HISTORYThe history of the blues goes back to the seventeenth century in theU.S.. The blues genre is defined as the folklore of the black population.U.S. was a colony of England that brought slaves from Africa to thesouth largely inhabited this country.These plantation workers of snuff, cotton and rice, therefore not allowedto develop their religions and their families were separated. Blacks tookthe shaft rhythmic music and put it together with the harmonic andmelodic European music.Early blues trying to be messages going from plantation to plantation todeliver news, but also showed how he was a slave. The religious camefrom another genre called Gospel, which is a kind of gospel music withAfrican rituals, which require a lot of vocal work. The first instrumentswere rhythmic, then started using banjo and acoustic guitar. The initialstructure of the blues was monotonous but then became harmonious,as it was composed of twelve bars in fourth and fifth ring. The blue noteis a false note in a scale of five notes, called penta tonic and is the mostimportant because it is the sub-style that influenced the U.S. whitemusic. Most recognized artists in this genre are BB King, Muddy Waters,Ottis Redding.
BLUES, SYMBOL OF SADNESS.BLUES, HISTORY OF SLAVERY OF APEOPLE. BLUES, MANIFESTATIONOF A CONDITION OF LIFE. BLUES, AWAY TO RELEASE THE FEELINGS.BLUES MUSIC.
THE FIRST INSTRUMENT USEDPRIMITIVE BANJOThis instrument was constructed with an elongated gourd was dried until ithad the hardness of the plastic. He had five strings cut a long plastic fishingline tied to the hollow wooden stick served as the neck of the instrument.Four of the strings are stretched to the end of the stick, and the fifth wastied near the body of the instrument, with a shorter length uplifting tone.There was a hand-carved bridge kept the strings taut separated fromgoatskin membrane covering the cut made with pumpkin, in Wolof halamthe instrument was called, in the language of African musicians that ledsouth of the United States, is named Banjo.With the passage of time the banjo suffered major change. For 1883, Banjowas Americanized. Skin membrane was stretched over a frame now round,wooden initially and later metal. Rounded handle was now replaced with aflat pole, and the rope is fixed to the short side of the mast with pins, firsttimber as a drum and when changed, the pins and the ring straps that werealso kept metal thread. In this way the instrument was as loud and couldtighten the ropes again, sounded in a higher pitch. It had become a clangingbanjo.
THE BANJO ALONG WITH THE VIOLIN WERE BECOMING MORE COMMONINSTRUMENTS SOUTHERN PLANTATIONS. AND IT WAS NOT DEFINITIVELYSETTLE THE BLUES INSTRUMENT BUT IT WAS THE INSTRUMENT THAT HELPEDDEVELOP THE TECHNIQUES THAT BECAME PART OF THE HISTORY OF THEBLUES. YOU MAY BE CONSIDERED AS AN INTERMEDIATE STAGE BETWEEN THEMUSIC OF THE GRIOTS (EVERY SOUTH AFRICAN LANGUAGE HAS A DIFFERENTWORD TO DESCRIBE "SINGER", BUT THEY ALL USE A MORE GENERAL TERM,GRIOT) AND EARLY BLUES SINGERS .PART OF THE REASON FOR THE BANJO LOST ITS CENTRAL ROLE IN RURALAFRICAN AMERICAN MUSICAL LIFE IS THAT MANY PIECES FROM HISREPERTOIRE HAD BEEN ASSUMED BY WHITE MUSICIANS WERE ASSOCIATEDWITH MINSTREL SHOWS (VARIETY SHOW WITH ARTISTS MOSTLY WHITE,INCLUDING SONGS AND COMEDY ROUTINES, USUALLY IN A MOCKING IMITATIONOF BLACKS). YOU CAN ALSO INCLUDE CHANGES IN THE INSTRUMENT (THEHIGHEST PITCH AND THE TENSION OF THE STRINGS, THEY COULD NOTPRODUCE A SUSTAINED NOTE).
GUITARWITH THE EARLY GUITAR ACCOMPANIMENTS THERE WAS ANOTHER WAY TO SOLVE THEDILEMMA. THE HIGHLY SHIFTED GUITAR TO BANJO AND VIOLIN, ESPECIALLY THEFORMER, WHOSE USE WAS UNCOMMON AMONG BLUES SINGERS.THE BLUES WAS PRIMARILY A VOCAL MUSIC AND VOCAL QUALITY REQUIRED SOMEINSTRUMENTS. THE FLEXIBILITY OF THE GUITAR SATISFYING THIS REQUIREMENT. THETUNING MI-SI-SOL-RE-LA-MI-TYPICAL WAS ALTERED OR DETENSIONING TIGHTENING THEROPES UNTIL THE INSTRUMENT WAS TUNED TO A CHORD. THE RESULTS WERE VERYSATISFACTORY.WITH THE EARLY GUITAR ACCOMPANIMENTS THERE ANOTHER WAY TO PLAY IT. THISWAS ACCOMPLISHED WITH SLACK KEY GUITAR, WHICH WERE POPULAR IN THE UNITEDSTATES. ESSENTIALLY, THE GUITAR IS TUNED IN OPEN CHORD AND THE MELODY ISPLAYED BY SLIDING A METAL BAR UP AND DOWN THE STRINGS. THIS WAS THESOLUTION TO A SPECIFIC PROBLEM OF THE BLUES THAT LED TO DIFFERENT TUNINGSAND STYLES OF THE MODERN BLUES.
REPRESENTATIVES IN THE BLUESThe famous Gibson guitar brand selected the bestmusicians, blues pioneers, who have used theirinstruments and helped write the history of rock.Albert King: Stevie Ray Vaughan, Eric Clapton and JimiHendrix studied the treble and deep bends. King becameone with his guitar, the famous model Korina - Flying V,leaving for posterity alone classics such as "Born Undera Bad Sign" and "(I Love) Lucy".B. B. King: Selected by Rolling Stone as the third greatestguitarist of all time, has made the most famous Lucilleguitar blues. The ES-355 model, which King has been withhim since 1949, began to make custom since 1980,allowing anyone to experience the sound that inspiredmusicians like Eric Clapton and Keith Richards, amongothers.
TOP FIVE SONGS1 Robert Johnson – Sweet Home Chicago2. John Lee Hooker – Boom Boom3. Charley Patton – Some of These Days4. Jelly Roll Kings I Din’t Know / Road of Love5. William Harris – I’m Leavin’ Town
BLUESThe English word "blue" is not only used to describe thecolor blue but also refers to a state of mind: sadness. In1912, in the composition "Dallas Blues" was also used todefine a musical style.All these seemingly unrelated aspects have acommon thread: La Musica roots blues songscome from the African-American slaves whopicked cotton in the plains of South America,when he was still a British colony.
LA MÚSICA BLUESgospel and soul are genres that share the same root: thespiritual songs of African Americans trying to endure forcedlabor and harsh conditions of slavery. They used the song asa way to communicate with God and that this would help themendure suffering. Therefore, the blues is, in essence, anostalgic and sad rhythm that reminds us of the earlymeanings of this word.
THE BASE CONSISTS OF A BLUESCHORD PROGRESSION OF TWELVEBARS CALLED "TWELVE BARBLUES".THIS PROGRESSION IS BASICALLY THESAME AS IT IS IN THE RHYTHM ANDBLUES AND ROCK AND ROLL, ONLY INTHE LAST TWO CHORDS ARE RUNMUCH FASTER AND THUS CAN BEDIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY.
WITH RESPECT TO THE LETTERS THAT MAKE UP THE CLASSICTEXTS OF BLUES MUSIC, ITS CONTENT IS OFTEN OF A RELIGIOUSOR SPIRITUAL. HOWEVER, UNLIKE TRUE GOSPEL EXPRESSINGPRAYERS ARE SUNG IN CHURCHES TO WORSHIP GOD IN THEBLUES IS MORE OF A WAY TO ASK FOR HELP ESPECIALLY TOGOD OR TO EXPRESS A DEEP SADNESS FOR A FACT THAT THEPERSON HAS EXPERIENCED.AN EXCELLENT EXAMPLE OF CLASSIC BLUES MUSIC IS FOUND INTHE SONG "CROSS ROAD BLUES" BY ROBERT JOHNSON: "IPITY THE LORD KNEELING ASKING: IF YOU CAN, SAVE POOR BOB..."
YOU MAY ALSO LIKEONE: GOSPEL MUSIC: HE KNOWS HIS ORIGINSTWO. MUSIC R & B: THE ATTEMPT TO PUT RHYTHM TOSADNESSTHREE:REGGAETON MUSIC: A LOOK AT ITS ORIGINSAPRIL.A LOOK AT THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN SONGSMAY.ROCKABILLY MUSIC: A LOOK AT ITS ORIGINS
BLUESAFRICAN AMERICAN SPIRITUAL WORK Y CANCIONESMUSIC OF WEST AFRICA, CARRIED BY SLAVES SOUTH DE ESTADOS STATES,ESPECIALLY ALDELTA THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.GUITAR, ELECTRIC BASS, DRUMS, PIANO, HARMONICA, SAXOPHONE, VOICE,TROMBONE, TRUMPETTHE BLUES CHORD PROGRESSIONS AND BLUES NOTES ARE WIDELY USED INMOST MUSICAL GENRES BORN OF HIM. THE BLUES IS RECOGNIZED AS ONE OFTHE MOST INFLUENTIAL MUSICAL GENRES HAS HAD ON THE MUSICAL HISTORYOF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.JAZZ, GOSPEL, R & B, RAP, SKA, REGGAE, ROCK AND ROLL
SUBGENERACLASSIC FEMALE BLUES, ELECTRIC BLUES, JUMP BLUES, PIANO BLUES,BOOGIE-WOOGIEMERGERSZYDECO, BLUES ROCK, JAZZ, BLUES, COUNTRY BLUES, PUNK BLUES, SOULBLUESREGIONAL SCENESATLANTA BLUES, AFRICAN BLUES, BRITISH BLUES, CHICAGO BLUES, DELTABLUES, DETROIT BLUES, EAST COAST BLUES, LOUISIANA BLUES, MEMPHISBLUES, NEW ORLEANS BLUES NEW YORK BLUES, PIEDMONT BLUES ST.LOUIS BLUES, SWAMP BLUES, TEXAS BLUES, WEST COAST BLUESLINKSMUSICIANS, BLUES SCALE
CULTURAL ORIGINSThe genres associated with the blues share a small number ofsimilar characteristics, because this genre takes its shape fromthe personal characteristics of each artist who interpreta.5SinBut there are a number of characteristics that were present longbefore the creation of modern blues.One of the earliest known forms of music that keeps similaritywith blues, corresponds with cries of call and response (music),which is defined as "functional expressions styleaccompaniment or harmony and away from the formality of anymusical structure "6 a form of this pre-blues was heard in thecries, or screams of slave camp, which took the form of" songsof a single artist with emotional content "7 The blues now day,can be defined as a musical genre based on both Europeanharmonic structure as in the tradition of call and response inWest Africa and transformed into an interplay of voice andguitarra.8
MANY ELEMENTS OF THE BLUES, AS THE PATTERN OF CALL ANDRESPONSE AND THE USE OF BLUE NOTES, CAN BE FOUND INTHE ROOTS OF AFRICAN MUSIC, SYLVIANE DIOUF POINTS OUTSOME DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLUES, SUCH AS THEUSE OF MELISMAS AND NASAL INTONATION, WHICH SUGGEST ACONNECTION BETWEEN WEST AFRICAN MUSIC ANDETHNOMUSICOLOGIST GERHARD BLUES.9 THE KUBIKPUEDE TOHAVE BEEN THE FIRST TO SAY THAT ELEMENTS OF BLUESROOTED IN ISLAMIC MUSIC OF CENTRAL AND WESTERN AFRICA .
STRING INSTRUMENTSStringed instruments (preferred by slaves fromMuslim regions of Africa), were generally allowedbecause slave owners considered that theseinstruments were similar to other Europeaninstruments, as violin. As a result, those slaveswho were able to play a banjo or other stringedinstrument, could do with more freedom. This typeof music lonely slave shows elements of Arab-Islamic style based on the footprint that Islam hasprinted for centuries in West Africa.
BLUES SONGSBlues songs of the period, such as Leadbelly orHenry Thomas show a wide variety ofstructures, making it the most common musicalforms twelve, eight or sixteen bars, based onthe chords tonic, subdominant and dominant.The roots of today is known as the twelve-barblues structure, are documented in the historyoraly in scores of African Americancommunities inhabiting the region of the lowerMississippi, on Beale Street in Memphis andwhite bands New Orleans.
EARLY BLUES FREQUENTLY TOOK THE FORM OF ANARRATIVE WHICH USED TO TRANSMIT THROUGH THESINGERS VOICE THEIR PERSONAL WOES IN A WORLD OFHARSH REALITY: "A LOST LOVE, THE CRUELTY OF POLICEOFFICERS, OPPRESSION OF WHITES AND HARD TIMES.15 MANY OF THE OLDEST BLUES RECORDS CONTAINGRITTY, REALISTIC LYRICS UNLIKE MOST POPULAR MUSICIS RECORDED AT THE TIME, FOR EXAMPLE, THE SONGDOWN IN THE ALLEY OF MEMPHIS MINNIE, IS ABOUT APROSTITUTAQUE HAS SEX WITH A MAN IN AN ALLEY.
THIS TYPE OF MUSIC WAS TERMED GUT-BUCKET BLUES, A TERMTHAT TOWARDS REFERENCE TO A MUSICAL INSTRUMENTDOMESTICATED (WITH FORM OF LOW) MANUFACTURED FROM AMETAL BUCKET WHICH WAS USED TO CLEANSE THE BOWELS OFPIGS TO PREPARE CHINCHULÍN (A TYPE OF FOOD THAT ISASSOCIATED WITH SLAVERY). THE GUT-BUCKET BLUES USED TOBE DEPRESSED AND TRIED ON ROUGH AND DIFFICULTRELATIONSHIPS, BAD LUCK AND BAD TIMES, BECAUSE THESESONGS, AND THE STREETS WHERE THEY WERE INTERPRETED,BLUES MUSIC ACQUIRED A BAD REPUTATION, REACHING TO BECRITICIZED BY PREACHERS AND PARISHIONERS.ALTHOUGH THE BLUES USED TO BE ASSOCIATED WITH MISERYAND OPPRESSION, DYES CAN ALSO PURCHASE COMIC ORHUMOROUS, AND IN MANY CASES, SEXUAL CONNOTATIONS.
HISTORY OF DIFFERENT GENRESOF THE BLUESBEGINNINGBlues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music,performed by poor black workers to a variety of styles andsubgenres, with regional variations across the UnitedStates and later in Europe and Africa. The musical formsand styles that are considered today as the blues andmodern country music, born in the same regions of thesouthern United States during the nineteenth century. Canbe found recordings of blues and country that go back tothe twenties, period in which the recording industrycreated marketing categories called «music racial» and«music hillbilly» to sell songs to blacks already whites,respectively.
BLUES IN THE SIXTIES AND SEVENTIESIn the early sixties, genres influenced by AfricanAmerican music such as el rock and roll andsoul were part of American popular music.Interpreters caucásicoshabían led AfricanAmerican music to new audiences, both in theU.S. and the rest of the world. In UnitedKingdom, the bands of musicians emulated tothe legends of American blues, and along of thedecade the English blues played a important roleof recovery of singers African Americans to takethem to Europe and reinterpret All Threadsclassics.
BLUESMEN LIKE JOHN LEE HOOKER AND MUDDY WATERSCONTINUED TO PERFORM TO ENTHUSIASTIC AUDIENCES,INSPIRING NEW ARTISTS STEEPED IN TRADITIONAL BLUES, SUCHAS NEW YORK-BORN MUSICIAN, TAJ MAHAL. JOHN LEE HOOKERBLENDED HIS BLUES STYLE WITH ROCK ELEMENTS AND STARTEDPLAYING WITH YOUNGER WHITE MUSICIANS, CREATING A MUSICALGENRE THAT CAN BE HEARD ON THE 1971 ALBUM ENDLESSBOOGIE. B. VIRTUOSO GUITAR TECHNIQUE B. KING EARNED HIMTHE NICKNAME KING OF THE BLUES. UNLIKE THE SUBGENRE OFCHICAGO, KINGS BAND USED STRONG BRASS SUPPORT FROM (ASAXOPHONE, TRUMPET AND TROMBONE), INSTEAD OF USINGONLY THE STEEL GUITAR AND HARMONICA. THE TENNESSEE-BORN BOBBY "BLUE" BLAND, LIKE B. B. KING, ALSO STRADDLEDTHE GENRES OF BLUES AND RHYTHM AND BLUES.
THE MUSIC OF THE MOVEMENTS CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOM OFEXPRESSION IN THE U.S. PROMPTED A RESURGENCE OF INTEREST INAMERICAN ROOTS MUSIC AND EARLY AFRICAN AMERICAN MUSIC. MUSICFESTIVALS SUCH AS THE NEWPORT FOLK FESTIVAL BROUGHT TRADITIONALBLUES TO A NEW AUDIENCE, AND CAUSED A RESURGENCE OF INTEREST INACOUSTIC BLUES AND PREWAR RECORDINGS BY PERFORMERS SUCH AS SONHOUSE, MISSISSIPPI JOHN HURT, SKIP JAMES, AND REVEREND GARY DAVIS,MANY OF THESE RECORDINGS WERE REISSUED, AMONG OTHERS, BY THERECORD COMPANY YAZOO RECORDS. J. B. LENOIR FROM THE CHICAGOBLUES MOVEMENT OF THE FIFTIES, RECORDED SEVERAL LPS WITH ACOUSTICGUITARS, WHICH HAD SOMETIMES ACCOMPANIED BY WILLIE DIXON ON THEACOUSTIC BASS OR DRUMS HIS SONGS WERE POLITICAL ISSUES SUCH ASRACISM OR WAR VIETNAM, WHICH WAS NOT UNUSUAL FOR THIS TIME.RECORDING ALABAMA BLUES ITS SUBJECT READS:
I NEVER WILL GO BACK TO ALABAMA, THAT IS NOTTHE PLACE FOR ME.YOU KNOW THEY KILLED MY SISTER AND MYBROTHER,AND THE WHOLE WORLD LET THEM PEOPLES GODOWN THERE FREE.
LOS MÚSICOS BRITÁNICOS DEBLUESearly sixties inspired, in turn, to a number of Americanperformers blues-rock, including Canned Heat, JanisJoplin, Johnny Winter, The J. Geils Band and Ry Cooder.Much of the early success of Led Zeppelin wererenditions of traditional blues songs, which is notunusual when you consider that their guitarist JimmyPage came from the Yardbirds. A blues-rock performeroriginal Seattle, Jimi Hendrix, was a rarity in his field atthe time: a black man who played psychedelic rock;Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the use ofdistortion and feedback in his música.38 through theseand other artists, blues music influenced thedevelopment of rock music.In 1970, the blues was born in Argentina in Castilian bytrío Manal with tango influences and writes based on thegeneration poets Beatnik.37
IN THE LATE FIFTIES, THE WEST SIDE BLUESEMERGED IN CHICAGO WITH MAGIC SAM, MAGICSLIM AND OTIS RUSH, ITS MAIN CHARACTERISTICWAS BASED ON A RHYTHMIC SUPPORT GRANTEDBY A RHYTHM GUITAR, ELECTRIC BASS ANDDRUMS. ALBERT KING, BUDDY GUY AND LUTHERALLISON HAD A THIS GENRE, WHICH WASDOMINATED BY AMPLIFIED ELECTRIC LEADGUITAR.
EARLY COUNTRY BLUESMEN, BESIDES BEING INFLUENCED BYSPIRITUAL SINGING PLAYED COUNTRY AND URBAN BLUES ANDSOME OF THESE MUSICIANS INCLUDE A SKIP JAMES, CHARLEYPATTON, GEORGIA TOM DORSEY. DORSEY HELPED TOPOPULARIZE GOSPEL MUSIC GENRE THAT DEVELOPED IN THETHIRTIES THROUGH THE GOLDEN GATE QUARTET GROUP. IN THEFIFTIES, SOUL MUSIC (WITH ARTISTS SUCH AS SAM COOKE, RAYCHARLES AND JAMES BROWN) WAS ALREADY USING ELEMENTSOF GOSPEL AND BLUES. IN THE SIXTIES AND SEVENTIES, GOSPELAND BLUES WERE THESE MERGED IN SOUL BLUES MUSIC. THEGENRE OF THE SEVENTIES FUNK WAS INFLUENCED BY SOUL,LIKEWISE, FUNK CAN BE SEEN AS AN ANTECEDENT OF HIP HOPAND CONTEMPORARY RHYTHM AND BLUES.
THE TWELVE-BAR STRUCTURE AND THE BLUES SCALE WAS A MAJOR INFLUENCEON ROCK AND ROLL. A CLEAR EXAMPLE IS THE TOPIC OF ELVIS PRESLEYHOUND DOG (A TOPIC BLUES SONG TRANSFORMED INTO A ROCK AND ROLL),WHICH MAINTAINS A TWELVE-BAR STRUCTURE (IN BOTH HARMONY AND LYRICS)AND A MELODY CENTERED ON THE THIRD OF THE TONIC (AND FLATTEDSEVENTH OF THE SUBDOMINANT).MANY OF THE EARLY ROCK AND ROLL SONGS ARE BASED ON BLUES: JOHNNYB. GOODE, BLUE SUEDE SHOES, WHOLE LOTTA SHAKIN GOING ON, TUTTI-FRUTTI, SHAKE, RATTLE, AND ROLL, WHATD I SAY AND LONG TALL SALLY,LIKEWISE, MUCH OF THESE SUBJECTS RETAINED THE SEXUAL THEMES ANDINNUENDOS OF BLUES MUSIC AND EVEN THE PLOT OF THE SONG HOUND DOGCONTAINS SEXUAL REFERENCES HIDDEN IN THE LETTER AND DOUBLEMEANINGS IN SOME OF HIS WORDS. SOME EXAMPLES OF THIS ISSUE ARE:
GOT A GAL NAMED SUE, SHE KNOWS JUST WHATTO DO(TUTTI FSEE THE GIRL WITH THE RED DRESS ON,SHE KNOWS HOW TO DO IT ALL NIGHT LONG(WHAT ID SAY DE RAY CHARLES).RUTTI DE LITTLE RICHARD).
SUBSEQUENTLY, A MORE MATURE WHITE ROCK, BORROWEDTHE STRUCTURE AND HARMONIES OF THE BLUES, DESPITEHAVING FEWER SEXUAL FRANKNESS AND POOR HARMONICCREATIVITY (EG THE ISSUE OF BILL HALEY ROCK AROUNDTHE CLOCK). MUCH OF WHITE MUSICIANS WHO PERFORMEDTRACKS FROM BLACK ARTISTS CHANGING CERTAIN WORDSOF LETTERS: AN EXAMPLE IS THE CHANGE INTRODUCED BYPAT BOONE, IN HIS RENDITION OF TUTTI FRUTTI, MODIFYINGTHE ORIGINAL LYRICS ("TUTTI FRUTTI, LOOSE BOOTY .. . TOWOP BOP A LU BOP, A GOOD GODDAMN ") FOR A MILDERVERSION.