevel European
democracy, Discussion Paper 14/21, Köln, MPIfG.
Scharpf F. W. (2015) After the crash: a perspective on multilevel European
democracy, European Law Journal, 21 (3), 384-405.
Schulten Th. and Müller T. (2013) Ein neuer europäischer Interventionis-
mus?, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 39 (3), 291-321.
Schulten Th. (2014) Contours of a European Minimum Wage Policy, Ber-
lin, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Seeliger M. (2015) Europäischer Mindestlohn als Arbeitnehmerinteresse?
Probleme gewerkschaftlicher Positionsbildung, Aus Politik und Zeitge-
schichte, 65 (4-5), 36-42.
Seikel D. and Absenger N. (2015) Die Auswirkungen der EuGH-
Rechtsprechung auf das Tarifvertragssystem in Deutschland, Industrielle
Beziehungen, 22 (1), 51-71.
Seikel D. (2016) The European Union In Crisis – Is Flexible Integration The
Way Forward?, Social Europe, 22 July 2016
(www.socialeurope.eu/2016/07/european-union-crisis-flexible-integration-
way-forward/).
Streeck, W. (2013) Gekaufte Zeit. Die vertagte Krise des demokratischen
Kapitalismus, Berlin, Suhrkamp.
page 16 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
Unger B. (2013) How to finance a social Europe?, in Grozelier, A.-M. et al.
(eds.) Roadmap to a social Europe, Social Europe Report October 2013,
95-97.
Urban H.-J. (2011) Wirtschaftsdemokratie des 21. Jahrhunderts. Konturen
und Realisierungsbedingungen eines gesellschaftlichen Transformations-
projekts, in Meine H./Schumann M., and Urban H.-J. (eds.) Mehr Wirt-
schaftsdemokratie wagen!, Hamburg, VSA, 42-67.
Urban H.-J. (2013) Der Tiger und seine Dompteure. Wohlfahrtsstaat und
Gewerkschaften im Gegenwartskapitalismus, Hamburg, VSA.
Ziltener P. (1999) Strukturwandel der europäischen Integration. Die Euro-
päische Union und die Veränderung von Staatlichkeit, Münster, Westfäli-
sches Dampfboot.
Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 17
Impressum
In der Reihe „WSI Working Paper“ erscheinen in unregelmäßiger Folge Arbeiten aus dem WSI zu
aktuellen Vorgängen auf wirtschafts-, sozial- und gesellschaftspolitischem Gebiet. Für den Inhalt
sind die Autorinnen und Autoren selbst verantwortlich.
Diese und andere Veröffentlichungen der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
finden Sie als pdf-Datei unter www.boeckler.de
Gedruckte Einzelexemplare sind zu beziehen über
Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
Hans-Böckler-Straße 39
40476 Düsseldorf
Dr.Daniel Seikel
Hans-Böckler-Straße 39
40476 Düsseldorf
daniel-seikel@boeckler.de
Working Paper (Internet) ISSN ISSN 2509-985X
page 18 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung

More Related Content

What's hot

Economic Systems - Mixed Economy
Economic Systems - Mixed EconomyEconomic Systems - Mixed Economy
Economic Systems - Mixed Economy
Syed Jahangir Ali
 
Ilo
IloIlo
Bortoletti, corruption, commissione europea, ipa, zagabria 21 23 novembre ...
Bortoletti,  corruption, commissione europea, ipa, zagabria 21   23 novembre ...Bortoletti,  corruption, commissione europea, ipa, zagabria 21   23 novembre ...
Bortoletti, corruption, commissione europea, ipa, zagabria 21 23 novembre ...
Maurizio Bortoletti
 
Shadow-Economy-Sörensen
Shadow-Economy-SörensenShadow-Economy-Sörensen
Shadow-Economy-Sörensen
Jens S
 
Employee relations lecture 7 the state
Employee relations lecture 7 the stateEmployee relations lecture 7 the state
Employee relations lecture 7 the state
anamikadewangan
 
Social polarisation
Social polarisationSocial polarisation
Social polarisation
SurtFoundation
 
EUpaper1
EUpaper1EUpaper1
EUpaper1
Justin Lull
 
Social Sciences
Social SciencesSocial Sciences
Social Sciences
Marissa Agricula
 
Strategic governance
Strategic governanceStrategic governance
Strategic governance
University of Tampere
 
Critical_Paper
Critical_PaperCritical_Paper
Critical_Paper
Giacomo Conti
 
Liberal Democracy in America and Socialism in Vietnam Impact on Health Insura...
Liberal Democracy in America and Socialism in Vietnam Impact on Health Insura...Liberal Democracy in America and Socialism in Vietnam Impact on Health Insura...
Liberal Democracy in America and Socialism in Vietnam Impact on Health Insura...
LongHienLe
 
G1000 Manifesto (EN)
G1000 Manifesto (EN)G1000 Manifesto (EN)
G1000 Manifesto (EN)
G1000org
 
The e(R)evolution will not be funded
The e(R)evolution will not be fundedThe e(R)evolution will not be funded
The e(R)evolution will not be funded
Asociación KyoPol - Symbiotic City
 
Sociology - The New Right
Sociology - The New RightSociology - The New Right
Sociology - The New Right
Katie Clemmey
 
Belgium_Political_Crisis Final Version
Belgium_Political_Crisis Final VersionBelgium_Political_Crisis Final Version
Belgium_Political_Crisis Final Version
Benjamin Shapiro
 
It is a far way from porto alegre to helisngborg 1
It is a far way from porto alegre to helisngborg 1It is a far way from porto alegre to helisngborg 1
It is a far way from porto alegre to helisngborg 1
Jakob Svensson
 

What's hot (16)

Economic Systems - Mixed Economy
Economic Systems - Mixed EconomyEconomic Systems - Mixed Economy
Economic Systems - Mixed Economy
 
Ilo
IloIlo
Ilo
 
Bortoletti, corruption, commissione europea, ipa, zagabria 21 23 novembre ...
Bortoletti,  corruption, commissione europea, ipa, zagabria 21   23 novembre ...Bortoletti,  corruption, commissione europea, ipa, zagabria 21   23 novembre ...
Bortoletti, corruption, commissione europea, ipa, zagabria 21 23 novembre ...
 
Shadow-Economy-Sörensen
Shadow-Economy-SörensenShadow-Economy-Sörensen
Shadow-Economy-Sörensen
 
Employee relations lecture 7 the state
Employee relations lecture 7 the stateEmployee relations lecture 7 the state
Employee relations lecture 7 the state
 
Social polarisation
Social polarisationSocial polarisation
Social polarisation
 
EUpaper1
EUpaper1EUpaper1
EUpaper1
 
Social Sciences
Social SciencesSocial Sciences
Social Sciences
 
Strategic governance
Strategic governanceStrategic governance
Strategic governance
 
Critical_Paper
Critical_PaperCritical_Paper
Critical_Paper
 
Liberal Democracy in America and Socialism in Vietnam Impact on Health Insura...
Liberal Democracy in America and Socialism in Vietnam Impact on Health Insura...Liberal Democracy in America and Socialism in Vietnam Impact on Health Insura...
Liberal Democracy in America and Socialism in Vietnam Impact on Health Insura...
 
G1000 Manifesto (EN)
G1000 Manifesto (EN)G1000 Manifesto (EN)
G1000 Manifesto (EN)
 
The e(R)evolution will not be funded
The e(R)evolution will not be fundedThe e(R)evolution will not be funded
The e(R)evolution will not be funded
 
Sociology - The New Right
Sociology - The New RightSociology - The New Right
Sociology - The New Right
 
Belgium_Political_Crisis Final Version
Belgium_Political_Crisis Final VersionBelgium_Political_Crisis Final Version
Belgium_Political_Crisis Final Version
 
It is a far way from porto alegre to helisngborg 1
It is a far way from porto alegre to helisngborg 1It is a far way from porto alegre to helisngborg 1
It is a far way from porto alegre to helisngborg 1
 

Viewers also liked

Derecho de autor
Derecho de autorDerecho de autor
Derecho de autor
barbyCR
 
Success education system
Success education systemSuccess education system
Success education system
Generalcategories
 
Counseling education
Counseling educationCounseling education
Counseling education
Generalcategories
 
Class 8 math lesson 16 (aljebra)
Class 8 math lesson 16 (aljebra)Class 8 math lesson 16 (aljebra)
Class 8 math lesson 16 (aljebra)
Cambriannews
 
Philatelics Powerpoint
Philatelics PowerpointPhilatelics Powerpoint
Philatelics Powerpoint
Lynda Linder
 
Resume tapadhir
Resume   tapadhirResume   tapadhir
Resume tapadhir
Tapadhir Bhattacharya
 
Cable Tray Installation 211215
Cable Tray Installation 211215Cable Tray Installation 211215
Cable Tray Installation 211215
MUHAMMAD MAJID
 
Exxon Mobil Corporation
Exxon Mobil CorporationExxon Mobil Corporation
Exxon Mobil Corporation
lauren_salyer
 

Viewers also liked (8)

Derecho de autor
Derecho de autorDerecho de autor
Derecho de autor
 
Success education system
Success education systemSuccess education system
Success education system
 
Counseling education
Counseling educationCounseling education
Counseling education
 
Class 8 math lesson 16 (aljebra)
Class 8 math lesson 16 (aljebra)Class 8 math lesson 16 (aljebra)
Class 8 math lesson 16 (aljebra)
 
Philatelics Powerpoint
Philatelics PowerpointPhilatelics Powerpoint
Philatelics Powerpoint
 
Resume tapadhir
Resume   tapadhirResume   tapadhir
Resume tapadhir
 
Cable Tray Installation 211215
Cable Tray Installation 211215Cable Tray Installation 211215
Cable Tray Installation 211215
 
Exxon Mobil Corporation
Exxon Mobil CorporationExxon Mobil Corporation
Exxon Mobil Corporation
 

Similar to A social and democratic Europe?

The Eurozone Crisis and the Democratic Deficit
The Eurozone Crisis and the Democratic DeficitThe Eurozone Crisis and the Democratic Deficit
The Eurozone Crisis and the Democratic Deficit
Miqui Mel
 
In 1948, the Social Market Economy was introduced in Germany by Lu.docx
In 1948, the Social Market Economy was introduced in Germany by Lu.docxIn 1948, the Social Market Economy was introduced in Germany by Lu.docx
In 1948, the Social Market Economy was introduced in Germany by Lu.docx
bradburgess22840
 
Response 1 The European Union seems to be one of the few mode.docx
Response 1 The European Union seems to be one of the few mode.docxResponse 1 The European Union seems to be one of the few mode.docx
Response 1 The European Union seems to be one of the few mode.docx
wilfredoa1
 
Assumptions Of The Theory Of Regional Disintegration Suggestions For Further...
Assumptions Of The Theory Of Regional Disintegration  Suggestions For Further...Assumptions Of The Theory Of Regional Disintegration  Suggestions For Further...
Assumptions Of The Theory Of Regional Disintegration Suggestions For Further...
Leslie Schulte
 
TCLIIideal
TCLIIidealTCLIIideal
TCLIIideal
Argiro Vouzvouri
 
The Democracy that Mexico Needs by Napoleon Gomez
The Democracy that Mexico Needs by Napoleon GomezThe Democracy that Mexico Needs by Napoleon Gomez
The Democracy that Mexico Needs by Napoleon Gomez
Napoleon Gomez
 
Max_Genske_Dissertation
Max_Genske_DissertationMax_Genske_Dissertation
Max_Genske_Dissertation
Max Genske
 
Keele-University-Ben-Duke-Political-Perspectives-Graduate-Journal-Paper-Draft...
Keele-University-Ben-Duke-Political-Perspectives-Graduate-Journal-Paper-Draft...Keele-University-Ben-Duke-Political-Perspectives-Graduate-Journal-Paper-Draft...
Keele-University-Ben-Duke-Political-Perspectives-Graduate-Journal-Paper-Draft...
Ben Duke
 
Should EU be more politicized?
Should EU be more politicized?Should EU be more politicized?
Should EU be more politicized?
Ivan Grigoriev
 
Frank W. Heuberger: The European Union (EU) and Civil Society: why bother?
Frank W. Heuberger: The European Union (EU) and Civil Society: why bother?Frank W. Heuberger: The European Union (EU) and Civil Society: why bother?
Frank W. Heuberger: The European Union (EU) and Civil Society: why bother?
NCVO - National Council for Voluntary Organisations
 
Programma del Partito Socialista Europeo PSE 2013
Programma del Partito Socialista Europeo PSE 2013 Programma del Partito Socialista Europeo PSE 2013
Programma del Partito Socialista Europeo PSE 2013
Fabrizio Guccione
 
GLOBAL TREND CHAPTER THREE HISTORY AND CIVICS
GLOBAL TREND CHAPTER THREE HISTORY AND CIVICSGLOBAL TREND CHAPTER THREE HISTORY AND CIVICS
GLOBAL TREND CHAPTER THREE HISTORY AND CIVICS
biniabebe
 
Revival of spirit formation of freedom; solidarity economy development pers...
Revival of spirit   formation of freedom; solidarity economy development pers...Revival of spirit   formation of freedom; solidarity economy development pers...
Revival of spirit formation of freedom; solidarity economy development pers...
Barka Foundation
 
Economicsystems mixedeconomy-140921124328-phpapp01
Economicsystems mixedeconomy-140921124328-phpapp01Economicsystems mixedeconomy-140921124328-phpapp01
Economicsystems mixedeconomy-140921124328-phpapp01
Refilwe Modisane
 
Chiocchetti ECPR Competitiveness and solidarity
Chiocchetti ECPR Competitiveness and solidarityChiocchetti ECPR Competitiveness and solidarity
Chiocchetti ECPR Competitiveness and solidarity
Paolo Chiocchetti
 
The advancement of the extreme right and of the extreme left in the european ...
The advancement of the extreme right and of the extreme left in the european ...The advancement of the extreme right and of the extreme left in the european ...
The advancement of the extreme right and of the extreme left in the european ...
Fernando Alcoforado
 
Carrots or Sticks: The Choice and Impact of EU Democratic Sanctions and Aid
Carrots or Sticks: The Choice and Impact of EU Democratic Sanctions and AidCarrots or Sticks: The Choice and Impact of EU Democratic Sanctions and Aid
Carrots or Sticks: The Choice and Impact of EU Democratic Sanctions and Aid
Paulina Pospieszna
 
Conclusions for europe 2018
Conclusions for europe 2018Conclusions for europe 2018
Conclusions for europe 2018
Grupa PTWP S.A.
 
Conclusions for europe
Conclusions for europeConclusions for europe
Conclusions for europe
Grupa PTWP S.A.
 
European union towards the dismantling
European union towards the dismantlingEuropean union towards the dismantling
European union towards the dismantling
Fernando Alcoforado
 

Similar to A social and democratic Europe? (20)

The Eurozone Crisis and the Democratic Deficit
The Eurozone Crisis and the Democratic DeficitThe Eurozone Crisis and the Democratic Deficit
The Eurozone Crisis and the Democratic Deficit
 
In 1948, the Social Market Economy was introduced in Germany by Lu.docx
In 1948, the Social Market Economy was introduced in Germany by Lu.docxIn 1948, the Social Market Economy was introduced in Germany by Lu.docx
In 1948, the Social Market Economy was introduced in Germany by Lu.docx
 
Response 1 The European Union seems to be one of the few mode.docx
Response 1 The European Union seems to be one of the few mode.docxResponse 1 The European Union seems to be one of the few mode.docx
Response 1 The European Union seems to be one of the few mode.docx
 
Assumptions Of The Theory Of Regional Disintegration Suggestions For Further...
Assumptions Of The Theory Of Regional Disintegration  Suggestions For Further...Assumptions Of The Theory Of Regional Disintegration  Suggestions For Further...
Assumptions Of The Theory Of Regional Disintegration Suggestions For Further...
 
TCLIIideal
TCLIIidealTCLIIideal
TCLIIideal
 
The Democracy that Mexico Needs by Napoleon Gomez
The Democracy that Mexico Needs by Napoleon GomezThe Democracy that Mexico Needs by Napoleon Gomez
The Democracy that Mexico Needs by Napoleon Gomez
 
Max_Genske_Dissertation
Max_Genske_DissertationMax_Genske_Dissertation
Max_Genske_Dissertation
 
Keele-University-Ben-Duke-Political-Perspectives-Graduate-Journal-Paper-Draft...
Keele-University-Ben-Duke-Political-Perspectives-Graduate-Journal-Paper-Draft...Keele-University-Ben-Duke-Political-Perspectives-Graduate-Journal-Paper-Draft...
Keele-University-Ben-Duke-Political-Perspectives-Graduate-Journal-Paper-Draft...
 
Should EU be more politicized?
Should EU be more politicized?Should EU be more politicized?
Should EU be more politicized?
 
Frank W. Heuberger: The European Union (EU) and Civil Society: why bother?
Frank W. Heuberger: The European Union (EU) and Civil Society: why bother?Frank W. Heuberger: The European Union (EU) and Civil Society: why bother?
Frank W. Heuberger: The European Union (EU) and Civil Society: why bother?
 
Programma del Partito Socialista Europeo PSE 2013
Programma del Partito Socialista Europeo PSE 2013 Programma del Partito Socialista Europeo PSE 2013
Programma del Partito Socialista Europeo PSE 2013
 
GLOBAL TREND CHAPTER THREE HISTORY AND CIVICS
GLOBAL TREND CHAPTER THREE HISTORY AND CIVICSGLOBAL TREND CHAPTER THREE HISTORY AND CIVICS
GLOBAL TREND CHAPTER THREE HISTORY AND CIVICS
 
Revival of spirit formation of freedom; solidarity economy development pers...
Revival of spirit   formation of freedom; solidarity economy development pers...Revival of spirit   formation of freedom; solidarity economy development pers...
Revival of spirit formation of freedom; solidarity economy development pers...
 
Economicsystems mixedeconomy-140921124328-phpapp01
Economicsystems mixedeconomy-140921124328-phpapp01Economicsystems mixedeconomy-140921124328-phpapp01
Economicsystems mixedeconomy-140921124328-phpapp01
 
Chiocchetti ECPR Competitiveness and solidarity
Chiocchetti ECPR Competitiveness and solidarityChiocchetti ECPR Competitiveness and solidarity
Chiocchetti ECPR Competitiveness and solidarity
 
The advancement of the extreme right and of the extreme left in the european ...
The advancement of the extreme right and of the extreme left in the european ...The advancement of the extreme right and of the extreme left in the european ...
The advancement of the extreme right and of the extreme left in the european ...
 
Carrots or Sticks: The Choice and Impact of EU Democratic Sanctions and Aid
Carrots or Sticks: The Choice and Impact of EU Democratic Sanctions and AidCarrots or Sticks: The Choice and Impact of EU Democratic Sanctions and Aid
Carrots or Sticks: The Choice and Impact of EU Democratic Sanctions and Aid
 
Conclusions for europe 2018
Conclusions for europe 2018Conclusions for europe 2018
Conclusions for europe 2018
 
Conclusions for europe
Conclusions for europeConclusions for europe
Conclusions for europe
 
European union towards the dismantling
European union towards the dismantlingEuropean union towards the dismantling
European union towards the dismantling
 

More from FESD GKr

Freedom convoy austria 2022
Freedom convoy austria 2022Freedom convoy austria 2022
Freedom convoy austria 2022
FESD GKr
 
Bedarfsorientierte Mindestsicherung
Bedarfsorientierte MindestsicherungBedarfsorientierte Mindestsicherung
Bedarfsorientierte Mindestsicherung
FESD GKr
 
Gold plaiting
Gold plaiting Gold plaiting
Gold plaiting
FESD GKr
 
Was verbindet, was trennt ...
Was verbindet, was trennt ...Was verbindet, was trennt ...
Was verbindet, was trennt ...
FESD GKr
 
Kinder haben Rechte
Kinder haben RechteKinder haben Rechte
Kinder haben Rechte
FESD GKr
 
Nur menschengerecht gestaltete Arbeit ist gute Arbeit !
Nur menschengerecht gestaltete Arbeit ist gute Arbeit !Nur menschengerecht gestaltete Arbeit ist gute Arbeit !
Nur menschengerecht gestaltete Arbeit ist gute Arbeit !
FESD GKr
 
Inequality in europe
Inequality in europeInequality in europe
Inequality in europe
FESD GKr
 
Daten & Fakten zu nachwachsenden Rohstoffen
Daten & Fakten zu nachwachsenden RohstoffenDaten & Fakten zu nachwachsenden Rohstoffen
Daten & Fakten zu nachwachsenden Rohstoffen
FESD GKr
 
Epicenter works Stellungnahme_Stg-novelle_2017_294_final
Epicenter works Stellungnahme_Stg-novelle_2017_294_finalEpicenter works Stellungnahme_Stg-novelle_2017_294_final
Epicenter works Stellungnahme_Stg-novelle_2017_294_final
FESD GKr
 
Gemeinwohlökonomie
GemeinwohlökonomieGemeinwohlökonomie
Gemeinwohlökonomie
FESD GKr
 
Demokratie neu starten
Demokratie neu startenDemokratie neu starten
Demokratie neu starten
FESD GKr
 
Schattendorf 1927; Demokratie am Wendepunkt
Schattendorf 1927;  Demokratie am WendepunktSchattendorf 1927;  Demokratie am Wendepunkt
Schattendorf 1927; Demokratie am Wendepunkt
FESD GKr
 
Broschuere Patientenrechte Psychiatrie_2013_web
Broschuere Patientenrechte Psychiatrie_2013_webBroschuere Patientenrechte Psychiatrie_2013_web
Broschuere Patientenrechte Psychiatrie_2013_web
FESD GKr
 
BERICHT INTERNET-SICHERHEIT - Cert.at jahresbericht-2016
BERICHT INTERNET-SICHERHEIT - Cert.at jahresbericht-2016BERICHT INTERNET-SICHERHEIT - Cert.at jahresbericht-2016
BERICHT INTERNET-SICHERHEIT - Cert.at jahresbericht-2016
FESD GKr
 
AK Einladung net_0118_Steuervermeidung_k1
AK Einladung net_0118_Steuervermeidung_k1AK Einladung net_0118_Steuervermeidung_k1
AK Einladung net_0118_Steuervermeidung_k1
FESD GKr
 
Jahoda-Bauer - Perspektiven Gesamtwerk-2016-web
Jahoda-Bauer - Perspektiven Gesamtwerk-2016-webJahoda-Bauer - Perspektiven Gesamtwerk-2016-web
Jahoda-Bauer - Perspektiven Gesamtwerk-2016-web
FESD GKr
 
Kontrovers 01 09_Finanzkrise2009
Kontrovers 01 09_Finanzkrise2009Kontrovers 01 09_Finanzkrise2009
Kontrovers 01 09_Finanzkrise2009
FESD GKr
 
Neoliberalismus der Demokraten - Er brachte Trump den Sieg
Neoliberalismus der Demokraten - Er brachte Trump den SiegNeoliberalismus der Demokraten - Er brachte Trump den Sieg
Neoliberalismus der Demokraten - Er brachte Trump den Sieg
FESD GKr
 
Kinder haben Rechte
Kinder haben RechteKinder haben Rechte
Kinder haben Rechte
FESD GKr
 
Gespaltene Mitte - Feindselige Zustände
Gespaltene Mitte - Feindselige ZuständeGespaltene Mitte - Feindselige Zustände
Gespaltene Mitte - Feindselige Zustände
FESD GKr
 

More from FESD GKr (20)

Freedom convoy austria 2022
Freedom convoy austria 2022Freedom convoy austria 2022
Freedom convoy austria 2022
 
Bedarfsorientierte Mindestsicherung
Bedarfsorientierte MindestsicherungBedarfsorientierte Mindestsicherung
Bedarfsorientierte Mindestsicherung
 
Gold plaiting
Gold plaiting Gold plaiting
Gold plaiting
 
Was verbindet, was trennt ...
Was verbindet, was trennt ...Was verbindet, was trennt ...
Was verbindet, was trennt ...
 
Kinder haben Rechte
Kinder haben RechteKinder haben Rechte
Kinder haben Rechte
 
Nur menschengerecht gestaltete Arbeit ist gute Arbeit !
Nur menschengerecht gestaltete Arbeit ist gute Arbeit !Nur menschengerecht gestaltete Arbeit ist gute Arbeit !
Nur menschengerecht gestaltete Arbeit ist gute Arbeit !
 
Inequality in europe
Inequality in europeInequality in europe
Inequality in europe
 
Daten & Fakten zu nachwachsenden Rohstoffen
Daten & Fakten zu nachwachsenden RohstoffenDaten & Fakten zu nachwachsenden Rohstoffen
Daten & Fakten zu nachwachsenden Rohstoffen
 
Epicenter works Stellungnahme_Stg-novelle_2017_294_final
Epicenter works Stellungnahme_Stg-novelle_2017_294_finalEpicenter works Stellungnahme_Stg-novelle_2017_294_final
Epicenter works Stellungnahme_Stg-novelle_2017_294_final
 
Gemeinwohlökonomie
GemeinwohlökonomieGemeinwohlökonomie
Gemeinwohlökonomie
 
Demokratie neu starten
Demokratie neu startenDemokratie neu starten
Demokratie neu starten
 
Schattendorf 1927; Demokratie am Wendepunkt
Schattendorf 1927;  Demokratie am WendepunktSchattendorf 1927;  Demokratie am Wendepunkt
Schattendorf 1927; Demokratie am Wendepunkt
 
Broschuere Patientenrechte Psychiatrie_2013_web
Broschuere Patientenrechte Psychiatrie_2013_webBroschuere Patientenrechte Psychiatrie_2013_web
Broschuere Patientenrechte Psychiatrie_2013_web
 
BERICHT INTERNET-SICHERHEIT - Cert.at jahresbericht-2016
BERICHT INTERNET-SICHERHEIT - Cert.at jahresbericht-2016BERICHT INTERNET-SICHERHEIT - Cert.at jahresbericht-2016
BERICHT INTERNET-SICHERHEIT - Cert.at jahresbericht-2016
 
AK Einladung net_0118_Steuervermeidung_k1
AK Einladung net_0118_Steuervermeidung_k1AK Einladung net_0118_Steuervermeidung_k1
AK Einladung net_0118_Steuervermeidung_k1
 
Jahoda-Bauer - Perspektiven Gesamtwerk-2016-web
Jahoda-Bauer - Perspektiven Gesamtwerk-2016-webJahoda-Bauer - Perspektiven Gesamtwerk-2016-web
Jahoda-Bauer - Perspektiven Gesamtwerk-2016-web
 
Kontrovers 01 09_Finanzkrise2009
Kontrovers 01 09_Finanzkrise2009Kontrovers 01 09_Finanzkrise2009
Kontrovers 01 09_Finanzkrise2009
 
Neoliberalismus der Demokraten - Er brachte Trump den Sieg
Neoliberalismus der Demokraten - Er brachte Trump den SiegNeoliberalismus der Demokraten - Er brachte Trump den Sieg
Neoliberalismus der Demokraten - Er brachte Trump den Sieg
 
Kinder haben Rechte
Kinder haben RechteKinder haben Rechte
Kinder haben Rechte
 
Gespaltene Mitte - Feindselige Zustände
Gespaltene Mitte - Feindselige ZuständeGespaltene Mitte - Feindselige Zustände
Gespaltene Mitte - Feindselige Zustände
 

Recently uploaded

Gabriel Whitley's Motion Summary Judgment
Gabriel Whitley's Motion Summary JudgmentGabriel Whitley's Motion Summary Judgment
Gabriel Whitley's Motion Summary Judgment
Abdul-Hakim Shabazz
 
04062024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
04062024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf04062024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
04062024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
FIRST INDIA
 
EED - The Container Port PERFORMANCE INDEX 2023
EED - The Container Port PERFORMANCE INDEX 2023EED - The Container Port PERFORMANCE INDEX 2023
EED - The Container Port PERFORMANCE INDEX 2023
El Estrecho Digital
 
Essential Tools for Modern PR Business .pptx
Essential Tools for Modern PR Business .pptxEssential Tools for Modern PR Business .pptx
Essential Tools for Modern PR Business .pptx
Pragencyuk
 
Letter-from-ECI-to-MeiTY-21st-march-2024.pdf
Letter-from-ECI-to-MeiTY-21st-march-2024.pdfLetter-from-ECI-to-MeiTY-21st-march-2024.pdf
Letter-from-ECI-to-MeiTY-21st-march-2024.pdf
bhavenpr
 
2015pmkemenhub163.pdf 2015pmkemenhub163.pdf
2015pmkemenhub163.pdf 2015pmkemenhub163.pdf2015pmkemenhub163.pdf 2015pmkemenhub163.pdf
2015pmkemenhub163.pdf 2015pmkemenhub163.pdf
CIkumparan
 
Hindustan Insider 2nd edition release now
Hindustan Insider 2nd edition release nowHindustan Insider 2nd edition release now
Hindustan Insider 2nd edition release now
hindustaninsider22
 
What Ukraine Has Lost During Russia’s Invasion
What Ukraine Has Lost During Russia’s InvasionWhat Ukraine Has Lost During Russia’s Invasion
What Ukraine Has Lost During Russia’s Invasion
LUMINATIVE MEDIA/PROJECT COUNSEL MEDIA GROUP
 
Acolyte Episodes review (TV series)..pdf
Acolyte Episodes review (TV series)..pdfAcolyte Episodes review (TV series)..pdf
Acolyte Episodes review (TV series)..pdf
46adnanshahzad
 
Hogan Comes Home: an MIA WWII crewman is returned
Hogan Comes Home: an MIA WWII crewman is returnedHogan Comes Home: an MIA WWII crewman is returned
Hogan Comes Home: an MIA WWII crewman is returned
rbakerj2
 

Recently uploaded (10)

Gabriel Whitley's Motion Summary Judgment
Gabriel Whitley's Motion Summary JudgmentGabriel Whitley's Motion Summary Judgment
Gabriel Whitley's Motion Summary Judgment
 
04062024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
04062024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf04062024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
04062024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
EED - The Container Port PERFORMANCE INDEX 2023
EED - The Container Port PERFORMANCE INDEX 2023EED - The Container Port PERFORMANCE INDEX 2023
EED - The Container Port PERFORMANCE INDEX 2023
 
Essential Tools for Modern PR Business .pptx
Essential Tools for Modern PR Business .pptxEssential Tools for Modern PR Business .pptx
Essential Tools for Modern PR Business .pptx
 
Letter-from-ECI-to-MeiTY-21st-march-2024.pdf
Letter-from-ECI-to-MeiTY-21st-march-2024.pdfLetter-from-ECI-to-MeiTY-21st-march-2024.pdf
Letter-from-ECI-to-MeiTY-21st-march-2024.pdf
 
2015pmkemenhub163.pdf 2015pmkemenhub163.pdf
2015pmkemenhub163.pdf 2015pmkemenhub163.pdf2015pmkemenhub163.pdf 2015pmkemenhub163.pdf
2015pmkemenhub163.pdf 2015pmkemenhub163.pdf
 
Hindustan Insider 2nd edition release now
Hindustan Insider 2nd edition release nowHindustan Insider 2nd edition release now
Hindustan Insider 2nd edition release now
 
What Ukraine Has Lost During Russia’s Invasion
What Ukraine Has Lost During Russia’s InvasionWhat Ukraine Has Lost During Russia’s Invasion
What Ukraine Has Lost During Russia’s Invasion
 
Acolyte Episodes review (TV series)..pdf
Acolyte Episodes review (TV series)..pdfAcolyte Episodes review (TV series)..pdf
Acolyte Episodes review (TV series)..pdf
 
Hogan Comes Home: an MIA WWII crewman is returned
Hogan Comes Home: an MIA WWII crewman is returnedHogan Comes Home: an MIA WWII crewman is returned
Hogan Comes Home: an MIA WWII crewman is returned
 

A social and democratic Europe?

  • 1. WORKING PAPER Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung A SOCIAL AND DEMOCRATIC EUROPE? Obstacles and perspectives for action Daniel Seikel SUMMARY Everywhere in Europe, support for the European integration process de- creases. More and more Europeans associate the European Union with the dismantling of social and democratic rights. Fundamental social rights clash with the market-liberal single market law, the key institutions of the Europe- an social model are undermined. What are the causes for this develop- ment? Which changes are necessary to achieve a more social and demo- cratic Europe? This article reconsiders the concept of Social Democracy and suggests using it as a blueprint for a fundamental change of course of the European integration process. Starting point is the finding that the insti- tutional architecture of the European multi-level system creates a systemat- ic imbalance between liberalization and social regulation. On the basis of this problem analysis, I identify three policy fields that are of central im- portance for creating a social and democratic Europe: an “open” constitu- tion for Europe, social minimum standards and the recuperation of the fiscal capacities of the political system.
  • 2. Inhalt 1. Introduction 3 2. The concept of a social and democratic Europe 4 3. Institutional obstacles to a social and democratic Europe 6 4. Key areas for a social and democratic Europa 8 4.1. Institutional reforms: an ‘open’ constitution for Europe 8 4.2. Minimum requirements for a social Europe 10 4.3. Strengthening the fiscal capacity of member states 10 5. Conclusion 11 Literature 14 page 2 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
  • 3. 1 Introduction1 The European integration process has always been associated with ambi- tious goals. After two devastating world wars, Europe’s unification was closely linked to overcoming nationalism and to securing peace on the Eu- ropean continent. Additionally, from the beginning, the then European Eco- nomic Community (EEC) also aimed at promoting growth, increasing pros- perity, enabling full employment and supporting welfare-state development in the member states. While military conflicts between EEC countries soon were no realistic threat anymore, against the background of the economic crises since the late 1960s and the accelerating globalisation, the economic dimension became increasingly important. These days, the EU’s policy is being widely criticised. Observers point to a pronounced market-liberal bias which increasingly shifts the balance be- tween social regulation and market economy in favour of the latter (Biel- ing/Deppe 2003; Gill 1998; Höpner/Schäfer 2010, 2012; Scharpf 2010a; Ziltener 1999). The EU’s policies and institutions have been frequently criti- cised for being technocratic and undemocratic (Bellamy 2006; Enderlein 2013; Lemb/Urban 2014; Mair 2007; Majone 2014; Oberndorfer 2012; Scharpf 2009; Streeck 2013; Urban 2013). Moreover, the current crisis management subjects distressed member states to tough austerity measures, furthers the dismantling of the welfare state and employees’ rights, and threatens the economic stability of the euro zone (Buntenbach 2014; Busch et al. 2013; Fischer-Lescano 2014; Schulten/ Müller 2013). Thus, the prospects for a social and democratic Europe are rather bad. Despite these highly problematic developments, especially from a worker- oriented perspective, there are good reasons to defend the integration pro- cess. Given the necessary political majorities, European integration could potentially provide the historical chance to contain capitalist competition between states in times of globalisation and unfettered markets. Coopera- tion at the European level could create the preconditions for transnational solidarity, stopping the race to the bottom between member states, regulat- ing markets and restoring the primacy of politics and democracy over the economy. So far, however, this option is only hypothetical. In practice, Eu- ropean integration contributes to the exact opposite, not least by directly exposing the member states’ welfare systems and production regimes to institutionalised regulative competition. The European project is undoubtedly one of the greatest achievements of civilisation in the 20th century. However, this holds also true for the demo- cratic welfare state, the autonomy of collective bargaining or the right to strike. Therefore, European integration must not be bought at the expense 1 This working paper is a slightly modified translation of my article ‘Ein soziales und demokratisches Europa? Hindernisse und Hand- lungsperspektiven‘, published in a special issue of WSI-Mitteilungen (‘Soziales Europa: Fehlentwicklungen und Lösungsansätze‘), 69 (1), 2016. I thank the editors of WSI-Mitteilungen for agreeing to a translation and publication in the WSI Working Paper series. The translation has been provided by Sebastian Streb. Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 3 —————————
  • 4. of democracy and social rights. Europe is important, but so are the welfare state, rule of law and democracy.2 The social achievements that characterise the ‘European social model’ are seriously threatened by the current trend of the integration process, with the euro crisis and its political handling posing the biggest threat. Yet, the ob- servable imbalance between market regulation and market creation is also rooted in the institutional architecture of the European multi-level system. For proponents of a social and democratic Europe it is important to provide an alternative to these negative developments – an alternative that can neither be an uncritical ‘more Europe at any cost’ nor a retreat to the nation state. Focusing on the institutional context, this paper aims at presenting some ideas on changes that might contribute to the realisation of a social and democratic Europe. While the paper does not deal with the problematic management of the euro crisis, it addresses the correction of the EU’s shortcomings in its ‘normal state’. The article is to be understood as a basis for further discussions and political debates on the future of Europe. The paper is structured as follows: I will first introduce the concept of social democracy as a blueprint for a reorientation of the European integration process (section 2). Following this, I will elaborate on the main barriers to a social and democratic Europe (3). On the basis of this analysis, section 4 outlines reform options for three key areas. In the final section, I will sum up the main results (5). 2 The concept of a social and democratic Europe This section deals with the question of what should be the guiding principle of European integration. In this regard, I suggest that European integration should follow the idea of social democracy. The concept of social democra- cy is not to be equated with social democratic parties although, obviously, manifold historical and ideational ties and overlaps exist. It describes a democratic community that takes the political responsibility for the social wellbeing of its members (Meyer 2002: 13). Thus, the concept of social democracy corresponds to a republican understanding of democracy (see Scharpf 2009). In contrast to the principles of liberal democracy, republi- canism is not restricted to protecting the individual’s freedom from state intervention. Rather, republicanism aims at ensuring the freedom of citizens in and through the state (Meyer 2012: 18f.). Social democracy is based on the insight that the citizens’ full (democratic) participation in a community’s economic and social life cannot be guaranteed by individual freedom rights alone. Accordingly, the status of citizenship is connected with a fundamen- tal equality of all citizens that is incompatible with excessive economic ine- quality (cf. Marshall 1950). This is because an uneven distribution of mate- rial resources that exceeds a certain level also leads to an uneven distribu- tion of economic and political participation (Marshall 1950: 57f.). Only 2 See also Prantl (2014). page 4 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung —————————
  • 5. changes in the economic and social conditions through active government policies enable a large number of people to actively exercise their civil rights. This requires that political interventions of the state have priority over markets and economic power. Consequently, the concept of social democ- racy demands that basic democratic rights also apply to the economic and the social domain (Meyer 2002: 13-15, 27f). The primacy of democracy over the economy is the prerequisite that enables the economically ‘weak’ to exercise their civil rights (Meyer 2002: 14). The following three elements are of crucial importance for social democra- cy: social rights of citizenship, economic democracy and an adequate ca- pacity for political action of the political system. Social rights of citizenship are fundamental for legitimising modern democracies. Social rights imply an intrusion of in other respects free contractual relations by the status of social citizenship. Market prices – e.g. for human labour – are corrected for reasons of social justice (Marshall 1950: 68, 74). Social rights are the pri- mary means against material and political inequality and are realised through an efficient welfare state. The state guarantees a politically defined minimum provision of essential goods and services and/or a minimum in- come sufficient for covering needs that are also politically defined (Marshall 1950: 54). The second basic element of social democracy is the democratisation of the economy, i.e. expanding the democratic rights of self-determination and co-determination to the economic sphere (Meyer 2002: 17). Accordingly, all participants in the economic process should be enabled to shape their own work environment and should also have a say in major decisions on the allocation and distribution of resources. This includes institutions such as co-determination at company level, free collective bargaining, and the right to strike.3 Finally, it requires an effective political system to realise the above men- tioned elements. For this purpose, three conditions are necessary. First, the political decision-making process has to be effective. Second, the political system must be able to generate the material resources for financing the implementation of regulatory objectives. Third, the political system must have the legal freedom to determine the economic order (Bast/Rödl 2013: 7). These characteristics can also be summarised as the problem-solving ability of the political system. One of the greatest challenges for social democracy is globalisation (Meyer 2002: 12) which undermines the nation state’s capacity to domesticate cap- italism democratically (Scharpf 1998: 151). Exposed to international com- petition for mobile factors, the nation state loses its ability to maintain the conditions for social democracy in the national context. Open and unregu- lated competition between national economies causes problems that can make nation states less social over time, mainly through a mutual race to 3 The remainder of the article does not deal with the aspect of economic democracy. Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 5 —————————
  • 6. the bottom in the areas of taxation, social benefits, wages, employees’ rights and environmental standards. Provided the political will to do so would exist, the European integration process potentially offers the possibil- ity to master these problems: through international cooperation at the Euro- pean level, the mutual race to the bottom could be stopped by imposing ‘ratchets’ that prevent member states from increasing their competitiveness at the expense of social, labour and environmental standards. Thus, Euro- pean integration opens up the chance to create the conditions for realising social democracy in a globalised world and to reclaim the lost capacity for political action. However, emphasising this potential should not conceal the fact that the current trend of the integration process points in the exact op- posite direction – a systematic undermining of the central pillars of social democracy (for detailed analyses of the causes see Höpner 2013; Höpner/Schäfer 2010, 2012; Scharpf 1999; 2010a, 2010b). Some observ- ers even believe that the EU’s social and democratic potential is generally limited and consider the chance to achieve a change of course in European policy to be low – at least in the medium term (Höpner 2013; Scharpf 2010a). Regardless of the current chances for realisation, this paper asks what would have to be changed in order to remove the existing barriers to a social and democratic Europe. 3 Institutional obstacles to a social and democratic Europe This section deals with the institutional obstacles that stand in the way of a social and democratic Europe. I will focus primarily on those barriers that result from the complex architecture of the European multi-level system. The first obstacle is the limited problem-solving ability of European politics (positive integration). Legislative acts of the union require a qualified majori- ty in the Council, in some policy areas even unanimity, and the agreement of a majority in the European Parliament (EP). Treaty changes require una- nimity, too, and must be ratified by national parliaments, in some cases even by referendum. Thus, the institutional barriers posed by European legislation are exceptionally high and there are numerous veto points. Poli- cies that could contribute to the realisation of a social Europe, however, can only be realised under these demanding political decision-making rules (Meyer 2002: 156). The difficulties in forming majorities are drastically in- creased by the political-economic and institutional heterogeneity of the 28 (soon 27) member states (Höpner 2013; Höpner/Schäfer 2008). Reaching an agreement is especially difficult when core elements of the national pro- duction regimes are concerned. This holds particularly true for questions concerning the social, tax, finance and collective bargaining systems, but also for corporate control including co-determination at company level. In some of these policy areas that are central to social democracy, the EU even has no direct legislative competence at all. Thus, especially in the core areas of social democracy, the EU’s capacity for political action is constrained (cf. Höpner 2013: 75f.; Meyer 2002: 156; Scharpf 2006, 2008a: 754ff.). page 6 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
  • 7. The second fundamental problem is the expansive jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice (ECJ). In contrast to the political decision- making mode at the European level, legal integration is highly effective (Höpner 2014). The European Treaties, as the basis of legal integration, are by no means neutral in their stance on the relation between state and the market but are characterised by a predominance of individual economic liberties. The four so-called fundamental freedoms that guarantee the free cross-border movement of goods, persons, services and capital increase the competition between national regulatory systems. In the course of the integration process they have become ‘highly effective instruments of eco- nomic liberalization’ (Höpner 2013: 78). Especially the jurisprudence of the ECJ is responsible for this ‘radicalisation of the single market integration’ (Scharpf 2008b; for details see Höpner 2008). Theoretically, all national practices, institutions and regulations that render cross-border trade poten- tially less attractive can be abolished by the ECJ. This affects particularly forms of social market regulation which naturally restrict individual econom- ic liberties. The resulting market-liberal spin undermines the collective and social rights that are essential to social democracy (Scharpf 2008a, 2009, 2010b; Seikel/Absenger 2015). The market-liberal thrust of integration through law has considerable con- sequences for the balance of power between social groups. Actors having an interest in liberalisation can use European law in order to legally bypass previously insurmountable political opposition within the national arena. By contrast, actors interested in social regulation, such as trade unions, do not have this option (cf. Scharpf 2010a: 221f.). The same obstacles blocking positive integration also impede the political correction of ECJ rulings. If the ECJ makes a decision on the basis of Eu- ropean primary law, a correction requires unanimous agreement of all gov- ernments in the Council. Since agreement on market-correcting policies is difficult and judicial inte- gration on the basis of the single market freedoms is highly effective and at the same time almost always market-creating, the relationship between state and market shifts systematically in favour of the market (Scharpf 2008a: 49). The here described – mainly institutional – obstacles hamper the develop- ment of a social Europe. For example, the weakness of positive integration is one reason for the fact that the EU neither prevents tax competition nor takes effective measures to regulate financial markets. The momentum of legal integration, by contrast, creates a strong impulse for liberalisation. Legal integration not only intensifies the race to the bottom between mem- ber states, e.g. in terms of taxes, but as a result of its market-creating thrust also legally delimits the scope for social and economic policies in the mem- ber states. However, since positive integration is prone to being blockaded, the capacity for political action at member state level is not compensated by additional regulatory capacities at the European level. The result is a dou- Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 7
  • 8. ble asymmetry of liberalisation and social regulation at the European and the national level (Scharpf 2010a). 4 Key areas for a social and democratic Europe 4.1 Institutional reforms: an ‘open’ constitution for Europe This section deals with proposals for solving the above described problems of low political effectiveness and excessive integration through law. As Bast and Rödl (2013: 9) state, the currently most urgent task in Europe is to re- store the priority of democratic legislation over single market law. They for- mulate two key questions: First, how can the exercise of member state competences be protected from dysfunctional restrictions by single market law without endangering important achievements of economic integration? Second, what changes of the EU’s institutional architecture are needed to increase political effectiveness without overburdening the EU in terms of legitimacy and institutional capacity (Bast/Rödl: 2013: 9)? Relating to these questions, Fritz Scharpf (2015) has recently presented a far-reaching proposal. He suggests a constitutional restart in order to ex- pand the capacity for political action at the European and the national level and to allow for a correction of integration through law. The goal is a reform of the EU’s institutional architecture, which, in contrast to the current state, is open to alternative concepts about the organization of state and market, including the leitmotif of social democracy. The proposal rests upon the basic idea of replacing the multiple veto points in the European legislative process with the possibility of politically controlled opt-outs. Scharpf’s proposal contains four basic elements. The first element is the de-constitutionalisation of EU single market law. Accordingly, a European constitution should be reduced to those components that are typically in- cluded in constitutions: provisions about institutions, procedures and com- petences, as well as fundamental social and civil rights. The single market law would explicitly be no component of the constitutional law but would remain in effect under the ‘ordinary’ law of the acquis, thus losing its current quasi-constitutional status (Scharpf 2015: 401). The de-constitutionalisation of single market law would suspend the supremacy of economic freedoms over collective social rights. Second, the proposal aims at eliminating the Commission’s monopoly of legislative initiatives. Instead, ‘qualified minorities in Parliament and Council should [also] be able to introduce legislative initiatives’ (Scharpf 2015: 400). This would prevent the Commission from stopping or diluting measures that are not in line with the market-liberal preferences of the Directorates- General for the Internal Market, Competition or Trade (Scharpf 2014: 19). In addition, this would also significantly upgrade the EP, thus making an important contribution to the democratization of the EU. page 8 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
  • 9. The third element of Scharpf’s proposal intends to reduce the relatively high majority requirements for ordinary legislation. Accordingly, a simple majority in the Council and the EP should be sufficient for adopting legislative pro- posals (Scharpf 2015: 400). Fourth, for the sake of protection of minorities, the simplification of the deci- sion-making processes would be balanced by politically controlled opt-out options for member states (from ordinary legislation only): this ensures that individual member states or small groups of member states with specific national characteristics – e.g. particularly extensive forms of co- determination – are protected from being overruled by simple majorities of the other countries (e.g. in the case of takeover or company law). However, opt-outs should be politically controlled, i.e. it should be possible to reject them by an absolute majority in Parliament and by a qualified majority in the Council. This could be reasonable when the uniform application of a law seems necessary, e.g. if non-applicants had a competitive advantage and/or if the benefits for applicants were reduced by non-uniform applica- tion. In these cases, member states would have to choose between the comparatively unproblematic adoption of far reaching solutions by a smaller group of countries on the one hand and a lengthy and cumbersome search for consent between all member states on the other hand which, in the end, might lead to a compromise that represents the lowest common denomina- tor only (Scharpf 2015: 402f.). The proposal also foresees that member states are allowed to adopt legislation that contravenes the current acquis (Scharpf 2015: 401) because the current acquis contains more uniform rules as it would be the case after a reform. Such conflicting initiatives should be notified to the Commission beforehand and could also be reject- ed by joint majorities in Parliament and Council (Scharpf 2015: 403f.). These measures address the previously identified problems of a poor prob- lem-solving ability and an uncontrolled integration through law. First, it would become possible to control and correct the legal development politi- cally. The member states’ capacity for political action could be freed from European legal restrictions that no longer correspond to the interests of political majorities (Scharpf 2015: 404). European politics would be relieved from the legal constraints of an expansive integration through law, thus significantly increasing the range of policy alternatives. Second, the institu- tional constraints of the Community method’s multi-veto system would be eliminated. This would not only improve the capacity for political action and make it easier to correct the legal development but would also contribute to greater public attention for and the politicisation of European decisions both at the European and the national level (Scharpf 2015: 404). At the same time, this would also lead to a more active role of national parliaments in European politics, thus contributing to an improvement of the democratic quality within member states (cf. Urban 2013: 143f.). Of course, these measures do not guarantee the realisation of a social Eu- rope which can only be the result of future political battles. But at least the institutional barriers to social democracy would be removed. This would be Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 9
  • 10. the basic condition for political majorities in Europe to implement alternative social and economic concepts in democratically legitimised processes. 4.2 Minimum requirements for a social Europe In order to realise a social and democratic Europe, European integration should more strongly serve the purpose of promoting welfare state devel- opment in the member states. Especially in the current crisis, this aspect is more important than ever. As stated above, high material inequality is in- compatible with the principles of social democracy. Instead of cutting social benefits and reducing wages, minimum social standards should be agreed that provide adequate protection from social risks and also ensure a decent standard of living. To be clear, this would not be about the introduction of redistributive social security systems at the European level but about regu- latory provisions to be implemented by the member states. For instance, minimum wage replacement rates could be introduced for social benefits such as social assistance, unemployment benefits and pen- sions. In order not to financially overburden the countries’ social systems, following Busch’s idea of a corridor model (Busch 2005), member states could be divided into groups with different levels of wage replacement rates according to their economic capacity. In the long term, lower wage re- placement rates should be adjusted to a higher level. The crisis in the southern European countries has made it clear that in the EU not even the delivery of basic services is ensured. Against this back- ground, it might also make sense to define a minimum level of public ser- vices. This would involve the coverage of basic needs such as a guaran- teed basic supply of electricity and gas or comprehensive health care. A minimum wage policy coordinated at European level could be another building block of a social Europe (Schulten 2014). This would be an effec- tive remedy for rising social inequality and increasing in-work poverty. Giv- en the huge wage differences between member states, however, the aim cannot be a Europe-wide uniform wage amount but a minimum wage norm to be implemented in the member states (Schulten 2014: 13f.). For exam- ple, the minimum wage level could be set to 60% of the respective median wage of a country. 4.3 Strengthening the fiscal capacity of member states An important prerequisite for a high problem-solving ability of political sys- tems is their capacity to generate the material resources needed to imple- ment ambitious regulatory goals. This requires the solution of two tightly interconnected problems that interfere with the revenue side of state budg- ets: the regulation of financial markets and the curbing of tax competition. page 10 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
  • 11. As made clear by Nölke (2016) and Rixen (2016), containing financial mar- kets and tax competition is an important prerequisite for a social and demo- cratic Europe. Both authors point to the close connection between financial- isation and tax competition on the one hand and social inequality on the other. Additionally, financialisation, tax avoidance and tax competition de- prive nation states to a considerable extent of much needed resources (see Unger 2013). The liberalisation of capital flows and financial markets has substantially increased the mobility of capital. Financial market actors, companies and wealthy individuals can exploit the differences between national regulatory models in order to achieve a ‘regulatory arbitrage’. Thereby, nation states are subjected to an intensive competition for invest- ments and tax revenues. Because of the relatively advanced stage of mar- ket liberalisation, this competition is particularly intense in the EU, thus in- creasing the mutual race to the bottom between member states. Legal and illegal possibilities of tax avoidance as well as an increasingly capital- friendly financial market regulation and taxation do not only reduce tax rev- enues but also lead to a general loss of political and democratic control over financial markets. In his article, Nölke (2016) calls for a stronger regulation of cross-border capital movements. This would not only reduce the vulnerability of financial markets but also facilitate the taxation of capital income and corporate prof- its. However, as Nölke points out, these measures would be incompatible with the free movement of capital as enshrined in EU primary law. Moreo- ver, Nölke supports the introduction of a financial transaction tax which would also contribute to a deceleration of the financial market business and generate additional public revenues. In this way, the financial sector would contribute more to the financing of public tasks. Besides, there is also a necessity for a more effective regulation of banks, shadow banks and fi- nancial instruments. Rixen (2016) shows that while there has been progress in combating tax evasion in the EU, there are still considerable shortcomings with regard to the containment of tax competition. Therefore, Rixen proposes a partial harmonisation of tax policy and argues for the taxation of corporate profits in the form of a common consolidated corporate tax base in combination with minimum tax rates. 5 Conclusion In this paper, I have suggested that European integration should follow the concept of social democracy. The basic idea is to impose regulative ‘ratch- ets’ against the mutual race to the bottom and to align the integration pro- cess in a way that it guarantees and promotes the economic and social development of the member states in the sense of a complementary institu- tional level of regulation. First, I have shown how the current architecture of the European multi-level system systematically prevents the realisation of social democracy in Europe. Based on this analysis, I have identified three areas that are crucial for a social and democratic Europe: an ‘open’ Euro- Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 11
  • 12. pean constitution, minimum requirements for a social Europe and the strengthening of the fiscal capacities of member states. It should be noted that none of the proposals made here will be easy to implement, because first the obstacles described in section 3 would have to be overcome. Besides, it is doubtful whether there currently exist political majorities in Europe that would implement such reforms. This is also and especially true for the proposal of a constitutional restart of the EU (Scharpf 2015: 397). According to Scharpf (2015: 397), this would even require a deep and dramatic crisis which would move the political actors to abandon their blockade positions, thus making possible a comprehensive institution- al change that goes beyond incremental and path-dependent adjustments. Although the institutional reform outlined here would considerably increase the other proposals’ prospects of success, it is not necessarily a prerequi- site for some of the proposed measures. For example, it is at least con- ceivable that agreement on proportional minimum conditions in the social area would also be possible under the current institutional conditions. Opt- outs, however, could facilitate progress in this area. The best example is the debate about a European minimum wage norm. So far, a common min- imum wage policy has been rejected in the European Trade Union Confed- eration (ETUC) especially by some of those countries that have a high level of collective bargaining coverage as well as a high level of wages, thus fearing that European requirements could cause a reduction of their nation- al standards (see Seeliger 2015).4 The possibility of an opt-out could re- solve this constellation without undermining common standards, because the non-participants would be those countries that already have high wage levels. In view of fundamentally different national interests, however, an agreement on strict financial market regulations as well as on a partial har- monisation of corporate tax is more than unlikely at the moment. In these policy areas, progress would only become possible through opt-outs. In order to contain the mutual race to the bottom in the mentioned policy areas, uniform rules would undoubtedly be the most effective solution. Ad- vancements of an ‘avant-garde’-group of countries in areas that are central for a social Europe, however, appear to be better than no improvements at all. In addition, differentiated integration is a matter of fact already today and even for some of the key integration projects (EMU, Schengen). In this context, it is important to emphasise that the reform proposed here includes the political control of opt-outs. It should be possible to reject them by a qualified majority in the Council. This means if a uniform application of rules seems necessary, member states would fall back on the procedural logic of the (classical) Community method. Thus, the reform would by no means lead to a deterioration compared to the current status quo but would open up new options for progress that are currently blocked. In those areas where unanimity is required at present, e.g. tax policy, finding consensus 4 At the 2015 ETUC Congress, the trade unions have agreed to a compromise formula: the ETUC supports the introduction of minimum wages if this is demanded by national trade unions. This is not to be understood as a call for a uniform European minimum wage. However, the compromise demonstrates the potential of opt-out solutions. page 12 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung —————————
  • 13. would even become much easier, because member states would lose their veto-right. Moreover, the EP would take a more pro-active agenda-setting- role and become able to initiate important policies. Besides, it would be- come possible to bypass currently existing European legal restrictions (e.g. the free movement of capital) politically. I expect that opt outs is a hard pill to swallow for many pro-European inte- grationists, not least for those among the political left who sometimes seem to believe that member states can be forced against their will via the Euro- pean level to become ‘more social’. Perhaps it is especially those advocat- ing a social and democratic Europe who have to realize that member states cannot be made ‘more social’ by European-level intervention when there are neither political majorities in the respective member states nor at Euro- pean level supporting this ambition. The choice is between a standstill for all for the sake of uniformity – which seriously threatens to undermine Eu- ropean integration – or progress for some. In addition, I expect that these changes, by increasing political problem-solving ability and removing struc- tural market-liberalism from European politics, could effectively reduce pub- lic discontent with the EU. The remaining discontent would no longer have to result in a complete rejection of EU membership like in the Brexit-case but could instead be channeled into less disruptive debates about selective opt-outs (Seikel 2016). This paper is primarily intended to serve as a basis for discussion. It aims at identifying perspectives for action and at outlining selected solutions. It does not answer the question of how the path to a more social and demo- cratic Europe could look like, i.e. how the proposals could be put into ac- tion. Thus, another purpose of this paper is to provide concrete guidance in case a window of opportunity for fundamental reforms opens up in Europe – not least in order to be better prepared for the time after the next crisis (cf. Scharpf 2015: 397). The outlined medium- and long-term reform prospects should not obscure the fact that the currently most urgent task is the protection of national so- cial systems and collective bargaining systems against illegitimate interfer- ence from Brussels and Luxembourg. Although not in the focus of this pa- per, the management of the euro crisis is currently the biggest threat to a social and democratic Europe. In this regard, a fundamental change of course is urgently needed. An important key to this lies in Germany: being the biggest creditor, Germany exerts considerable influence on the Euro- pean crisis management (Bulmer 2014: 1249f.). A change of course in Germany's European policy would therefore be crucial for changing Eu- rope’s crisis policy. Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 13
  • 14. Literature Bast J. and Rödl F. (2013) Wohlfahrtsstaatlichkeit und ‘soziales Europa’ im Kontext der Euro-Krise, Europarecht Beiheft 1/2013, Hamburg, VSA, 5- 12. Bellamy R. (2006) Still in deficit, European Law Journal, 12 (6), 725-742. Bieling H.-J. and Deppe F. (2003) Die neue europäische Ökonomie und die Transformation von Staatlichkeit, in Jachtenfuchs M. and Kohler-Koch B. (eds.) Europäische Integration, Opladen, Leske+Budrich, 513-539. Bulmer S. (2014) Germany and the Eurozone crisis: between hegemony and domestic politics, West European Politics, 37 (6), 1244-1263. Buntenbach A. (2014) Wer hat Recht(e) in Europa?, Supplement der Zeit- schrift Sozialismus 4/2014, 3-11. Busch K. (2005) Die Perspektiven des Europäischen Sozialmodells, Ar- beitspapier 92, Düsseldorf, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung. Busch K. et al. (2013) Euro crisis, austerity policy and the European Social Model. How crisis policies in southern Europe threaten the EU’s social di- mension, International Policy Analysis February 2013, Berlin, Friedrich- Ebert-Stiftung. Enderlein H. (2013) Das erste Opfer der Krise ist die Demokratie: Wirt- schaftspolitik und ihre Legitimation in der Finanzmarktkrise 2008-2013, Politische Vierteljahresschrift, 54 (4), 714-739. Fischer-Lescano A. (2014) Austeritätspolitik und Menschenrechte – Rechtspflichten der Unionsorgane beim Abschluss von Memoranda of Un- derstanding, Rechtsgutachten im Auftrag der Kammer für Arbeiter/innen und Angestellte für Wien. Gill S. (1998) European Governance and new constitutionalism, New Polit- ical Economy, 3 (1), 5-26. Höpner M. (2008) Usurpation statt Delegation. Wie der EuGH die Binnen- marktintegration radikalisiert und warum er politischer Kontrolle bedarf, Discussion Paper 08/12, Köln, MPIfG. Höpner M. (2013) Soziale Demokratie?, Europarecht Beiheft 1/2013, 69- 89. Höpner M. (2014) Wie der Europäische Gerichtshof und die Kommission Liberalisierung durchsetzen: Befunde aus der MPIfG-Forschungsgruppe zur Politischen Ökonomie der europäischen Integration, Discussion Paper 14/8, Köln, MPIfG. page 14 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
  • 15. Höpner M. and Schäfer A. (2008) Eine neue Phase der europäischen In- tegration. Legitimationsdefizite europäischer Liberalisierungspolitik, in Höpner M. and Schäfer A. (eds.) Die Politische Ökonomie der europäi- schen Integration, Frankfurt a. M., Campus, 129-156. Höpner M. and Schäfer A. (2010) A new phase of European integration, West European Politics, 33 (2), 344-368. Höpner M. and Schäfer A. (2012) Embeddedness and regional integra- tion, International Organization, 66 (3), 429-455. Lemb W. and Urban H.-J. (2014) Ist die Demokratie noch zu retten?, Sup- plement der Zeitschrift Sozialismus 4/2014, Hamburg, VSA, 42-54. Mair P. (2007) Political opposition and the European Union, Government and Opposition, 42 (1), 1-17. Majone G. (2014) From regulatory state to a democratic default, Journal of Common Market Studies, 52 (6), 1216-1223. Marshall T. H. (1950) Citizenship and Social Class. And other essays, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Meyer T. (2002) Soziale Demokratie und Globalisierung. Eine europäische Perspektive, Bonn, J.H.W. Dietz. Nölke A. (2016) Finanzialisierung als Kernproblem eines Sozialen Euro- pas, WSI-Mitteilungen, 69 (1), 41-48. Oberndorfer L. (2012) Der Fiskalpakt – Umgehung der ‘europäischen Ver- fassung’ und Durchbrechung demokratischer Verfahren?, juridikum 2/2012, 168-181. Prantl H. (2014) Wo Europa neue Kraft braucht und woher sie kommen kann, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund and Friedrich- Ebert-Stiftung (eds.) Demokratisierung von Gesellschaft und Arbeitswelt. Impulse für eine soziale Rechtspolitik. Dokumentation des Rechtspoliti- schen Kongresses, Berlin, 25/26 March 2014. Rixen T. (2016) Das Soziale Europa im Räderwerk des Steuerwettbe- werbs, WSI-Mitteilungen, 69 (1), 49-56. Scharpf F. W. (1998) Demokratie in der transnationalen Politik, in Streeck W. (ed.) Internationale Wirtschaft, nationale Demokratie. Herausforderun- gen für die Demokratietheorie, Frankfurt a. M., Campus, 151-174. Scharpf F. W. (1999) Regieren in Europa. Effektiv und demokratisch?, Frankfurt a. M., Campus. Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 15
  • 16. Scharpf F. W. (2006) The joint-decision trap revisited, Journal of Common Market Studies, 44 (4), 845-864. Scharpf F. W. (2008a) Negative und positive Integration, in: Höpner M. and Schäfer A. (eds.) Die Politische Ökonomie der europäischen Integration, Frankfurt a. M., Campus, 49-87. Scharpf F. W. (2008b) Der einzige Weg ist, dem EuGH nicht zu folgen, Mitbestimmung, 07 + 08/2008, 18-23. Scharpf F. W. (2009) Legitimität im europäischen Mehrebenensystem, Leviathan 37 (2), 244-280. Scharpf F. W. (2010a) The asymmetry of European integration, or why the EU cannot be a ‘social market economy’, Socio-Economic Review, 8 (2), 211-250. Scharpf F. W. (2010b) Negative and positive integration in the political economy of European welfare states, in Scharpf F. W. (ed.) Community and autonomy. Institutions, policies and legitimacy in multilevel Europe, Frankfurt a. M., Campus, 91-126. Scharpf F. W. (2014) After the crash. A perspective on multilevel European democracy, Discussion Paper 14/21, Köln, MPIfG. Scharpf F. W. (2015) After the crash: a perspective on multilevel European democracy, European Law Journal, 21 (3), 384-405. Schulten Th. and Müller T. (2013) Ein neuer europäischer Interventionis- mus?, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 39 (3), 291-321. Schulten Th. (2014) Contours of a European Minimum Wage Policy, Ber- lin, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Seeliger M. (2015) Europäischer Mindestlohn als Arbeitnehmerinteresse? Probleme gewerkschaftlicher Positionsbildung, Aus Politik und Zeitge- schichte, 65 (4-5), 36-42. Seikel D. and Absenger N. (2015) Die Auswirkungen der EuGH- Rechtsprechung auf das Tarifvertragssystem in Deutschland, Industrielle Beziehungen, 22 (1), 51-71. Seikel D. (2016) The European Union In Crisis – Is Flexible Integration The Way Forward?, Social Europe, 22 July 2016 (www.socialeurope.eu/2016/07/european-union-crisis-flexible-integration- way-forward/). Streeck, W. (2013) Gekaufte Zeit. Die vertagte Krise des demokratischen Kapitalismus, Berlin, Suhrkamp. page 16 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
  • 17. Unger B. (2013) How to finance a social Europe?, in Grozelier, A.-M. et al. (eds.) Roadmap to a social Europe, Social Europe Report October 2013, 95-97. Urban H.-J. (2011) Wirtschaftsdemokratie des 21. Jahrhunderts. Konturen und Realisierungsbedingungen eines gesellschaftlichen Transformations- projekts, in Meine H./Schumann M., and Urban H.-J. (eds.) Mehr Wirt- schaftsdemokratie wagen!, Hamburg, VSA, 42-67. Urban H.-J. (2013) Der Tiger und seine Dompteure. Wohlfahrtsstaat und Gewerkschaften im Gegenwartskapitalismus, Hamburg, VSA. Ziltener P. (1999) Strukturwandel der europäischen Integration. Die Euro- päische Union und die Veränderung von Staatlichkeit, Münster, Westfäli- sches Dampfboot. Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung page 17
  • 18. Impressum In der Reihe „WSI Working Paper“ erscheinen in unregelmäßiger Folge Arbeiten aus dem WSI zu aktuellen Vorgängen auf wirtschafts-, sozial- und gesellschaftspolitischem Gebiet. Für den Inhalt sind die Autorinnen und Autoren selbst verantwortlich. Diese und andere Veröffentlichungen der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung finden Sie als pdf-Datei unter www.boeckler.de Gedruckte Einzelexemplare sind zu beziehen über Hans-Böckler-Stiftung Hans-Böckler-Straße 39 40476 Düsseldorf Dr.Daniel Seikel Hans-Böckler-Straße 39 40476 Düsseldorf daniel-seikel@boeckler.de Working Paper (Internet) ISSN ISSN 2509-985X page 18 Nr. 207 · December 2016 · Hans-Böckler-Stiftung