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A Century of Negro
Spirituals for Solo Voice
Created by Randye Jones
June, 2018
Introduction
2016 marked the 100th anniversary of Harry T.
Burleigh‘s publication of “Deep River,” which is
considered to be the first time a Negro Spiritual was
used as source material for an art song. “Deep River”
inspired singers of “Classical” music to integrate
Spirituals into their concert repertoire and composers
to explore how their own vocal musical expressions
might be enriched by inclusion of the Spiritual in their
works.
Who are some of the other composers and performers
who have delved into the rich fount of the Negro
Spiritual to create the vast range of musical
expressions that make up the concert Spiritual?
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
2
Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
These composers were born in the generation immediately
following the end of the American Civil War in 1865. They
were often the children of ex-slaves or they otherwise
were exposed to the Negro Spiritual directly from the
living sources of these songs. They continued the process,
begun by the Fisk Jubilee Singers, of sharing this soul-
stirring, original American music across the United States
and around the world.
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
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Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
Harry (Henry) Thacker Burleigh (b. Erie, Pennsylvania, 2 December
1866; d. 12 September 1949, Stamford, Connecticut). Burleigh attended
the National Conservatory of Music, where he introduced the plantation
songs he had learned from his grandfather to composer Antonin Dvořák.
During his professional career, Burleigh was a baritone vocalist, music
editor, lecturer, and a charter member of ASCAP. His compositions
included between 200-300 songs.
In 1916, Burleigh wrote the song, “Deep River,” for voice and piano. By
that point in his career, he had written a few vocal and instrumental
works based on the plantation melodies he had learned as a child.
However, his setting of “Deep River” is considered to be the first work of
its kind to be written in art song form specifically for performance by a
trained singer.
Video performance: “Deep River” Harry T. Burleigh, composer ; Robert McFerrin, baritone
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Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
William Arms Fisher (b. 27 April 1861, San Francisco, California; d.
18 December, 1948, Brookline, Massachusetts). After rejecting a
career in business, Fisher studied with composer Antonin Dvořák at
the National Conservatory of Music. He edited the song collection,
Sixty Irish Songs (1915) and wrote Notes on Music in Old Boston
(1918), which was expanded 15 years later into One Hundred and
Fifty Years of Music Publishing in the United States. Fisher has also
been credited for using the Largo movement of Dvořák’s Symphony
from the New World to write the words and music of the song,
“Goin’ Home” (1922).
Fisher compiled a setting of Spirituals, which was published in
1926. This video recording is of one of Fisher’s Seventy Negro
Spirituals.
Video performance: “Deep River,” William Arms Fisher, composer ; Frances Alda, soprano
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Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
John C. Payne (b. 26 June 1872, Montgomery, Alabama; d.
Cornwall, England, 7 October 1952). Payne began his musical
career performing with various professional quartets. The
baritone, composer, choral director and actor emigrated to
England, where his home quickly became “the place to be” for
African American musicians–including Marian Anderson, Paul
Robeson, Ethel Waters, and Alberta Hunter–who had come to
Europe to establish professional careers.
In the 1920’s, Payne recorded his own settings of Negro
Spirituals, along with those by H. T. Burleigh, with pianist
Lawrence Brown. He set five Spiritual art songs that were
published by G. Schirmer in 1942.
Video performance: “Standin’ in de Need o’ Prayer” John C. Payne, composer ; John
C. Payne, baritone ; Lawrence Brown, tenor and piano
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Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
John Rosamond Johnson (b. Jacksonville, Florida, 11 August 1873; d.
New York, New York, 11 November 1954). Johnson, a composer, singer,
educator and conductor, studied voice and piano at the New England
Conservatory. He partnered with his brother, James Weldon Johnson,
to become successful writers and performers in Vaudeville and
musical theater. The pair also collaborated on the creation of the
anthem, “Lift Every Voice and Sing.”
The Johnson Brothers also collaborated on two of J. Rosamond
Johnson’s African American music anthologies, The Book of American
Negro Spirituals, first published in 1925, and The Second Book of
Negro Spirituals, published the following year. The video is a
recording of one of those songs.
Video performance: “All God’s Chillin”
J. Rosamond Johnson, composer
Todd Duncan, baritone
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Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
Hugo Frey (b. 26 August 1873, Chicago, Illinois; d. 13 February 1952, New
York, New York). Frey studied music at the Chicago Conservatory. He was a
professional violist and pianist as well as a dance orchestra conductor and
music arranger for stage, sound recordings and film. He also edited
simplified versions of popular music of the era and was a charter member
of ASCAP.
Like numerous composers of the time, Frey drew upon Negro Spirituals to
write several songs for voice and piano. His “A Collection of 25 Selected
Famous Negro Spirituals” was published by Robbins-Engel in 1924.
Video performance: “Deep River” Hugo Frey, composer ; Odekhiren Amaize, bass-baritone
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Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
Clarence Cameron White (b. 10 August 1880, Clarksville, Tennessee; d. 30
June 1960, New York, New York). White was a violinist, composer, and
educator who began his violin studies at the age of 8–including coaching with
violinist Will Marion Cook, continuing his musical study at Oberlin
Conservatory and in London with teachers such as composer Samuel
Coleridge-Taylor. White composed for both vocal and instrumental forces,
continued to perform as a violinist, and served on the faculties at West
Virginia State College and Hampton Institute. He was also a charter member
of the National Association of Negro Musicians.
“Goin’ to Shout All over God’s Heaven” was published as part of a collection
of Spirituals for solo voice and piano in 1927. In the preface of the collection,
White suggests that “… the Negro dialect, as sung, should not be an
exaggeration of the written form of the words, whose spelling is only an
approximation to the actual sound in genuine Negro dialect; and the the
element of syncopation shall not lose its nature as a secondary offshoot of
the rhythm of words and syllables, and be mispresented as mere musical
surprise.”
Video performance: “Goin’ to Shout All over God’s Heaven” Clarence Cameron White, composer ; Jules Bledsoe, baritone
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Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
Robert Nathaniel Dett (b. Drummondsville, Ontario, Canada, 11 October
1882; d. Battle Creek, Michigan, 2 October 1943). Dett began piano study as a
youth. He attended the Lockport Conservatory then studied composition and
piano at the Oberlin College Conservatory, becoming the first person of
African descent to receive a bachelor’s degree there. He began touring as a
concert pianist and publishing music. He taught at Lane College in Tennessee,
Lincoln Institute in Missouri, Hampton Institute in Virginia and Bennett
College in North Carolina. His piano and choral music during those years were
written to suit his teaching needs. During the summers, he studied at several
other prestigious schools in the U.S. and Europe before earning his Master of
Music degree from the Eastman School of Music. A choral director and
educator, Dett also composed approximately 100 works for piano, chorus, and
solo voice.
His 1940 setting of the Spiritual, “I’m Goin’ to Tell God All My Troubles” was
one of several he wrote especially for his protege, soprano Dorothy Maynor.
Video performance: “I’m Goin’ To Tell God All My Troubles” R. Nathaniel Dett, composer
Dorothy Maynor, soprano
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Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
Florence Beatrice Smith Price (b. 9 April 1888, Little Rock, Arkansas; d. 3
June 1953, Chicago, Illinois). Music was an important part of Price’s life
from an early age, as evidenced by her public performance at the age of
four. She was a music teacher and composer, especially of instrumental
works. One highlight in Price’s career was Marian Anderson‘s performance
of the composer’s concert Spiritual, “My Soul’s Been Anchored in the Lord,”
during Anderson’s 1939 Lincoln Memorial concert. That Spiritual has become
a stable for not only professional singers, but for numerous voice students
exploring the Spirituals repertoire.
As with many of Price’s compositions, she drew upon her exposure to Negro
folk music for her setting of the Spiritual, “Go Down Moses.”
Video performance: “Go Down Moses”
Florence Price, composer ; Richard Heard, tenor
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Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
Roland Hayes (b. 3 June 1887, Curryville, Georgia; d. Boston,
Massachusetts, 1 January 1977) was a pioneer as a commercially
successful classical musician during a period when African Americans
found it nearly impossible to accomplish this feat. The tenor
established an international career, becoming one of the highest paid
musicians in the first third of the 20th century. He mentored singers
such as Marian Anderson, Paul Robeson, Leontyne Price, Dorothy
Maynor, Edward Boatner and William Warfield.
Hayes also composed numerous spiritual art songs. The Life of Christ
is a 10-song cycle published as part of a collection of spirituals, My
Favorite Spirituals: 30 Songs for Voice and Piano, in 1948.
Video Performance: “Hear de Lambs a-Cryin'” from The Life of Christ
Roland Hayes, composer ; Charles Holland, tenor
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Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T.
Burleigh to Hall Johnson
Francis Hall Johnson (b. Athens, Georgia, 12 March 1888; d. 30 April
1970, in New York, New York) began his musical professional career as
a violinist, but in time, his interest turned to choral music. Johnson
formed the Hall Johnson Negro Choir, which performed with great
success in concert, on the radio, and in numerous films. He was known
not only for his compositions, but for the articles he authored that
discussed the history of the Spiritual and their performance practice.
In the preface of The Hall Johnson Collection, Johnson historian
Eugene Thamson Simpson wrote: “Save for the original art songs, all
are unabashed in their use of Negro dialect. For a performance which
is both rewarding to the singer and convincing to the audience, the
texts should be delivered smoothly and without exaggeration, the beat
should be steady and the rhythms easy and accurate.”
Video performance: “Witness”
Hall Johnson, composer ; Inez Matthews, mezzo-soprano
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
These composers, born from the last decade of
the 19th Century to the 1920s, were witnesses to
or impacted by the effects of Jim Crow Laws, the
Great War, the Harlem Renaissance, and World
War II. Their compositional treatments of the
Negro Spiritual not only reflected Neo-
Romanticism, but the influences of popular music,
such as Jazz and Blues, of the era.
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Lawrence Benjamin Brown (b. 28 August, 1893; d. 25 December, 1972,
New York, New York) began studying piano as a youth and quickly
demonstrated a gift for playing the instrument. He continued his studies
first in Boston, then to London, where he attended Trinity College and
developed skills as both a pianist and composer. He became accompanist
for tenor Roland Hayes, joining him for a command performance for the
king of England in 1921. Brown returned to the United State in 1925 in
order to further develop his knowledge of Negro Spirituals, which led to
composing several concert settings for solo voice and piano. Baritone
Paul Robeson introduced Brown’s songs in what is believed to be the
first all-Spirituals recital in 1925. Brown toured internationally and
recorded with Robeson in a collaboration that lasted until 1968.
“Dere’s a Man Goin’ Roun’ Takin’ Names” was published in 1930 in a
five-song collection for voice and piano by Schott.
Video performance: “Dere’s a Man Goin’ Roun’ Takin’ Names”
Lawrence Brown, composer ; Paul Robeson, bass-baritone
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
William Grant Still (b. 11 May 1895, Woodville, Mississippi; d.
3 December 1978, Los Angeles, California), known as the
“Dean of Black Music,” studied at Wilberforce University and
Oberlin College and received a Guggenheim Fellowship. His
Afro-American Symphony was the first by an African American
composer to be performed by a major orchestra. Still wrote
for the operatic stage and for television, as well as vocal and
instrumental works for the concert stage.
Still set few spirituals for solo vocal concert performance. He
preferred, instead, to use blues elements for his inspiration.
However, his setting of “Here’s One” has been recorded by
several vocalists.
Video performance: “Here’s One”
William Grant Still, composer ; Florence Quivar, mezzo-soprano
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
William Lawrence (b. Charleston, South Carolina, 20 September, 1895;
d. 17 March 1981, New York, New York) The son of a church organist,
Lawrence started piano lessons as a child. He studied piano, voice and
harmony variously at Avery Normal Institute, Charleston, the New
England Conservatory, Boston, Boston University, as well as in Paris. He
toured extensively, both as accompanist for tenor Roland Hayes and as
part of the Hayes Trio. He accepted a teaching position at what is now
South Carolina State in Orangeburg. He moved to New York, where he
conducted a music studio and worked actively as an accompanist.
Lawrence used one of the few instances of Communion-themed Negro
Spirituals for his setting of “Let Us Break Bread Together on Our
Knees.” The song was published in 1945 and was a favorite of contralto
Marian Anderson.
Video performance: “Let Us Break Bread Together on Our Knees”
William Lawrence, composer ; Marian Anderson, contralto
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Robert Hunter MacGimsey (b. Pineville, Louisiana, 7
September, 1898; d. 13 March 1979, Phoenix, Arizona) received
his musical training at Juilliard. After a brief career as a lawyer,
he became a professional whistler, performing on the radio and
in recordings. He also pursued a career as a singer and
composer. His songs reflected his southern roots, especially the
Negro folk songs he heard throughout his lifetime.
MacGimsey’s “Sweet Little Jesus Boy” was an original song
styled on Negro Spirituals and was published in 1934. In a
compilation of his transcriptions, it was stated that, “When
Robert transcribed an authentic spiritual, or composed a song
which he had written in this context, the dialect was the
primary rendition with the ‘white man’s’ vocabulary written
below it; this was intended only as an interpretation
Video performance: “Sweet Little Jesus Boy”
Robert MacGimsey, composer ; Carol Brice, contralto
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Edward Hammond Boatner (b. 13 November 1898, New Orleans,
Louisiana; d. New York, New York, 16 June 1981) Boatner was exposed
to Negro folksongs while traveling from church to church with his
father, a preacher. He studied at Western University, Quindaro, Kansas,
the Boston Conservatory, and the Chicago Musical College, where he
earned his bachelor of music. R. Nathaniel Dett gave him coaching and
went with him on a joint tour of New England. He taught at Samuel
Huston College and Wiley College in Texas, and he served as director of
music for the National Baptist Convention. Boatner moved to New York
where, in addition to becoming a successful singer and educator, he
became a composer of Spirituals.
Boatner’s works included over 200 Spirituals for solo voice and piano.
Several were premiered by such singers as H. T. Burleigh, Roland
Hayes, and Marian Anderson. A compilation of his Spirituals was
published in 1985.
Video performance: “City Called Heaven” Edward Boatner, composer ; Mattiwilda Dobbs, soprano
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Hamilton Forrest (b. 8 January 1901, Chicago, Illinois; d.
26 December 1963, London, England) completed his
bachelor’s and master’s musical studies at the American
Conservatory of Music, Chicago. During his extensive
travels, he researched and collected folk music in Kentucky
before establishing himself in England.
Forrest’s setting of “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand”
was published in 1951. He dedicated the Spiritual to
contralto Marian Anderson, who regularly programmed the
song in her recitals. Anderson was noted as stating that
Forrest “provided a piano part that fits the words like a
glove.”
Video Performance: “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand”
Hamilton Forrest, composer ; Martina Arroyo, soprano
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
John Wesley Work III (b. 15 July 1901, Tullahoma, Tennessee; d. 17 May 1967,
Nashville, Tennessee) was born into a musical family, where his mother was a
trained singer, his father was a music professor at Fisk, and his paternal
grandfather was a church choral director who had worked with some of the
original members of the Fisk Jubilee Singers. Unsurprisingly, his musical studies
started at an early age, leading to undergraduate study at Fisk, additional study
at the Institute of Musical Art (later renamed Julliard), a master’s degree from
Columbia, a second bachelor’s from Yale, and an honorary doctorate from Fisk. In
addition to his music teaching and administrative duties at Fisk, he extensively
wrote scholarly articles and participated in a major field study of Mississippi
Delta folk songs for the Library of Congress.
As a composer, Work wrote for a variety of solo and ensemble forces, but he
focused on choral and solo vocal music. He composed “This Little Light o’ Mine”
for solo voice, and he published American Negro Songs and Spirituals: a
Comprehensive Collection of 230 Folk Songs, Religious and Secular in 1940.
Video performance: “This Little Light o’ Mine” John Wesley Work III, composer ; Kevin Maynor, bass
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Undine Smith Moore (b. Jarrett, Virginia, 25 August 1904; d. Petersburg,
Virginia, 6 February 1989) Smith Moore, the granddaughter of former
slaves, began studying piano as a child. She completed her undergraduate
studies at Fisk and received her master’s degree from Columbia University
Teachers College, with additional study at Julliard, Manhattan School of
Music and Eastman. She taught first in the Goldsboro, North Carolina,
public school system and a 45-year tenure at Virginia State College. She
shared her interest in the music of Black America through workshops and
lectures across the United States.
While Smith Moore primarily composed choral works, including the Pulitzer
Prize-nominated Scenes from the Life of a Martyr, she also wrote a
number of chamber and orchestral works, as well as solo works for voice
and for various solo instruments.
Video performance: “Is There Anybody Here Who Loves My Jesus”
Undine Smith Moore, composer ; Pamela Dillard, mezzo-soprano
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Margaret Jeanette Allison Bonds (b. 3 March 1913, Chicago, Illinois; d.
26 April 1972, Los Angeles, California) received her bachelor’s and
master’s degrees in music from Northwestern University, with
additional study at the Juilliard School. The pianist was the first African
American to perform with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. An
educator and composer, Bonds wrote works for the theater, ballet,
orchestra, and piano, but the majority were art and popular songs.
Bonds composed concert Spirituals such as her cycle, Five Creek-
Freedmen Spirituals. Her best known Spiritual, however, is her setting
of “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand”, commissioned by Leontyne
Price in 1963.
Video performance: “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand”
Margaret Bonds, composer ; Leontyne Price, soprano
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Thomas Henderson Kerr, Jr. (b. Baltimore, Maryland, 3
January 1915; d. Washington, DC, 26 August 1988) Kerr
attended the Eastman School of Music of the University of
Rochester, New York, where he received the Bachelor of
Music degree. He joined the faculty at Howard University,
Washington, DC, in 1943 and served for 35 years as a piano
and composition instructor and organist. He also toured
extensively as a concert pianist.
Kerr composed primarily for the organ; however, he also
wrote piano, choral, and solo vocal works, including the
Negro Spiritual, “Great Day.”
Video performance: “Great Day” Thomas Kerr, Jr., composer ; Jessye Norman, soprano
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Julia Amanda Perry (Born, 25 March 1924, Lexington, Kentucky; died,
Akron, Ohio, 24 April 1979). Born into a musical family, Perry moved to
Akron, where she studied music in the public school and then at Akron
University, Westminister Choir College. She continued her studies at
Julliard, Berkshire Music Center, and composition and orchestral
conducting in Europe. Perry taught at Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical University and at Atlanta University. Perry twice earned the
Guggenheim Fellowship; she was also recipient of a Boulanger Grand
Prix and an award from the National Institute of Arts and Letters.
Perry gained international acclaim for her Stabat Mater for contralto
and string orchestra. Her compositions included over 50 works for a
variety of solo instruments and large and small ensembles, as well as
solo vocal and choral works.
Video presentation: “I’m a poor little orphan in this world!”
Julia Perry, composer ; Shirley Verrett, mezzo-soprano
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Hale Smith (b. Cleveland, Ohio, 29 June 1925; d. 24 November 2009,
Freeport, Long Island, New York) Smith received his bachelor’s and
master’s degrees in music from the Cleveland Institute of Music. After
moving to New York in 1958, professional career included serving as an
editor and music choral consultant for various music publishing houses
and teaching at Long Island University and the University of
Connecticut, Storrs. He has composed numerous orchestral and
chamber works, as well as several choral and solo vocal pieces.
Smith classified his writing style as working “with a few, key motivic
ideas.” He used both European techniques and Black jazz and folk
music influences in his writing. His setting of “This Little Light of Mine”
was composed in 1986 and published by his Halsco publishing company.
Video presentation: “I Want to Die Easy” Hale Smith, composer ; Donnie Ray Albert, baritone
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Robert Lee Owens (b. 4 February 1925, Dennison, Texas; d. 5 January,
2017, Munich, Germany) began his musical training at an early age,
first in piano and, by high school, music theory and composition. As a
pianist, educator and composer, he became acquainted with poet
Langston Hughes, who became one of several 19th- and 20th-century
poets whose texts Owens used in his compositions. He emigrated to
Germany, where he sought professional musical opportunities he
believed he would not find in the United States. Over his career,
Owens used his exposure to Western European and American stylistic
practices to create his own distinctive compositional approach.
“Po’ Mourner’s Got a Home at Las'” was the third of six Spirituals
Owens selected for bass (baritone) and piano. The cycle, Six Negro
Spirituals for Bass (Baritone) and Piano, was published in 2005.
Video presentation: “Po’ Mourner’s Got a Home at Las'”
Robert Owens, composer ; Oral Moses, bass-baritone
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Betty Lou Jackson King (b. 17 February 1928, Chicago, Illinois; d.
Wildwood, New Jersey, 1 June 1994). After completing her education in
music composition, she developed a career as an educator, church musician,
lecturer, choral director, composer, and music publisher.
Jackson King, along with composers Roland Carter and Wendell Whalum,
each contributed two spiritual settings to God Is a God. Carter stated that
there is no clear order to the placement of the pieces, leaving their
organization to the performer’s discretion. “Calvary” was dedicated to
baritone William Warfield and is described as depicting, “… the horrors of
the crucifixion with dissonant harmonies in the piano accompaniment as the
introduction that returns with each voice. In the bass you hear the
hammering and the death knell that becomes more insistent with each
verse. This is best suited for a low voice and requires dramatic intensity.”
Video presentation: “Calvary”
Betty Jackson King, composer ; Robert Honeysucker, baritone
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Part Two: The Second Generation, From
Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin
Lena Mae (née Johnson) McLin (b. 5 September 1929,
Atlanta, Georgia) was raised in the home of her uncle, Gospel
music great Thomas A. Dorsey, whose choir she accompanied.
After receiving her bachelor’s degree in music from Spelman
College and master’s from the American Conservatory of
Music, McLin taught music in the Chicago public school system.
She instructed several students who went on to professional
careers in Classical and popular music.
A choral director, lecturer, author and ordained minister, McLin
is also credited as a composer of over 400 choral and solo
vocal works, as well as instrumental and electronic
compositions.
Video presentation: “Glory, Glory, Hallelujah”
Lena McLin, composer ; Mark Rucker, baritone
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Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
The composers who have flourished in the decades
since the conclusion of the Second World War have
seen the ongoing struggles for civil and human
rights and the technological and cultural shifts that
have occurred at nearly warp speed. Their music,
which includes the Negro Spiritual, is often
interwoven with the strains of popular music–such
as Gospel and Hip Hop–even as they return to an
exploration of the roots of this American folk
music.
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Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Wendell Phillips Whalum, Sr. (b. 4 September 1931, Memphis,
Tennessee; d. Atlanta, Georgia, 9 June 1987) was a musically active
youth performing at churches in Memphis. Whalum matriculated to
Morehouse College and Columbia University, finishing his doctoral
study at the University of Iowa. He taught at Morehouse for over 40
years and directed its choir to international acclaim. Also known for
his skills as an instructor, organist, and musicologist, he composed
numerous works for chorus and solo voice.
Whalum, along with composers Betty Jackson King and Roland Carter,
each contributed two Spiritual settings to God Is a God. Carter stated
that there is no clear order to the placement of the pieces, leaving
their organization to the performer’s discretion.
Video presentation: “God Is a God” Wendell Whalum, composer ; Kenneth Overton, baritone
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Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
John Daniels Carter (b. 19 April 1932, St. Louis, Missouri; d. 24 July 1981, Hempstead,
New York) studied music at Florida A&M University and piano and composition at
Oberlin. Carter served as composer-in-residence with the National Symphony Orchestra in
Washington, DC, in 1968 and was an instructor at Federal City College, Washington, in the
1970’s. As a pianist, Carter toured extensively, accompanying performers such as tenor
William Brown.
Carter’s Cantata was published in 1964. The five-song vocal suite was premiered by
soprano Leontyne Price at Constitution Hall in Washington, DC. The composer talked about
his work in an interview with famed musicologist Dominique-René de Lerma:
Cantata is based on a few well-known spirituals. I was always curious that Black
composers rarely concerned themselves with this music. They’ve been arranged, but Black
composers have not cared for their folk music as have Chopin or Bartók, for example… This
is what I decided to do with this material, with one movement for each of the five
spirituals. The first, for piano alone, is the “Prelude.” Second is a rondo, based on “Peter,
Go Ring Them Bells.” “Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child” is third, as an air, and
then comes “Let Us Break Bread Together.” The last movement is a toccata, “Ride on, King
Jesus…” As for the melodies, a lot of spirituals are pentatonic, and twelve minutes of five-
note melodies might not be too interesting so I’ve not hesitated to alter the melodies.
Video presentation: “Toccata” (from Cantata) John Carter, composer ; Ray Wade, Jr.,
tenor
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
32
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Coleridge-Taylor Perkinson (b. 14 June 1932, New York, New York; d. 9
March 2004, Chicago, Illinois) came from a musical family background
and attended New York’s High School of Music and Art and New York
University. After receiving his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the
Manhattan School of Music, he accepted positions as an instructor at
Brooklyn College and as conductor of the Brooklyn Community
Symphony Orchestra while continuing his musical studies in orchestral
conducting at the Salzburg Mozarteum.
Perkinson’s professional career reflected his musical stylistic range,
spanning the Classical, Blues, and Jazz worlds as a pianist, conductor,
arranger and composer–including ballet and film musical scores–for
instrumental and vocal solos and ensembles.
Video presentation: “O Freedom”
Coleridge-Taylor Perkinson, composer ; George Shirley, tenor
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
33
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Jacqueline Butler Hairston (b. 18 December, 1938, Charlotte,
North Carolina) is a composer, educator, choral director and
pianist who studied at Julliard, Howard University, and
Columbia University.
Sharing an interest in the heritage of African American folk
music with her cousin, composer Jester Hairston (1901-2000),
she has used Spirituals to compose songs that have been
performed and recorded by professional choral and solo vocal
performers.
Video presentation: “Guide My Feet”
Jacqueline Hairston, composer ; Louise Toppin, soprano
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
34
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Robert Leigh Morris (b. Chicago, Illinois, 22 April 1941). Morris received
his bachelor’s degree from DePaul University in Chicago, with graduate
studies at Indiana University, Bloomington, and The University of Iowa,
Iowa City. He served as choral director at Hampton University, Virginia,
Winston-Salem State University, North Carolina, and at Jackson State
University in Mississippi before accepting his current post as Director of
Choral Activities for Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota, and he was
choral arranger for Edward “Duke” Ellington as well as founder of the
Leigh Morris Chorale.
Morris has composed numerous works for mixed chorus, most of which
use Afrocentric folk themes. His Lyric Suite: A Collection of Spirituals
in Gospel Style is a solo vocal song cycle written in 1970 and published
in 2000.
Vocal presentation: “Gospel Blues,” from Lyric Suite
Robert L. Morris, composer ; Calesta “Callie” Day, soprano
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
35
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Roland Marvin Carter (b. 4 May 1942, Chattanooga, Tennessee)
studied music at Hampton University, New York University, the
Catholic University of America and the Aspen Choral Institute. His
career as an educator includes his current professorial position at
the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. He has focused on the
preservation of the Negro spiritual both as a composer of choral and
solo works and as an accompanist and choral director. He served a
six-year term as president of the National Association of Negro
Musicians.
Carter, along with composers Wendell Whalum and Betty Jackson
King, each contributed two Spiritual settings to God Is a God. Carter
stated that there is no clear order to the placement of the pieces,
leaving their organization to the performer’s discretion.
Video presentation: “Is There Anybody Who Loves My Jesus”
Roland Carter, composer ; Benjamin Matthews, baritone
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
36
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Uzee Brown, Jr. (b. 14 November, 1942, Cowpens, South Carolina)
studied at Morehouse College, received his master’s degree in
composition from Bowling Green State University, with a second
master’s and his doctoral degree in performance at the University of
Michigan. Brown developed a career as an operatic and concert
vocalist, researcher and educator, serving as chair of the Music
Department at Morehouse. He was also president of the National
Association of Negro Musicians.
“Aint A That Good News” is part of Brown’s first eight-Spirituals
collection, O Redeemed!, which was published in 1994 and recorded on
the CD, Great Day! Spirituals, in 2005. In this video, Brown discussed
his approach to composing this setting, especially why the piano part
often functions as “the chorus.”
Video presentation: “Ain’t A That Good News”
Uzee Brown, Jr., composer ; Uzee Brown, Jr. baritone
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
37
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Charles Lloyd, Jr. (b. 22 September 1948, Toledo, Ohio). Lloyd received his Bachelor
of Science in music education from Norfolk State University and Master of Music from
the University of Michigan. Since he was first exposed to Spirituals during his studies
at Norfolk State–with further study of Spirituals encouraged by Michigan’s voice
department chair, Willis Patterson, Lloyd has composed songs for solo voice and for
chorus as well as operatic and instrumental works. He joined the music faculty at the
Southern University in Baton Rouge and has been active as a piano accompanist.
A number of Lloyd’s works have been recorded but not credited to the composer.
However, he is listed as composer for this setting of “Were You There,” which was
published as part of The Spiritual Art Song Collection in 2000. In a 2010 interview,
Lloyd talked about his approach to composing Spirituals: “I did not take composition
classes or anything like that; my understanding was based on the spirituals. Those
medieval modes, church modes tend to slip into the spirituals. You know spirituals
make use of the Dorian mode, and sometimes the Lydian and Mixolydian modes… and
the blues tones, flatted fifth, and when you mess around with the thirds, and
sevenths… and I think that has become my style.”
Video presentation: “Were You There”
Charles Lloyd, Jr., composer ; Laura English-Robinson, soprano
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
38
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Evelyn Simpson-Curenton (b. 1953, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania) was born into a professional musical family.
After beginning her piano studies at an early age, she
attended Temple University, completing her undergraduate
degree in music education and voice. She has been active as
an educator, pianist, organist, and composer of music for a
variety of music entities.
Simpson-Curenton was a commissioned participant in the
Negro Spirituals concert, featuring sopranos Kathleen Battle
and Jessye Norman, at Carnegie Hall. Simpson-Curenton’s
“Oh, Glory,” was set for soprano (Battle), flute and harp.
Video presentation: “Oh, Glory!” Evelyn Simpson-Curenton, composer ; Kathleen Battle,
soprano
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
39
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Mark Hayes (b. 28 March 1953, Ladysmith, Wisconsin) holds a
Bachelor of Music degree in piano performance from Baylor
University. While his professional musical career has focused on
choral composition and conducting, as well as piano concertizing,
Hayes has composed and published works for various instrumental
forces and for solo voices. His works reflect influences from sacred
and secular musical styles, from Gospel and Jazz to Folk and
Classical.
“Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho” is included in the 10 Spirituals
for Solo Voice: For Concerts, Contests, Recitals, and Worship,
which is part of a multi-volume collection of songs by Hayes.
Video presentation: “Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho” Mark Hayes, composer ; Indra Thomas,
soprano
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
40
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Moses George Hogan (b. 13 March 1957, New Orleans,
Louisiana; d. 11 February 2003, New Orleans, Louisiana)
Hogan graduated from the New Orleans Center for Creative
Arts and the Oberlin Conservatory of Music. Known first as
a concert pianist, Hogan began organizing choral groups
and composing for chorus as well as for solo voice. He was
editor of the collection, Oxford Book of Spirituals.
Hogan’s solo vocal setting of “Walk Together Children” was
published in 2000 as part of the Deep River Collection,
which was set for both high and low voices.
Video presentation: “Walk Together, Children”
Moses Hogan, composer ; Derek Lee Ragin, countertenor
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
41
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Victor Kris Labenske (b. 26 December 1963, Jonesboro,
Arkansas), is a pianist, educator, and composer who studied
piano performance at Point Loma Nazarene University (BA),
University of Missouri-Kansas City (MM) and the University of
Southern California (DMA). In addition to serving on the
music faculty at Point Nazarene for more than 30 years, he
is credited as a composer of over 500 works for piano and
other instrumental or vocal forces.
Labenske published Concert Hall Spirituals: Settings for
Piano and Voice, his setting of ten Spirituals, including “Give
Me Jesus,” in 1999.
Video presentation: “Give Me Jesus”
Victor Labenske, composer and piano ; John Craig Johnson, baritone
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
42
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Damien LeChateau Sneed (b. 30 January 1977, Augusta, Georgia) is a multi-
faceted musician whose abilities have expressed themselves since he began piano
study at age three. He received his bachelor’s in piano performance from Howard
University, master’s in music technology from New York University, with additional
study at Peabody Conservatory and the Manhattan School of Music. He has served
as accompanist for numerous professional Classical and Jazz performers as well as
performing as a piano soloist. In addition to his roles as educator, music producer,
and choral director, he has composed, arranged and orchestrated music for a
variety of musical forces.
Sneed collaborated with tenor Lawrence Brownlee on Spiritual Sketches, a
recording of Sneed’s Spirituals. The 8 July 2013 review in Opera Today stated:
“Mr. Sneed’s arrangements are superb, his consummate musicality apparent in the
both the idiomatic power and adroitness of harmonic progressions and his sense
of drama evident in his frequent but unerringly effective demands upon Mr.
Brownlee’s upper register.”
Video presentation: “Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child”
Damien Sneed, composer and piano ; Lawrence Brownlee, tenor
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
43
Part Three: The Now Generation, From
Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo
Shawn Ehireime Okpebholo (b. 28 March 1981, Lexington, Kentucky) completed his
undergraduate studies in composition and music history from Asbury College, and he
earned his master’s and doctoral degrees in composition and theory from the
University of Cincinnati, College-Conservatory of Music. In addition to his burgeoning
career as a composer of vocal and instrumental music, he currently teaches music
composition and theory at Wheaton College Conservatory of Music.
Okpebholo set “Ev’ry Time I Feel the Spirit” as part of his collection, Steal Away. In
the program notes of CD recording of this collection, he stated, “My compositional
process involved hours of engaging the texts and reflecting on the honest lyrics that
are often multidimensional and complex, yet simply expressed, humbly, in slave
vernacular. The messages are discerning and personal. They evoke the hard truths of
slavery in such a meaningful and even beautiful way: the inhumanity, the tragedy,
and the scars, which still in many ways remain unhealed on the back of America. Yet
somehow, despite hard truths and devastating context, the most compelling features
of these songs may be the elements of hope that are ubiquitous throughout their
texts.”
Video presentation: “Ev’ry Time I Feel the Spirit” Shawn Okpebholo, composer ; Will Liverman,
tenor
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
44
Discography & Scores Bibliography
Discography
Most of the videos presented in this document were created by Randye Jones and are posted with numerous others on her
Divaslair YouTube page. The audio recordings used for those videos and other videos are listed below, with links to
additional information about the tracks:
• Albert, Donnie Ray. Donnie Ray Albert in Recital Cinnabar Records CNB1402, 2003, compact disc.
• Alda, Frances. “Deep River.” Victor B-19121, 1917, 10-in.
• Anderson, Marian. Spirituals. VAI Audio VAIA 1168, 1998, compact disc.
• Arroyo, Martina. Spirituals. Centaur Records, CRC 2060, compact disc.
• Battle, Kathleen. Spirituals in Concert. Deutsche Grammophon 429 790-2, 1991, compact disc.
• Bledsoe, Jules. Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?. Pearl Gemm CD 9484, 1991, compact disc.
• Brice, Carol. The Christmas Album. Sony Classical MHK 63309, 1997, compact disc.
• Brown, Jr., Uzee. Great Day!. [Private label], 2005, compact disc.
• Brownlee, Lawrence. Spiritual Sketches. LeChateau Earl Records, 2013, compact disc.
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
45
Discography & Scores Bibliography
Discography (cont.)
• Day, Calesta. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot. American Spiritual Ensemble, 2011, compact disc.
• Dillard, Pamela. Watch and Pray. Koch International Classics 3-7247-2H1, 1994, compact disc.
• Dobbs, Mattiwilda. Tva Sidor Av Mattiwilda Dobbs Och Gotthard Arner. Proprius 25 04-02-0004, 19–, long-playing disc.
• Duncan, Todd. Todd Duncan Sings Spirituals. Royale EP181, 195-, 45 rpm disc.
• English-Robinson, Laura. Let It Shine. ACA Digital Recording CM20020, 1994, compact disc.
• Hayes, Roland. Good News: Vintage Negro Spirituals. Living Era AJA 5622, 2006, compact disc.
• Heard, Richard. My Dream: Art Songs and Spirituals. Percentage Records/Sound of Art Recordings CD147597, 2012,
compact disc.
• Hendricks, Barbara. Spirituals. EMI Classics 0946 346641 2 7, 2005, compact disc.
• Holland, Charles. My Lord What a Mornin’. Musical Heritage Society MHS 512250K, 1988, compact disc.
• Honeysucker, Robert. Watch and Pray: Spirituals and Art Songs by African-American Women Composers. Koch
International Classics 3-7247-2H1, 1994, compact disc.
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
46
Discography & Scores Bibliography
Discography (cont.)
• Liverman, Will. Steal Away. Yellow Einstein, 2014, compact disc.
• Matthews, Benjamin. A Balm in Gilead. Ebony Classic Recordings ECR 0001, 2000, compact disc.
• Matthews, Inez. Inez Matthews Sings Spirituals. Essential Media Group, 2011, compact disc.
• Maynor, Dorothy. Dorothy Maynor in Concert at Library of Congress. Library of Congress, Music Division LCM 2141, 2007,
compact disc.
• Maynor, Kevin. Songs of America from Another American. Guild GMCD 7247, 2002, compact disc.
• McFerrin, Robert. Deep River and Other Classic Negro Spirituals. Washington Records WLP 466, 1959, long-playing disc.
• Moses, Oral. Amen! African-American Composers of the 20th Century. Albany Records TROY459, 2001, compact disc.
• Norman, Jessye. Spirituals. Philips 400 019-2, 1981, compact disc.
• Overman, Kenneth. Been in de Storm so Long (Songs My Fathers Taught Me). American Spiritual Ensemble, 2012,
compact disc.
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
47
Discography & Scores Bibliography
Discography (cont.)
• Payne, John C. Black Europe: Sounds & Images of Black People in Europe Pre-1927. Bear Family
Productions BCD 16095, 2013, compact disc.
• Price, Leontyne. Leontyne Price reDiscovered. BMG Classics 09026-68157-2, 1996, compact disc.
• Quivar, Florence. Ride on King Jesus: African-American Spirituals. EMI Classics 9 67138 2, 2010, compact
disc.
• Ragin, Derek Lee. Negro Spirituals. Virgin Classics 0946 363305 2 5, 2006, compact disc.
• Robeson, Paul. The EMI Sessions 1928-1939 EMI Classics 2 15586 2, 1998, compact disc.
• Rucker, Mark. Mark Rucker sings Lena McLin: songs for voice & piano. Kjos Music Press KCD8, 2002,
compact disc.
• Shirley, George. The New Negro Spiritual W. C. Patterson, 2002, Score with compact disc.
• Taylor, Darryl. How Sweet the Sound. Albany TROY1244, 2011, compact disc.
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
48
Discography & Scores Bibliography
Discography (cont.)
• Thomas, Indra. Great Day! Indra Thomas Sings Spirituals. Delos DE 3427, 2012, compact disc.
• Toppin, Louise. Ah! Love, But a Day. Albany Records/Videmus TROY 385, 2000, compact disc.
• Verrett, Shirley. Gospels & Spirituals Gold Collection. Retro R2CD 40-26, 1995, compact disc.
• Wade, Jr., Ray. Sence You Went Away. Albany Records TROY 388, 1998, compact disc.
Music Score Bibliography
Entries link to sites where the score is available for purchase, either as part of a collection or as sheet music.
• Boatner, Edward. “City Called Heaven.” In The Story of the Spirituals. Melville, NY: Belwin Mills, 1973.
• Bonds, Margaret. “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand.” In In His Hand: Seven Spirituals Arranged by
Margaret Bonds. [King of Prussia]: Theodore Presser, 2010.
• Brown, Lawrence. “Dere’s a Man Goin’ Roun’ Takin’ Names.” In Negro Folk Songs. New York: Associated
Music Publishers, 1930.
• Brown, Jr., Uzee. “Aint A That Good News.” In O Redeemed!. Dayton, OH: R. Dean Pub., 1994.
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
49
Discography & Scores Bibliography
Music Score Bibliography (cont.)
• Burleigh, Harry Thacker. “Deep River.” In The Spirituals of Harry T. Burleigh (High voice) (Low voice). Melville,
N.Y.: Belwin-Mills, 1984.
• Carter, John. “Toccata.” In Cantata for High Voice and Piano Reduction. New York: Southern Music, 1964.
• Carter, Roland. “Is There Anybody Who Loves My Jesus.” Chattanooga, TN: Mar-Vel.
• Dett, Robert Nathaniel. “I’m Goin’ to tell God All My Troubles.”
• Fisher, William Arms. “Deep River.” In Seventy Negro Spirituals For High Voice. Boston, Oliver Ditson Co.; New
York, C.H. Ditson & Co., 1926.
• Forrest, Hamilton. “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand.” New York: Mills Music, 1951.
• Hairston, Jacqueline. “Guide My Feet.” In New Negro Spiritual, compiled by Willis Patterson. [Place of publication
not identified] : [W.C. Patterson], 2002.
• Hayes, Mark. “Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho.” In 10 Spirituals for Solo Voice: For Concerts, Contests, Recitals,
and Worship (Medium High voice) (Medium Low voice). Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Pub., 1998.
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
50
Discography & Scores Bibliography
Music Score Bibliography (cont.)
• Hayes, Roland. “Hear de Lambs a-Cryin’” from The Life of Christ. In My Favorite Spirituals: 30 Songs for Voice and Piano.
Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 2001.
• Hogan, Moses. “Walk Together, Children.” In The Deep River Collection (High voice) (Low voice). Milwaukee, WI: Hal
Leonard, 2000.
• Johnson, Hall. “Witness.” In The Hall Johnson Collection. New York: Carl Fischer, 2003.
• Jackson King, Betty. “Calvary.” In Art Songs and Spirituals by African-American Women Composers, compiled by Vivian
Taylor. Mount Airy, PA: Hildegard Publishing, 2000.
• Johnson, John Rosamond & James Weldon Johnson. “All God’s Chillin.” In The Books of the American Negro Spirituals. New
York: DaCapo, 2000?
• Kerr, Jr., Thomas. “Great Day.” In New Negro Spiritual, compiled by Willis Patterson. [Place of publication not identified] :
[W.C. Patterson], 2002.
• Lawrence, William. “Let Us Break Bread Together on Our Knees.” Boston: McLaughlin & Reilly, 1945.
• Lloyd, Jr., Charles. “Were You There.” In The Spiritual Art Song Collection. Miami, FL: Warner Bros. Publications, 2000.
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
51
Discography & Scores Bibliography
Music Score Bibliography (cont.)
• MacGimsey, Robert. “Sweet Little Jesus Boy,” (Medium voice) (Low voice). New York: C. Fischer, 1934.
• McLin, Lena. “Glory, Glory, Hallelujah.” In Songs for Voice And Piano. San Diego, CA: Kjos Music Press, 2002.
• Moore, Undine Smith. “Is There Anybody Here Who Loves My Jesus.” In Art Songs and Spirituals by African-American Women
Composers, compiled by Vivian Taylor. Mount Airy, PA: Hildegard Publishing, 2000.
• Morris, Robert L. “Gospel Blues.” In Lyric Suite: A Collection of Spirituals in Gospel Style. Dayton, Ohio: Roger Dean Pub.,
2000.
• Okepebholo, Shawn. “Ev’ry Time I Feel the Spirit.” In Steal Away.
• Owens, Robert. “Po’ Mourner’s Got a Home at Las.’” In Six Negro Spirituals for Bass (Baritone) and Piano. Salzgitter:
Ostinato-Musikverlag, 2005.
• Payne, John C. “Standin’ in de Need o’ Prayer.” In Negro Spirituals Arranged by John Payne: For Low Voice. New York: G.
Schirmer, 1942.
• Perkinson, Coleridge-Taylor. “O Freedom.” In New Negro Spiritual, compiled by Willis Patterson. [Place of publication not
identified] : [W.C. Patterson], 2002.
• Perry, Julia. “I’m a Poor Little Orphan in This World!” In Art Songs and Spirituals by African-American Women Composers,
compiled by Vivian Taylor. Mount Airy, PA: Hildegard Publishing, 2000.
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
52
Discography & Scores Bibliography
Music Score Bibliography (cont.)
• Price, Florence. “Go Down Moses.” In 44 Art Songs and Spirituals by Florence B. Price for Medium/High Voice
and Piano. Fayetteville, AR: Clarnan Editions, 2015.
• Simpson-Curenton, Evelyn. “Oh, Glory.”
• Smith, Hale. “I Want to Die Easy.” In New Negro Spiritual, compiled by Willis Patterson. [Place of publication
not identified] : [W.C. Patterson], 2002.
• Sneed, Damien. “Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child.” In Spiritual Sketches. [Place of publication not
identified] : Lechateau Arts Publ., 2013.
• Still, William Grant. “Here’s One.” Bryn Mawr, Pa.: J. Church, 1996.
• Whalum, Wendell. “God Is a God.” Chattanooga, TN: Mar-Vel.
• White, Clarence Cameron. “Goin’ to Shout All over God’s Heaven.” In Forty Negro Spirituals: Compiled and
Arranged for Solo Voice. Philadelphia: T. Presser, 1927.
• Work, John W. “This Little Light o’ Mine.” New York: Galaxy Music, 1945.
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
53
Contact Information
Presentation created from A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice by
Randye Jones, accessed at http://spirituals-database.com/a-century-of-
negro-spirituals-for-solo-voice-the-pioneers
Contact:
Randye Jones, ansdiscog@spirituals-database.com
641-821-0188
PO Box 281, Grinnell, IA USA 50112
A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018
54

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A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice

  • 1. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice Created by Randye Jones June, 2018
  • 2. Introduction 2016 marked the 100th anniversary of Harry T. Burleigh‘s publication of “Deep River,” which is considered to be the first time a Negro Spiritual was used as source material for an art song. “Deep River” inspired singers of “Classical” music to integrate Spirituals into their concert repertoire and composers to explore how their own vocal musical expressions might be enriched by inclusion of the Spiritual in their works. Who are some of the other composers and performers who have delved into the rich fount of the Negro Spiritual to create the vast range of musical expressions that make up the concert Spiritual? A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 2
  • 3. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson These composers were born in the generation immediately following the end of the American Civil War in 1865. They were often the children of ex-slaves or they otherwise were exposed to the Negro Spiritual directly from the living sources of these songs. They continued the process, begun by the Fisk Jubilee Singers, of sharing this soul- stirring, original American music across the United States and around the world. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 3
  • 4. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson Harry (Henry) Thacker Burleigh (b. Erie, Pennsylvania, 2 December 1866; d. 12 September 1949, Stamford, Connecticut). Burleigh attended the National Conservatory of Music, where he introduced the plantation songs he had learned from his grandfather to composer Antonin Dvořák. During his professional career, Burleigh was a baritone vocalist, music editor, lecturer, and a charter member of ASCAP. His compositions included between 200-300 songs. In 1916, Burleigh wrote the song, “Deep River,” for voice and piano. By that point in his career, he had written a few vocal and instrumental works based on the plantation melodies he had learned as a child. However, his setting of “Deep River” is considered to be the first work of its kind to be written in art song form specifically for performance by a trained singer. Video performance: “Deep River” Harry T. Burleigh, composer ; Robert McFerrin, baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 4
  • 5. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson William Arms Fisher (b. 27 April 1861, San Francisco, California; d. 18 December, 1948, Brookline, Massachusetts). After rejecting a career in business, Fisher studied with composer Antonin Dvořák at the National Conservatory of Music. He edited the song collection, Sixty Irish Songs (1915) and wrote Notes on Music in Old Boston (1918), which was expanded 15 years later into One Hundred and Fifty Years of Music Publishing in the United States. Fisher has also been credited for using the Largo movement of Dvořák’s Symphony from the New World to write the words and music of the song, “Goin’ Home” (1922). Fisher compiled a setting of Spirituals, which was published in 1926. This video recording is of one of Fisher’s Seventy Negro Spirituals. Video performance: “Deep River,” William Arms Fisher, composer ; Frances Alda, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 5
  • 6. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson John C. Payne (b. 26 June 1872, Montgomery, Alabama; d. Cornwall, England, 7 October 1952). Payne began his musical career performing with various professional quartets. The baritone, composer, choral director and actor emigrated to England, where his home quickly became “the place to be” for African American musicians–including Marian Anderson, Paul Robeson, Ethel Waters, and Alberta Hunter–who had come to Europe to establish professional careers. In the 1920’s, Payne recorded his own settings of Negro Spirituals, along with those by H. T. Burleigh, with pianist Lawrence Brown. He set five Spiritual art songs that were published by G. Schirmer in 1942. Video performance: “Standin’ in de Need o’ Prayer” John C. Payne, composer ; John C. Payne, baritone ; Lawrence Brown, tenor and piano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 6
  • 7. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson John Rosamond Johnson (b. Jacksonville, Florida, 11 August 1873; d. New York, New York, 11 November 1954). Johnson, a composer, singer, educator and conductor, studied voice and piano at the New England Conservatory. He partnered with his brother, James Weldon Johnson, to become successful writers and performers in Vaudeville and musical theater. The pair also collaborated on the creation of the anthem, “Lift Every Voice and Sing.” The Johnson Brothers also collaborated on two of J. Rosamond Johnson’s African American music anthologies, The Book of American Negro Spirituals, first published in 1925, and The Second Book of Negro Spirituals, published the following year. The video is a recording of one of those songs. Video performance: “All God’s Chillin” J. Rosamond Johnson, composer Todd Duncan, baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 7
  • 8. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson Hugo Frey (b. 26 August 1873, Chicago, Illinois; d. 13 February 1952, New York, New York). Frey studied music at the Chicago Conservatory. He was a professional violist and pianist as well as a dance orchestra conductor and music arranger for stage, sound recordings and film. He also edited simplified versions of popular music of the era and was a charter member of ASCAP. Like numerous composers of the time, Frey drew upon Negro Spirituals to write several songs for voice and piano. His “A Collection of 25 Selected Famous Negro Spirituals” was published by Robbins-Engel in 1924. Video performance: “Deep River” Hugo Frey, composer ; Odekhiren Amaize, bass-baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 8
  • 9. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson Clarence Cameron White (b. 10 August 1880, Clarksville, Tennessee; d. 30 June 1960, New York, New York). White was a violinist, composer, and educator who began his violin studies at the age of 8–including coaching with violinist Will Marion Cook, continuing his musical study at Oberlin Conservatory and in London with teachers such as composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor. White composed for both vocal and instrumental forces, continued to perform as a violinist, and served on the faculties at West Virginia State College and Hampton Institute. He was also a charter member of the National Association of Negro Musicians. “Goin’ to Shout All over God’s Heaven” was published as part of a collection of Spirituals for solo voice and piano in 1927. In the preface of the collection, White suggests that “… the Negro dialect, as sung, should not be an exaggeration of the written form of the words, whose spelling is only an approximation to the actual sound in genuine Negro dialect; and the the element of syncopation shall not lose its nature as a secondary offshoot of the rhythm of words and syllables, and be mispresented as mere musical surprise.” Video performance: “Goin’ to Shout All over God’s Heaven” Clarence Cameron White, composer ; Jules Bledsoe, baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 9
  • 10. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson Robert Nathaniel Dett (b. Drummondsville, Ontario, Canada, 11 October 1882; d. Battle Creek, Michigan, 2 October 1943). Dett began piano study as a youth. He attended the Lockport Conservatory then studied composition and piano at the Oberlin College Conservatory, becoming the first person of African descent to receive a bachelor’s degree there. He began touring as a concert pianist and publishing music. He taught at Lane College in Tennessee, Lincoln Institute in Missouri, Hampton Institute in Virginia and Bennett College in North Carolina. His piano and choral music during those years were written to suit his teaching needs. During the summers, he studied at several other prestigious schools in the U.S. and Europe before earning his Master of Music degree from the Eastman School of Music. A choral director and educator, Dett also composed approximately 100 works for piano, chorus, and solo voice. His 1940 setting of the Spiritual, “I’m Goin’ to Tell God All My Troubles” was one of several he wrote especially for his protege, soprano Dorothy Maynor. Video performance: “I’m Goin’ To Tell God All My Troubles” R. Nathaniel Dett, composer Dorothy Maynor, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 10
  • 11. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson Florence Beatrice Smith Price (b. 9 April 1888, Little Rock, Arkansas; d. 3 June 1953, Chicago, Illinois). Music was an important part of Price’s life from an early age, as evidenced by her public performance at the age of four. She was a music teacher and composer, especially of instrumental works. One highlight in Price’s career was Marian Anderson‘s performance of the composer’s concert Spiritual, “My Soul’s Been Anchored in the Lord,” during Anderson’s 1939 Lincoln Memorial concert. That Spiritual has become a stable for not only professional singers, but for numerous voice students exploring the Spirituals repertoire. As with many of Price’s compositions, she drew upon her exposure to Negro folk music for her setting of the Spiritual, “Go Down Moses.” Video performance: “Go Down Moses” Florence Price, composer ; Richard Heard, tenor A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 11
  • 12. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson Roland Hayes (b. 3 June 1887, Curryville, Georgia; d. Boston, Massachusetts, 1 January 1977) was a pioneer as a commercially successful classical musician during a period when African Americans found it nearly impossible to accomplish this feat. The tenor established an international career, becoming one of the highest paid musicians in the first third of the 20th century. He mentored singers such as Marian Anderson, Paul Robeson, Leontyne Price, Dorothy Maynor, Edward Boatner and William Warfield. Hayes also composed numerous spiritual art songs. The Life of Christ is a 10-song cycle published as part of a collection of spirituals, My Favorite Spirituals: 30 Songs for Voice and Piano, in 1948. Video Performance: “Hear de Lambs a-Cryin'” from The Life of Christ Roland Hayes, composer ; Charles Holland, tenor A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 12
  • 13. Part One: The Pioneers, From H. T. Burleigh to Hall Johnson Francis Hall Johnson (b. Athens, Georgia, 12 March 1888; d. 30 April 1970, in New York, New York) began his musical professional career as a violinist, but in time, his interest turned to choral music. Johnson formed the Hall Johnson Negro Choir, which performed with great success in concert, on the radio, and in numerous films. He was known not only for his compositions, but for the articles he authored that discussed the history of the Spiritual and their performance practice. In the preface of The Hall Johnson Collection, Johnson historian Eugene Thamson Simpson wrote: “Save for the original art songs, all are unabashed in their use of Negro dialect. For a performance which is both rewarding to the singer and convincing to the audience, the texts should be delivered smoothly and without exaggeration, the beat should be steady and the rhythms easy and accurate.” Video performance: “Witness” Hall Johnson, composer ; Inez Matthews, mezzo-soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 13
  • 14. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin These composers, born from the last decade of the 19th Century to the 1920s, were witnesses to or impacted by the effects of Jim Crow Laws, the Great War, the Harlem Renaissance, and World War II. Their compositional treatments of the Negro Spiritual not only reflected Neo- Romanticism, but the influences of popular music, such as Jazz and Blues, of the era. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 14
  • 15. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Lawrence Benjamin Brown (b. 28 August, 1893; d. 25 December, 1972, New York, New York) began studying piano as a youth and quickly demonstrated a gift for playing the instrument. He continued his studies first in Boston, then to London, where he attended Trinity College and developed skills as both a pianist and composer. He became accompanist for tenor Roland Hayes, joining him for a command performance for the king of England in 1921. Brown returned to the United State in 1925 in order to further develop his knowledge of Negro Spirituals, which led to composing several concert settings for solo voice and piano. Baritone Paul Robeson introduced Brown’s songs in what is believed to be the first all-Spirituals recital in 1925. Brown toured internationally and recorded with Robeson in a collaboration that lasted until 1968. “Dere’s a Man Goin’ Roun’ Takin’ Names” was published in 1930 in a five-song collection for voice and piano by Schott. Video performance: “Dere’s a Man Goin’ Roun’ Takin’ Names” Lawrence Brown, composer ; Paul Robeson, bass-baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 15
  • 16. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin William Grant Still (b. 11 May 1895, Woodville, Mississippi; d. 3 December 1978, Los Angeles, California), known as the “Dean of Black Music,” studied at Wilberforce University and Oberlin College and received a Guggenheim Fellowship. His Afro-American Symphony was the first by an African American composer to be performed by a major orchestra. Still wrote for the operatic stage and for television, as well as vocal and instrumental works for the concert stage. Still set few spirituals for solo vocal concert performance. He preferred, instead, to use blues elements for his inspiration. However, his setting of “Here’s One” has been recorded by several vocalists. Video performance: “Here’s One” William Grant Still, composer ; Florence Quivar, mezzo-soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 16
  • 17. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin William Lawrence (b. Charleston, South Carolina, 20 September, 1895; d. 17 March 1981, New York, New York) The son of a church organist, Lawrence started piano lessons as a child. He studied piano, voice and harmony variously at Avery Normal Institute, Charleston, the New England Conservatory, Boston, Boston University, as well as in Paris. He toured extensively, both as accompanist for tenor Roland Hayes and as part of the Hayes Trio. He accepted a teaching position at what is now South Carolina State in Orangeburg. He moved to New York, where he conducted a music studio and worked actively as an accompanist. Lawrence used one of the few instances of Communion-themed Negro Spirituals for his setting of “Let Us Break Bread Together on Our Knees.” The song was published in 1945 and was a favorite of contralto Marian Anderson. Video performance: “Let Us Break Bread Together on Our Knees” William Lawrence, composer ; Marian Anderson, contralto A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 17
  • 18. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Robert Hunter MacGimsey (b. Pineville, Louisiana, 7 September, 1898; d. 13 March 1979, Phoenix, Arizona) received his musical training at Juilliard. After a brief career as a lawyer, he became a professional whistler, performing on the radio and in recordings. He also pursued a career as a singer and composer. His songs reflected his southern roots, especially the Negro folk songs he heard throughout his lifetime. MacGimsey’s “Sweet Little Jesus Boy” was an original song styled on Negro Spirituals and was published in 1934. In a compilation of his transcriptions, it was stated that, “When Robert transcribed an authentic spiritual, or composed a song which he had written in this context, the dialect was the primary rendition with the ‘white man’s’ vocabulary written below it; this was intended only as an interpretation Video performance: “Sweet Little Jesus Boy” Robert MacGimsey, composer ; Carol Brice, contralto A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 18
  • 19. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Edward Hammond Boatner (b. 13 November 1898, New Orleans, Louisiana; d. New York, New York, 16 June 1981) Boatner was exposed to Negro folksongs while traveling from church to church with his father, a preacher. He studied at Western University, Quindaro, Kansas, the Boston Conservatory, and the Chicago Musical College, where he earned his bachelor of music. R. Nathaniel Dett gave him coaching and went with him on a joint tour of New England. He taught at Samuel Huston College and Wiley College in Texas, and he served as director of music for the National Baptist Convention. Boatner moved to New York where, in addition to becoming a successful singer and educator, he became a composer of Spirituals. Boatner’s works included over 200 Spirituals for solo voice and piano. Several were premiered by such singers as H. T. Burleigh, Roland Hayes, and Marian Anderson. A compilation of his Spirituals was published in 1985. Video performance: “City Called Heaven” Edward Boatner, composer ; Mattiwilda Dobbs, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 19
  • 20. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Hamilton Forrest (b. 8 January 1901, Chicago, Illinois; d. 26 December 1963, London, England) completed his bachelor’s and master’s musical studies at the American Conservatory of Music, Chicago. During his extensive travels, he researched and collected folk music in Kentucky before establishing himself in England. Forrest’s setting of “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand” was published in 1951. He dedicated the Spiritual to contralto Marian Anderson, who regularly programmed the song in her recitals. Anderson was noted as stating that Forrest “provided a piano part that fits the words like a glove.” Video Performance: “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand” Hamilton Forrest, composer ; Martina Arroyo, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 20
  • 21. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin John Wesley Work III (b. 15 July 1901, Tullahoma, Tennessee; d. 17 May 1967, Nashville, Tennessee) was born into a musical family, where his mother was a trained singer, his father was a music professor at Fisk, and his paternal grandfather was a church choral director who had worked with some of the original members of the Fisk Jubilee Singers. Unsurprisingly, his musical studies started at an early age, leading to undergraduate study at Fisk, additional study at the Institute of Musical Art (later renamed Julliard), a master’s degree from Columbia, a second bachelor’s from Yale, and an honorary doctorate from Fisk. In addition to his music teaching and administrative duties at Fisk, he extensively wrote scholarly articles and participated in a major field study of Mississippi Delta folk songs for the Library of Congress. As a composer, Work wrote for a variety of solo and ensemble forces, but he focused on choral and solo vocal music. He composed “This Little Light o’ Mine” for solo voice, and he published American Negro Songs and Spirituals: a Comprehensive Collection of 230 Folk Songs, Religious and Secular in 1940. Video performance: “This Little Light o’ Mine” John Wesley Work III, composer ; Kevin Maynor, bass A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 21
  • 22. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Undine Smith Moore (b. Jarrett, Virginia, 25 August 1904; d. Petersburg, Virginia, 6 February 1989) Smith Moore, the granddaughter of former slaves, began studying piano as a child. She completed her undergraduate studies at Fisk and received her master’s degree from Columbia University Teachers College, with additional study at Julliard, Manhattan School of Music and Eastman. She taught first in the Goldsboro, North Carolina, public school system and a 45-year tenure at Virginia State College. She shared her interest in the music of Black America through workshops and lectures across the United States. While Smith Moore primarily composed choral works, including the Pulitzer Prize-nominated Scenes from the Life of a Martyr, she also wrote a number of chamber and orchestral works, as well as solo works for voice and for various solo instruments. Video performance: “Is There Anybody Here Who Loves My Jesus” Undine Smith Moore, composer ; Pamela Dillard, mezzo-soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 22
  • 23. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Margaret Jeanette Allison Bonds (b. 3 March 1913, Chicago, Illinois; d. 26 April 1972, Los Angeles, California) received her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in music from Northwestern University, with additional study at the Juilliard School. The pianist was the first African American to perform with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. An educator and composer, Bonds wrote works for the theater, ballet, orchestra, and piano, but the majority were art and popular songs. Bonds composed concert Spirituals such as her cycle, Five Creek- Freedmen Spirituals. Her best known Spiritual, however, is her setting of “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand”, commissioned by Leontyne Price in 1963. Video performance: “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand” Margaret Bonds, composer ; Leontyne Price, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 23
  • 24. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Thomas Henderson Kerr, Jr. (b. Baltimore, Maryland, 3 January 1915; d. Washington, DC, 26 August 1988) Kerr attended the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, New York, where he received the Bachelor of Music degree. He joined the faculty at Howard University, Washington, DC, in 1943 and served for 35 years as a piano and composition instructor and organist. He also toured extensively as a concert pianist. Kerr composed primarily for the organ; however, he also wrote piano, choral, and solo vocal works, including the Negro Spiritual, “Great Day.” Video performance: “Great Day” Thomas Kerr, Jr., composer ; Jessye Norman, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 24
  • 25. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Julia Amanda Perry (Born, 25 March 1924, Lexington, Kentucky; died, Akron, Ohio, 24 April 1979). Born into a musical family, Perry moved to Akron, where she studied music in the public school and then at Akron University, Westminister Choir College. She continued her studies at Julliard, Berkshire Music Center, and composition and orchestral conducting in Europe. Perry taught at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University and at Atlanta University. Perry twice earned the Guggenheim Fellowship; she was also recipient of a Boulanger Grand Prix and an award from the National Institute of Arts and Letters. Perry gained international acclaim for her Stabat Mater for contralto and string orchestra. Her compositions included over 50 works for a variety of solo instruments and large and small ensembles, as well as solo vocal and choral works. Video presentation: “I’m a poor little orphan in this world!” Julia Perry, composer ; Shirley Verrett, mezzo-soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 25
  • 26. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Hale Smith (b. Cleveland, Ohio, 29 June 1925; d. 24 November 2009, Freeport, Long Island, New York) Smith received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in music from the Cleveland Institute of Music. After moving to New York in 1958, professional career included serving as an editor and music choral consultant for various music publishing houses and teaching at Long Island University and the University of Connecticut, Storrs. He has composed numerous orchestral and chamber works, as well as several choral and solo vocal pieces. Smith classified his writing style as working “with a few, key motivic ideas.” He used both European techniques and Black jazz and folk music influences in his writing. His setting of “This Little Light of Mine” was composed in 1986 and published by his Halsco publishing company. Video presentation: “I Want to Die Easy” Hale Smith, composer ; Donnie Ray Albert, baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 26
  • 27. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Robert Lee Owens (b. 4 February 1925, Dennison, Texas; d. 5 January, 2017, Munich, Germany) began his musical training at an early age, first in piano and, by high school, music theory and composition. As a pianist, educator and composer, he became acquainted with poet Langston Hughes, who became one of several 19th- and 20th-century poets whose texts Owens used in his compositions. He emigrated to Germany, where he sought professional musical opportunities he believed he would not find in the United States. Over his career, Owens used his exposure to Western European and American stylistic practices to create his own distinctive compositional approach. “Po’ Mourner’s Got a Home at Las'” was the third of six Spirituals Owens selected for bass (baritone) and piano. The cycle, Six Negro Spirituals for Bass (Baritone) and Piano, was published in 2005. Video presentation: “Po’ Mourner’s Got a Home at Las'” Robert Owens, composer ; Oral Moses, bass-baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 27
  • 28. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Betty Lou Jackson King (b. 17 February 1928, Chicago, Illinois; d. Wildwood, New Jersey, 1 June 1994). After completing her education in music composition, she developed a career as an educator, church musician, lecturer, choral director, composer, and music publisher. Jackson King, along with composers Roland Carter and Wendell Whalum, each contributed two spiritual settings to God Is a God. Carter stated that there is no clear order to the placement of the pieces, leaving their organization to the performer’s discretion. “Calvary” was dedicated to baritone William Warfield and is described as depicting, “… the horrors of the crucifixion with dissonant harmonies in the piano accompaniment as the introduction that returns with each voice. In the bass you hear the hammering and the death knell that becomes more insistent with each verse. This is best suited for a low voice and requires dramatic intensity.” Video presentation: “Calvary” Betty Jackson King, composer ; Robert Honeysucker, baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 28
  • 29. Part Two: The Second Generation, From Lawrence Brown to Lena McLin Lena Mae (née Johnson) McLin (b. 5 September 1929, Atlanta, Georgia) was raised in the home of her uncle, Gospel music great Thomas A. Dorsey, whose choir she accompanied. After receiving her bachelor’s degree in music from Spelman College and master’s from the American Conservatory of Music, McLin taught music in the Chicago public school system. She instructed several students who went on to professional careers in Classical and popular music. A choral director, lecturer, author and ordained minister, McLin is also credited as a composer of over 400 choral and solo vocal works, as well as instrumental and electronic compositions. Video presentation: “Glory, Glory, Hallelujah” Lena McLin, composer ; Mark Rucker, baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 29
  • 30. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo The composers who have flourished in the decades since the conclusion of the Second World War have seen the ongoing struggles for civil and human rights and the technological and cultural shifts that have occurred at nearly warp speed. Their music, which includes the Negro Spiritual, is often interwoven with the strains of popular music–such as Gospel and Hip Hop–even as they return to an exploration of the roots of this American folk music. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 30
  • 31. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Wendell Phillips Whalum, Sr. (b. 4 September 1931, Memphis, Tennessee; d. Atlanta, Georgia, 9 June 1987) was a musically active youth performing at churches in Memphis. Whalum matriculated to Morehouse College and Columbia University, finishing his doctoral study at the University of Iowa. He taught at Morehouse for over 40 years and directed its choir to international acclaim. Also known for his skills as an instructor, organist, and musicologist, he composed numerous works for chorus and solo voice. Whalum, along with composers Betty Jackson King and Roland Carter, each contributed two Spiritual settings to God Is a God. Carter stated that there is no clear order to the placement of the pieces, leaving their organization to the performer’s discretion. Video presentation: “God Is a God” Wendell Whalum, composer ; Kenneth Overton, baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 31
  • 32. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo John Daniels Carter (b. 19 April 1932, St. Louis, Missouri; d. 24 July 1981, Hempstead, New York) studied music at Florida A&M University and piano and composition at Oberlin. Carter served as composer-in-residence with the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, DC, in 1968 and was an instructor at Federal City College, Washington, in the 1970’s. As a pianist, Carter toured extensively, accompanying performers such as tenor William Brown. Carter’s Cantata was published in 1964. The five-song vocal suite was premiered by soprano Leontyne Price at Constitution Hall in Washington, DC. The composer talked about his work in an interview with famed musicologist Dominique-René de Lerma: Cantata is based on a few well-known spirituals. I was always curious that Black composers rarely concerned themselves with this music. They’ve been arranged, but Black composers have not cared for their folk music as have Chopin or Bartók, for example… This is what I decided to do with this material, with one movement for each of the five spirituals. The first, for piano alone, is the “Prelude.” Second is a rondo, based on “Peter, Go Ring Them Bells.” “Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child” is third, as an air, and then comes “Let Us Break Bread Together.” The last movement is a toccata, “Ride on, King Jesus…” As for the melodies, a lot of spirituals are pentatonic, and twelve minutes of five- note melodies might not be too interesting so I’ve not hesitated to alter the melodies. Video presentation: “Toccata” (from Cantata) John Carter, composer ; Ray Wade, Jr., tenor A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 32
  • 33. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Coleridge-Taylor Perkinson (b. 14 June 1932, New York, New York; d. 9 March 2004, Chicago, Illinois) came from a musical family background and attended New York’s High School of Music and Art and New York University. After receiving his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the Manhattan School of Music, he accepted positions as an instructor at Brooklyn College and as conductor of the Brooklyn Community Symphony Orchestra while continuing his musical studies in orchestral conducting at the Salzburg Mozarteum. Perkinson’s professional career reflected his musical stylistic range, spanning the Classical, Blues, and Jazz worlds as a pianist, conductor, arranger and composer–including ballet and film musical scores–for instrumental and vocal solos and ensembles. Video presentation: “O Freedom” Coleridge-Taylor Perkinson, composer ; George Shirley, tenor A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 33
  • 34. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Jacqueline Butler Hairston (b. 18 December, 1938, Charlotte, North Carolina) is a composer, educator, choral director and pianist who studied at Julliard, Howard University, and Columbia University. Sharing an interest in the heritage of African American folk music with her cousin, composer Jester Hairston (1901-2000), she has used Spirituals to compose songs that have been performed and recorded by professional choral and solo vocal performers. Video presentation: “Guide My Feet” Jacqueline Hairston, composer ; Louise Toppin, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 34
  • 35. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Robert Leigh Morris (b. Chicago, Illinois, 22 April 1941). Morris received his bachelor’s degree from DePaul University in Chicago, with graduate studies at Indiana University, Bloomington, and The University of Iowa, Iowa City. He served as choral director at Hampton University, Virginia, Winston-Salem State University, North Carolina, and at Jackson State University in Mississippi before accepting his current post as Director of Choral Activities for Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota, and he was choral arranger for Edward “Duke” Ellington as well as founder of the Leigh Morris Chorale. Morris has composed numerous works for mixed chorus, most of which use Afrocentric folk themes. His Lyric Suite: A Collection of Spirituals in Gospel Style is a solo vocal song cycle written in 1970 and published in 2000. Vocal presentation: “Gospel Blues,” from Lyric Suite Robert L. Morris, composer ; Calesta “Callie” Day, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 35
  • 36. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Roland Marvin Carter (b. 4 May 1942, Chattanooga, Tennessee) studied music at Hampton University, New York University, the Catholic University of America and the Aspen Choral Institute. His career as an educator includes his current professorial position at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. He has focused on the preservation of the Negro spiritual both as a composer of choral and solo works and as an accompanist and choral director. He served a six-year term as president of the National Association of Negro Musicians. Carter, along with composers Wendell Whalum and Betty Jackson King, each contributed two Spiritual settings to God Is a God. Carter stated that there is no clear order to the placement of the pieces, leaving their organization to the performer’s discretion. Video presentation: “Is There Anybody Who Loves My Jesus” Roland Carter, composer ; Benjamin Matthews, baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 36
  • 37. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Uzee Brown, Jr. (b. 14 November, 1942, Cowpens, South Carolina) studied at Morehouse College, received his master’s degree in composition from Bowling Green State University, with a second master’s and his doctoral degree in performance at the University of Michigan. Brown developed a career as an operatic and concert vocalist, researcher and educator, serving as chair of the Music Department at Morehouse. He was also president of the National Association of Negro Musicians. “Aint A That Good News” is part of Brown’s first eight-Spirituals collection, O Redeemed!, which was published in 1994 and recorded on the CD, Great Day! Spirituals, in 2005. In this video, Brown discussed his approach to composing this setting, especially why the piano part often functions as “the chorus.” Video presentation: “Ain’t A That Good News” Uzee Brown, Jr., composer ; Uzee Brown, Jr. baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 37
  • 38. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Charles Lloyd, Jr. (b. 22 September 1948, Toledo, Ohio). Lloyd received his Bachelor of Science in music education from Norfolk State University and Master of Music from the University of Michigan. Since he was first exposed to Spirituals during his studies at Norfolk State–with further study of Spirituals encouraged by Michigan’s voice department chair, Willis Patterson, Lloyd has composed songs for solo voice and for chorus as well as operatic and instrumental works. He joined the music faculty at the Southern University in Baton Rouge and has been active as a piano accompanist. A number of Lloyd’s works have been recorded but not credited to the composer. However, he is listed as composer for this setting of “Were You There,” which was published as part of The Spiritual Art Song Collection in 2000. In a 2010 interview, Lloyd talked about his approach to composing Spirituals: “I did not take composition classes or anything like that; my understanding was based on the spirituals. Those medieval modes, church modes tend to slip into the spirituals. You know spirituals make use of the Dorian mode, and sometimes the Lydian and Mixolydian modes… and the blues tones, flatted fifth, and when you mess around with the thirds, and sevenths… and I think that has become my style.” Video presentation: “Were You There” Charles Lloyd, Jr., composer ; Laura English-Robinson, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 38
  • 39. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Evelyn Simpson-Curenton (b. 1953, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was born into a professional musical family. After beginning her piano studies at an early age, she attended Temple University, completing her undergraduate degree in music education and voice. She has been active as an educator, pianist, organist, and composer of music for a variety of music entities. Simpson-Curenton was a commissioned participant in the Negro Spirituals concert, featuring sopranos Kathleen Battle and Jessye Norman, at Carnegie Hall. Simpson-Curenton’s “Oh, Glory,” was set for soprano (Battle), flute and harp. Video presentation: “Oh, Glory!” Evelyn Simpson-Curenton, composer ; Kathleen Battle, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 39
  • 40. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Mark Hayes (b. 28 March 1953, Ladysmith, Wisconsin) holds a Bachelor of Music degree in piano performance from Baylor University. While his professional musical career has focused on choral composition and conducting, as well as piano concertizing, Hayes has composed and published works for various instrumental forces and for solo voices. His works reflect influences from sacred and secular musical styles, from Gospel and Jazz to Folk and Classical. “Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho” is included in the 10 Spirituals for Solo Voice: For Concerts, Contests, Recitals, and Worship, which is part of a multi-volume collection of songs by Hayes. Video presentation: “Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho” Mark Hayes, composer ; Indra Thomas, soprano A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 40
  • 41. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Moses George Hogan (b. 13 March 1957, New Orleans, Louisiana; d. 11 February 2003, New Orleans, Louisiana) Hogan graduated from the New Orleans Center for Creative Arts and the Oberlin Conservatory of Music. Known first as a concert pianist, Hogan began organizing choral groups and composing for chorus as well as for solo voice. He was editor of the collection, Oxford Book of Spirituals. Hogan’s solo vocal setting of “Walk Together Children” was published in 2000 as part of the Deep River Collection, which was set for both high and low voices. Video presentation: “Walk Together, Children” Moses Hogan, composer ; Derek Lee Ragin, countertenor A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 41
  • 42. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Victor Kris Labenske (b. 26 December 1963, Jonesboro, Arkansas), is a pianist, educator, and composer who studied piano performance at Point Loma Nazarene University (BA), University of Missouri-Kansas City (MM) and the University of Southern California (DMA). In addition to serving on the music faculty at Point Nazarene for more than 30 years, he is credited as a composer of over 500 works for piano and other instrumental or vocal forces. Labenske published Concert Hall Spirituals: Settings for Piano and Voice, his setting of ten Spirituals, including “Give Me Jesus,” in 1999. Video presentation: “Give Me Jesus” Victor Labenske, composer and piano ; John Craig Johnson, baritone A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 42
  • 43. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Damien LeChateau Sneed (b. 30 January 1977, Augusta, Georgia) is a multi- faceted musician whose abilities have expressed themselves since he began piano study at age three. He received his bachelor’s in piano performance from Howard University, master’s in music technology from New York University, with additional study at Peabody Conservatory and the Manhattan School of Music. He has served as accompanist for numerous professional Classical and Jazz performers as well as performing as a piano soloist. In addition to his roles as educator, music producer, and choral director, he has composed, arranged and orchestrated music for a variety of musical forces. Sneed collaborated with tenor Lawrence Brownlee on Spiritual Sketches, a recording of Sneed’s Spirituals. The 8 July 2013 review in Opera Today stated: “Mr. Sneed’s arrangements are superb, his consummate musicality apparent in the both the idiomatic power and adroitness of harmonic progressions and his sense of drama evident in his frequent but unerringly effective demands upon Mr. Brownlee’s upper register.” Video presentation: “Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child” Damien Sneed, composer and piano ; Lawrence Brownlee, tenor A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 43
  • 44. Part Three: The Now Generation, From Wendell Whalum to Shawn Okpebholo Shawn Ehireime Okpebholo (b. 28 March 1981, Lexington, Kentucky) completed his undergraduate studies in composition and music history from Asbury College, and he earned his master’s and doctoral degrees in composition and theory from the University of Cincinnati, College-Conservatory of Music. In addition to his burgeoning career as a composer of vocal and instrumental music, he currently teaches music composition and theory at Wheaton College Conservatory of Music. Okpebholo set “Ev’ry Time I Feel the Spirit” as part of his collection, Steal Away. In the program notes of CD recording of this collection, he stated, “My compositional process involved hours of engaging the texts and reflecting on the honest lyrics that are often multidimensional and complex, yet simply expressed, humbly, in slave vernacular. The messages are discerning and personal. They evoke the hard truths of slavery in such a meaningful and even beautiful way: the inhumanity, the tragedy, and the scars, which still in many ways remain unhealed on the back of America. Yet somehow, despite hard truths and devastating context, the most compelling features of these songs may be the elements of hope that are ubiquitous throughout their texts.” Video presentation: “Ev’ry Time I Feel the Spirit” Shawn Okpebholo, composer ; Will Liverman, tenor A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 44
  • 45. Discography & Scores Bibliography Discography Most of the videos presented in this document were created by Randye Jones and are posted with numerous others on her Divaslair YouTube page. The audio recordings used for those videos and other videos are listed below, with links to additional information about the tracks: • Albert, Donnie Ray. Donnie Ray Albert in Recital Cinnabar Records CNB1402, 2003, compact disc. • Alda, Frances. “Deep River.” Victor B-19121, 1917, 10-in. • Anderson, Marian. Spirituals. VAI Audio VAIA 1168, 1998, compact disc. • Arroyo, Martina. Spirituals. Centaur Records, CRC 2060, compact disc. • Battle, Kathleen. Spirituals in Concert. Deutsche Grammophon 429 790-2, 1991, compact disc. • Bledsoe, Jules. Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?. Pearl Gemm CD 9484, 1991, compact disc. • Brice, Carol. The Christmas Album. Sony Classical MHK 63309, 1997, compact disc. • Brown, Jr., Uzee. Great Day!. [Private label], 2005, compact disc. • Brownlee, Lawrence. Spiritual Sketches. LeChateau Earl Records, 2013, compact disc. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 45
  • 46. Discography & Scores Bibliography Discography (cont.) • Day, Calesta. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot. American Spiritual Ensemble, 2011, compact disc. • Dillard, Pamela. Watch and Pray. Koch International Classics 3-7247-2H1, 1994, compact disc. • Dobbs, Mattiwilda. Tva Sidor Av Mattiwilda Dobbs Och Gotthard Arner. Proprius 25 04-02-0004, 19–, long-playing disc. • Duncan, Todd. Todd Duncan Sings Spirituals. Royale EP181, 195-, 45 rpm disc. • English-Robinson, Laura. Let It Shine. ACA Digital Recording CM20020, 1994, compact disc. • Hayes, Roland. Good News: Vintage Negro Spirituals. Living Era AJA 5622, 2006, compact disc. • Heard, Richard. My Dream: Art Songs and Spirituals. Percentage Records/Sound of Art Recordings CD147597, 2012, compact disc. • Hendricks, Barbara. Spirituals. EMI Classics 0946 346641 2 7, 2005, compact disc. • Holland, Charles. My Lord What a Mornin’. Musical Heritage Society MHS 512250K, 1988, compact disc. • Honeysucker, Robert. Watch and Pray: Spirituals and Art Songs by African-American Women Composers. Koch International Classics 3-7247-2H1, 1994, compact disc. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 46
  • 47. Discography & Scores Bibliography Discography (cont.) • Liverman, Will. Steal Away. Yellow Einstein, 2014, compact disc. • Matthews, Benjamin. A Balm in Gilead. Ebony Classic Recordings ECR 0001, 2000, compact disc. • Matthews, Inez. Inez Matthews Sings Spirituals. Essential Media Group, 2011, compact disc. • Maynor, Dorothy. Dorothy Maynor in Concert at Library of Congress. Library of Congress, Music Division LCM 2141, 2007, compact disc. • Maynor, Kevin. Songs of America from Another American. Guild GMCD 7247, 2002, compact disc. • McFerrin, Robert. Deep River and Other Classic Negro Spirituals. Washington Records WLP 466, 1959, long-playing disc. • Moses, Oral. Amen! African-American Composers of the 20th Century. Albany Records TROY459, 2001, compact disc. • Norman, Jessye. Spirituals. Philips 400 019-2, 1981, compact disc. • Overman, Kenneth. Been in de Storm so Long (Songs My Fathers Taught Me). American Spiritual Ensemble, 2012, compact disc. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 47
  • 48. Discography & Scores Bibliography Discography (cont.) • Payne, John C. Black Europe: Sounds & Images of Black People in Europe Pre-1927. Bear Family Productions BCD 16095, 2013, compact disc. • Price, Leontyne. Leontyne Price reDiscovered. BMG Classics 09026-68157-2, 1996, compact disc. • Quivar, Florence. Ride on King Jesus: African-American Spirituals. EMI Classics 9 67138 2, 2010, compact disc. • Ragin, Derek Lee. Negro Spirituals. Virgin Classics 0946 363305 2 5, 2006, compact disc. • Robeson, Paul. The EMI Sessions 1928-1939 EMI Classics 2 15586 2, 1998, compact disc. • Rucker, Mark. Mark Rucker sings Lena McLin: songs for voice & piano. Kjos Music Press KCD8, 2002, compact disc. • Shirley, George. The New Negro Spiritual W. C. Patterson, 2002, Score with compact disc. • Taylor, Darryl. How Sweet the Sound. Albany TROY1244, 2011, compact disc. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 48
  • 49. Discography & Scores Bibliography Discography (cont.) • Thomas, Indra. Great Day! Indra Thomas Sings Spirituals. Delos DE 3427, 2012, compact disc. • Toppin, Louise. Ah! Love, But a Day. Albany Records/Videmus TROY 385, 2000, compact disc. • Verrett, Shirley. Gospels & Spirituals Gold Collection. Retro R2CD 40-26, 1995, compact disc. • Wade, Jr., Ray. Sence You Went Away. Albany Records TROY 388, 1998, compact disc. Music Score Bibliography Entries link to sites where the score is available for purchase, either as part of a collection or as sheet music. • Boatner, Edward. “City Called Heaven.” In The Story of the Spirituals. Melville, NY: Belwin Mills, 1973. • Bonds, Margaret. “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand.” In In His Hand: Seven Spirituals Arranged by Margaret Bonds. [King of Prussia]: Theodore Presser, 2010. • Brown, Lawrence. “Dere’s a Man Goin’ Roun’ Takin’ Names.” In Negro Folk Songs. New York: Associated Music Publishers, 1930. • Brown, Jr., Uzee. “Aint A That Good News.” In O Redeemed!. Dayton, OH: R. Dean Pub., 1994. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 49
  • 50. Discography & Scores Bibliography Music Score Bibliography (cont.) • Burleigh, Harry Thacker. “Deep River.” In The Spirituals of Harry T. Burleigh (High voice) (Low voice). Melville, N.Y.: Belwin-Mills, 1984. • Carter, John. “Toccata.” In Cantata for High Voice and Piano Reduction. New York: Southern Music, 1964. • Carter, Roland. “Is There Anybody Who Loves My Jesus.” Chattanooga, TN: Mar-Vel. • Dett, Robert Nathaniel. “I’m Goin’ to tell God All My Troubles.” • Fisher, William Arms. “Deep River.” In Seventy Negro Spirituals For High Voice. Boston, Oliver Ditson Co.; New York, C.H. Ditson & Co., 1926. • Forrest, Hamilton. “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hand.” New York: Mills Music, 1951. • Hairston, Jacqueline. “Guide My Feet.” In New Negro Spiritual, compiled by Willis Patterson. [Place of publication not identified] : [W.C. Patterson], 2002. • Hayes, Mark. “Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho.” In 10 Spirituals for Solo Voice: For Concerts, Contests, Recitals, and Worship (Medium High voice) (Medium Low voice). Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Pub., 1998. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 50
  • 51. Discography & Scores Bibliography Music Score Bibliography (cont.) • Hayes, Roland. “Hear de Lambs a-Cryin’” from The Life of Christ. In My Favorite Spirituals: 30 Songs for Voice and Piano. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 2001. • Hogan, Moses. “Walk Together, Children.” In The Deep River Collection (High voice) (Low voice). Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard, 2000. • Johnson, Hall. “Witness.” In The Hall Johnson Collection. New York: Carl Fischer, 2003. • Jackson King, Betty. “Calvary.” In Art Songs and Spirituals by African-American Women Composers, compiled by Vivian Taylor. Mount Airy, PA: Hildegard Publishing, 2000. • Johnson, John Rosamond & James Weldon Johnson. “All God’s Chillin.” In The Books of the American Negro Spirituals. New York: DaCapo, 2000? • Kerr, Jr., Thomas. “Great Day.” In New Negro Spiritual, compiled by Willis Patterson. [Place of publication not identified] : [W.C. Patterson], 2002. • Lawrence, William. “Let Us Break Bread Together on Our Knees.” Boston: McLaughlin & Reilly, 1945. • Lloyd, Jr., Charles. “Were You There.” In The Spiritual Art Song Collection. Miami, FL: Warner Bros. Publications, 2000. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 51
  • 52. Discography & Scores Bibliography Music Score Bibliography (cont.) • MacGimsey, Robert. “Sweet Little Jesus Boy,” (Medium voice) (Low voice). New York: C. Fischer, 1934. • McLin, Lena. “Glory, Glory, Hallelujah.” In Songs for Voice And Piano. San Diego, CA: Kjos Music Press, 2002. • Moore, Undine Smith. “Is There Anybody Here Who Loves My Jesus.” In Art Songs and Spirituals by African-American Women Composers, compiled by Vivian Taylor. Mount Airy, PA: Hildegard Publishing, 2000. • Morris, Robert L. “Gospel Blues.” In Lyric Suite: A Collection of Spirituals in Gospel Style. Dayton, Ohio: Roger Dean Pub., 2000. • Okepebholo, Shawn. “Ev’ry Time I Feel the Spirit.” In Steal Away. • Owens, Robert. “Po’ Mourner’s Got a Home at Las.’” In Six Negro Spirituals for Bass (Baritone) and Piano. Salzgitter: Ostinato-Musikverlag, 2005. • Payne, John C. “Standin’ in de Need o’ Prayer.” In Negro Spirituals Arranged by John Payne: For Low Voice. New York: G. Schirmer, 1942. • Perkinson, Coleridge-Taylor. “O Freedom.” In New Negro Spiritual, compiled by Willis Patterson. [Place of publication not identified] : [W.C. Patterson], 2002. • Perry, Julia. “I’m a Poor Little Orphan in This World!” In Art Songs and Spirituals by African-American Women Composers, compiled by Vivian Taylor. Mount Airy, PA: Hildegard Publishing, 2000. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 52
  • 53. Discography & Scores Bibliography Music Score Bibliography (cont.) • Price, Florence. “Go Down Moses.” In 44 Art Songs and Spirituals by Florence B. Price for Medium/High Voice and Piano. Fayetteville, AR: Clarnan Editions, 2015. • Simpson-Curenton, Evelyn. “Oh, Glory.” • Smith, Hale. “I Want to Die Easy.” In New Negro Spiritual, compiled by Willis Patterson. [Place of publication not identified] : [W.C. Patterson], 2002. • Sneed, Damien. “Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child.” In Spiritual Sketches. [Place of publication not identified] : Lechateau Arts Publ., 2013. • Still, William Grant. “Here’s One.” Bryn Mawr, Pa.: J. Church, 1996. • Whalum, Wendell. “God Is a God.” Chattanooga, TN: Mar-Vel. • White, Clarence Cameron. “Goin’ to Shout All over God’s Heaven.” In Forty Negro Spirituals: Compiled and Arranged for Solo Voice. Philadelphia: T. Presser, 1927. • Work, John W. “This Little Light o’ Mine.” New York: Galaxy Music, 1945. A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 53
  • 54. Contact Information Presentation created from A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice by Randye Jones, accessed at http://spirituals-database.com/a-century-of- negro-spirituals-for-solo-voice-the-pioneers Contact: Randye Jones, ansdiscog@spirituals-database.com 641-821-0188 PO Box 281, Grinnell, IA USA 50112 A Century of Negro Spirituals for Solo Voice - Created by Randye Jones, June 2018 54