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The Chemistry of Life
Chemical Basis of Life
Organic Compounds
Lesson Objectives
• Explain why carbon is essential to life on Earth.
• Describe the structure and function of
carbohydrates.
• Describe the structure and function of lipids.
• Describe the structure and function of proteins.
• Describe the structure and function of nucleic
acids.
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJ7xOSCEm
Zw
Introduction
• Organic compounds are
chemical substances that:
– Make up organisms
– Help organisms carry out life
processes
• All contain the elements carbon & hydrogen
– Carbon is the major element
• Without carbon, life as we know it would cease to exist
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CARBON
• Nearly 10 million carbon-containing organic
compounds are known
• Types of carbon compounds in organisms
include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and
nucleic acids
• Carbon can bond with a wide variety of other
elements forming a variety of very large and
complex molecules
– including hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
• Carbon can also bond to other carbons
– may form single, double, or even triple bonds
CARBOHYDRATES
• Contain only carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen
• The most common of the four major types
of organic compounds
• All consist of one or more smaller units
called monosaccharides.
Monosaccharides Formula Where found
Fructose C6 H12 O6 Fruits
Glucose C6 H12 O6 From digestion of other carbohydrates
Galactose , or
ribose
Galactose:
C6 H12 O6
Ribose: C5H10O5
Galactose: milk
Ribose: DNA, RNA
Disaccharides Formula Where found
Sucrose C12 H22O11 Table sugar
Lactose C12 H22O11 Milk
Maltose C12 H22O11 Malt sugar
Polysaccharides Where found Function
Starch Potatoes Used by plants to store energy
Glycogen In human liver
cells
Used by animals to store energy
Cellulose Cell walls of
plants
Used by plants to form rigid walls around
cells
Chitin Exoskeleton of
some insects
Used by some animals to form an external
skeleton
Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
(Simple Carbohydrates)
• Common Monosaccharides:
– glucose (C6 H12 O6), fructose (C6 H12 O6)
• Two monosaccharides bonded together form a
disaccharide.
– Sucrose (table sugar)
Both monosaccharides and disaccharides
are known as simple sugars and provide
energy to living cells…
Polysaccharides
(Complex Carbohydrates)
• Two or more monosaccharides bond
together, form a carbohydrate called a
polysaccharide
– May contain a few monosaccharides to several
thousand monosaccharides
– Main functions are to store energy and form
structural tissues (cell walls, exoskeletons)
The Compounds of Life
Composition
(elements
present)
Function Examples Monomer
Carbohy-
drates
Carbon,
Hydrogen,
and Oxygen
C,H,O
Provide
energy to
living cells;
form
structural
tissue
Glucose
Fructose
Sucrose
Glycogen
Cellulose
Mono-
saccharides
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic acids
LIPIDS
• Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
– include substances such as fats and oils
– Monomer fatty acids & glycerol
• Lipid molecules consist of glycerol & 3 fatty acids
– Other types of lipids can contain additional molecules.
• All lipids are hydrophobic; non-polar
• Are they soluble in water???? NO
Types of Lipids
• Lipids may consist of fatty acids alone or in
combination with other compounds; several
types of lipids consist of fatty acids combined
with a molecule of alcohol:
– Triglycerides are the main form of stored energy in
animals. This type of lipid is commonly called fat
– Phospholipids are a major component of the
membranes surrounding the cells of all organisms
– Steroids (or sterols) have several functions. The
sterol cholesterol is an important part of cell
membranes and plays other vital roles in the body.
Other steroids are male and female sex hormones
Saturated Fatty Acids
• Saturated fatty acids are solids at room temperature
• Saturated refers to the placement of hydrogen atoms
around the carbon atoms
• Saturated fatty acid, have a COOH group; all the C
atoms (other than the C in the -COOH group) are
bonded to two or more H atoms with single bonds
– they form straight chains
• Structure allows saturated fatty acids to be packed
together tightly; dense storage of chemical energy
– fatty tissues of animals contain mainly saturated fatty acids
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
• Unsaturated fatty acids are liquids at room
temperature
• Unsaturated fatty acid, also have a COOH group;
some carbon atoms are not bonded to as many
hydrogen atoms as possible because they are bonded
to one or more additional groups, including double and
triple bonds between carbons
– they cause the chain to bend - do not form straight chains
• Unsaturated fatty acids are found mainly in plants,
especially in fatty tissues such as nuts and seeds.
-- monounsaturated
Type of Lipid Characteristics Where found
Triglycerides Main form of stored
energy in animals
vegetable oil (typically more
unsaturated)
animal fats (typically more saturated)
Saturated Form straight chains
b/c carbon atoms are
bonded to as many H
atoms as possible;
store energy in
compact form; solid
at room temperature
Animals use these to store energy
Unsaturated Form bent chains b/c
some C atoms are not
bonded to as many H
atoms as possible;
store energy; liquid at
room temperature
Plants use these to store energy
Phospholipids Major component of
cell membranes
Liver, peanuts
Steroids Serve as chemical
messengers and have
other roles
found in plants, animals, and fungi
Lipids and Diet
• Humans need lipids for many vital functions, such as storing
energy and forming cell membranes; also supply cells with
energy
– a gram of lipids supplies more than twice as much energy as a gram of
carbohydrates or proteins
• Human body can manufacture most of the lipids it needs
• Essential fatty acids, must be consumed in food
– include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids
• Excess dietary lipids can be harmful
– lead to unhealthy weight gain
– increase the risk for health problems such
as cardiovascular disease
The Compounds of Life
Composition
(elements
present)
Function Examples Monomer
Carbohy-
drates-
Carbon,
Hydrogen,
and Oxygen
C,H,O
Provide
energy to
living cells;
form
structural
tissue
Glucose
Fructose
Sucrose
Glycogen
Cellulose
Mono-
saccharides
Lipids Carbon,
hydrogen,
and Oxygen
C,H,O
Hydrophobic
--form cell
membranes
Store energy
Fats, Oils,
Waxes,
Steroids
Glycerol &
3 Fatty Acids
(for fats &
oils)
Proteins
Nucleic
acids
PROTEINS
• Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
• Made of smaller units called amino acids
(monomers).
– 20 different common amino acids make proteins
– Small proteins can contain just a few hundred amino
acids.
• Yeast proteins average 466 amino acids.
– The largest known proteins are the titins, found in
muscle, which are composed from almost 27,000 amino
acids.
Functions of Proteins
• Essential part of all organisms; that serve many
functions
– provide a scaffolding that maintains the shape of cells
– make up the majority of muscle tissues
– some are enzymes that speed up chemical reactions in cells
– others are antibodies
– Still other help carry messages or materials in and out of cells or
around the body
• Most important traits of proteins, allowing them to carry
out these functions, is their ability to bond with other
molecules. They can bond with other molecules very
specifically and tightly
Amino Acid Structure
• Same basic structure
– ‘R’ group; amino
group (NH2); and
carboxyl group
(COOH)
Protein Structure
• Amino acids can bond together to form short
chains called peptides or longer chains called
polypeptides
• Protein consists of one or more polypeptide
chains
http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/proteins
/protein%20structure.swf
Proteins and Diet
• Proteins in the diet are necessary for life
– Dietary proteins are broken down into their
component amino acids when food is digested
– Cells can then use the components to build new
proteins
• Humans are able to synthesize all but eight of
the twenty common amino acids.
• These eight amino acids, called essential
amino acids, must be consumed in foods
Protein Denaturation
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IL_Df5ouUc
Definition: the change in the shape of protein
molecules_without _denaturation we could not
eat many delicious foods; _is _necessary for
survival so we can break down proteins we eat
into components our bodies can use; _changes
or halts _the shape of the protein
molecule/cellular function.
Is caused by _extreme conditions—heat, acid
(change of pH), or force____40◦C________
The Compounds of Life
Composition
(elements
present)
Function Examples Monomer
Proteins Carbon,
Hydrogen,
Oxygen, and
Nitrogen
C,H,O,N
Maintain cell
shape; Make
muscle
tissue;
Speed up
chemical
reactions;
Carry
messages
Enzymes
Antibodies
Amino Acid
Nucleic
acids
NUCLEIC ACIDS
• Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,
and phosphorus
– made of smaller units called nucleotides.
• Nucleic acids are found not only in all living
cells but also in viruses
• Types of nucleic acids include:
– deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
– ribonucleic acid (RNA).
Structure of Nucleic Acids
• Consists of one or two chains of nucleotides held together by chemical
bonds
• Each individual nucleotide unit consists of three parts:
• a base (containing nitrogen)
- four bases: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and
Thymine in DNA, or Uracil in RNA
• a sugar
(deoxyribose in DNA, ribose in RNA)
• a phosphate group (containing phosphorus)
• RNA consists of a single chain of nucleotides,
DNA consists of two chains of nucleotides
Role of Nucleic Acids
• Order of bases in nucleic acids is highly
significant
– bases are like the letters of a four-letter alphabet
– ‘‘letters” can be combined to form ‘‘words”
– groups of three bases form words of the genetic code
– each code word stands for a different amino acid
– series of many code words spells out the sequence of
amino acids in a protein
• Information is passed from a body cell to its
daughter cells when the cell divides. It is also
passed from parents to their offspring when
organisms reproduce.
How RNA codes for Proteins
• DNA and RNA have different functions relating
to the genetic code and proteins
• Like a set of blueprints, DNA contains the
genetic instructions for the correct sequence of
amino acids in proteins
• RNA uses the information in DNA to assemble
the amino acids and make the proteins.
The Compounds of Life
Composition
(elements
present)
Function Examples Monomer
Nucleic
acids
Carbon,
Hydrogen,
Oxygen,
Phosphorus,
and Nitrogen
C,H,O,P,N
Pass on
traits
Code for
amino acids
Deoxyribo-
nucleic acid
(DNA)
Ribonucleic
acid (RNA)
Nucleotides
Lesson Summary
• Carbon’s exceptional ability to form bonds with other elements and with itself allows it to form
a huge number of large, complex molecules called organic molecules. These molecules make
up organisms and carry out life processes.
• Carbohydrates are organic molecules that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are
made up of repeating units called saccharides. They provide cells with energy, store energy,
and form structural tissues.
• Lipids are organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are made
up of fatty acids and other compounds. They provide cells with energy, store energy, and help
form cell membranes.
• Proteins are organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and, in
some cases, sulfur. They are made up of repeating units called amino acids. They provide
cells with energy, form tissues, speed up chemical reactions throughout the body, and perform
many other cellular functions.
• Nucleic acids are organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and
phosphorus. They are made up of repeating units called nucleotides. They contain genetic
instructions for proteins, help synthesize proteins, and pass genetic instructions on to
daughter cells and offspring.

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7b. The Chemical Basis for Life---ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.ppt

  • 1. The Chemistry of Life Chemical Basis of Life Organic Compounds
  • 2. Lesson Objectives • Explain why carbon is essential to life on Earth. • Describe the structure and function of carbohydrates. • Describe the structure and function of lipids. • Describe the structure and function of proteins. • Describe the structure and function of nucleic acids. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJ7xOSCEm Zw
  • 3. Introduction • Organic compounds are chemical substances that: – Make up organisms – Help organisms carry out life processes • All contain the elements carbon & hydrogen – Carbon is the major element • Without carbon, life as we know it would cease to exist
  • 4. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CARBON • Nearly 10 million carbon-containing organic compounds are known • Types of carbon compounds in organisms include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids • Carbon can bond with a wide variety of other elements forming a variety of very large and complex molecules – including hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen • Carbon can also bond to other carbons – may form single, double, or even triple bonds
  • 5. CARBOHYDRATES • Contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • The most common of the four major types of organic compounds • All consist of one or more smaller units called monosaccharides.
  • 6. Monosaccharides Formula Where found Fructose C6 H12 O6 Fruits Glucose C6 H12 O6 From digestion of other carbohydrates Galactose , or ribose Galactose: C6 H12 O6 Ribose: C5H10O5 Galactose: milk Ribose: DNA, RNA Disaccharides Formula Where found Sucrose C12 H22O11 Table sugar Lactose C12 H22O11 Milk Maltose C12 H22O11 Malt sugar Polysaccharides Where found Function Starch Potatoes Used by plants to store energy Glycogen In human liver cells Used by animals to store energy Cellulose Cell walls of plants Used by plants to form rigid walls around cells Chitin Exoskeleton of some insects Used by some animals to form an external skeleton
  • 7. Monosaccharides and Disaccharides (Simple Carbohydrates) • Common Monosaccharides: – glucose (C6 H12 O6), fructose (C6 H12 O6) • Two monosaccharides bonded together form a disaccharide. – Sucrose (table sugar) Both monosaccharides and disaccharides are known as simple sugars and provide energy to living cells…
  • 8. Polysaccharides (Complex Carbohydrates) • Two or more monosaccharides bond together, form a carbohydrate called a polysaccharide – May contain a few monosaccharides to several thousand monosaccharides – Main functions are to store energy and form structural tissues (cell walls, exoskeletons)
  • 9. The Compounds of Life Composition (elements present) Function Examples Monomer Carbohy- drates Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen C,H,O Provide energy to living cells; form structural tissue Glucose Fructose Sucrose Glycogen Cellulose Mono- saccharides Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids
  • 10. LIPIDS • Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen – include substances such as fats and oils – Monomer fatty acids & glycerol • Lipid molecules consist of glycerol & 3 fatty acids – Other types of lipids can contain additional molecules. • All lipids are hydrophobic; non-polar • Are they soluble in water???? NO
  • 11. Types of Lipids • Lipids may consist of fatty acids alone or in combination with other compounds; several types of lipids consist of fatty acids combined with a molecule of alcohol: – Triglycerides are the main form of stored energy in animals. This type of lipid is commonly called fat – Phospholipids are a major component of the membranes surrounding the cells of all organisms – Steroids (or sterols) have several functions. The sterol cholesterol is an important part of cell membranes and plays other vital roles in the body. Other steroids are male and female sex hormones
  • 12. Saturated Fatty Acids • Saturated fatty acids are solids at room temperature • Saturated refers to the placement of hydrogen atoms around the carbon atoms • Saturated fatty acid, have a COOH group; all the C atoms (other than the C in the -COOH group) are bonded to two or more H atoms with single bonds – they form straight chains • Structure allows saturated fatty acids to be packed together tightly; dense storage of chemical energy – fatty tissues of animals contain mainly saturated fatty acids
  • 13. Unsaturated Fatty Acids • Unsaturated fatty acids are liquids at room temperature • Unsaturated fatty acid, also have a COOH group; some carbon atoms are not bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible because they are bonded to one or more additional groups, including double and triple bonds between carbons – they cause the chain to bend - do not form straight chains • Unsaturated fatty acids are found mainly in plants, especially in fatty tissues such as nuts and seeds. -- monounsaturated
  • 14. Type of Lipid Characteristics Where found Triglycerides Main form of stored energy in animals vegetable oil (typically more unsaturated) animal fats (typically more saturated) Saturated Form straight chains b/c carbon atoms are bonded to as many H atoms as possible; store energy in compact form; solid at room temperature Animals use these to store energy Unsaturated Form bent chains b/c some C atoms are not bonded to as many H atoms as possible; store energy; liquid at room temperature Plants use these to store energy Phospholipids Major component of cell membranes Liver, peanuts Steroids Serve as chemical messengers and have other roles found in plants, animals, and fungi
  • 15. Lipids and Diet • Humans need lipids for many vital functions, such as storing energy and forming cell membranes; also supply cells with energy – a gram of lipids supplies more than twice as much energy as a gram of carbohydrates or proteins • Human body can manufacture most of the lipids it needs • Essential fatty acids, must be consumed in food – include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids • Excess dietary lipids can be harmful – lead to unhealthy weight gain – increase the risk for health problems such as cardiovascular disease
  • 16. The Compounds of Life Composition (elements present) Function Examples Monomer Carbohy- drates- Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen C,H,O Provide energy to living cells; form structural tissue Glucose Fructose Sucrose Glycogen Cellulose Mono- saccharides Lipids Carbon, hydrogen, and Oxygen C,H,O Hydrophobic --form cell membranes Store energy Fats, Oils, Waxes, Steroids Glycerol & 3 Fatty Acids (for fats & oils) Proteins Nucleic acids
  • 17. PROTEINS • Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen • Made of smaller units called amino acids (monomers). – 20 different common amino acids make proteins – Small proteins can contain just a few hundred amino acids. • Yeast proteins average 466 amino acids. – The largest known proteins are the titins, found in muscle, which are composed from almost 27,000 amino acids.
  • 18. Functions of Proteins • Essential part of all organisms; that serve many functions – provide a scaffolding that maintains the shape of cells – make up the majority of muscle tissues – some are enzymes that speed up chemical reactions in cells – others are antibodies – Still other help carry messages or materials in and out of cells or around the body • Most important traits of proteins, allowing them to carry out these functions, is their ability to bond with other molecules. They can bond with other molecules very specifically and tightly
  • 19. Amino Acid Structure • Same basic structure – ‘R’ group; amino group (NH2); and carboxyl group (COOH)
  • 20. Protein Structure • Amino acids can bond together to form short chains called peptides or longer chains called polypeptides • Protein consists of one or more polypeptide chains http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/proteins /protein%20structure.swf
  • 21. Proteins and Diet • Proteins in the diet are necessary for life – Dietary proteins are broken down into their component amino acids when food is digested – Cells can then use the components to build new proteins • Humans are able to synthesize all but eight of the twenty common amino acids. • These eight amino acids, called essential amino acids, must be consumed in foods
  • 22. Protein Denaturation • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IL_Df5ouUc Definition: the change in the shape of protein molecules_without _denaturation we could not eat many delicious foods; _is _necessary for survival so we can break down proteins we eat into components our bodies can use; _changes or halts _the shape of the protein molecule/cellular function. Is caused by _extreme conditions—heat, acid (change of pH), or force____40◦C________
  • 23. The Compounds of Life Composition (elements present) Function Examples Monomer Proteins Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen C,H,O,N Maintain cell shape; Make muscle tissue; Speed up chemical reactions; Carry messages Enzymes Antibodies Amino Acid Nucleic acids
  • 24. NUCLEIC ACIDS • Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus – made of smaller units called nucleotides. • Nucleic acids are found not only in all living cells but also in viruses • Types of nucleic acids include: – deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – ribonucleic acid (RNA).
  • 25. Structure of Nucleic Acids • Consists of one or two chains of nucleotides held together by chemical bonds • Each individual nucleotide unit consists of three parts: • a base (containing nitrogen) - four bases: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine in DNA, or Uracil in RNA • a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA, ribose in RNA) • a phosphate group (containing phosphorus) • RNA consists of a single chain of nucleotides, DNA consists of two chains of nucleotides
  • 26. Role of Nucleic Acids • Order of bases in nucleic acids is highly significant – bases are like the letters of a four-letter alphabet – ‘‘letters” can be combined to form ‘‘words” – groups of three bases form words of the genetic code – each code word stands for a different amino acid – series of many code words spells out the sequence of amino acids in a protein • Information is passed from a body cell to its daughter cells when the cell divides. It is also passed from parents to their offspring when organisms reproduce.
  • 27. How RNA codes for Proteins • DNA and RNA have different functions relating to the genetic code and proteins • Like a set of blueprints, DNA contains the genetic instructions for the correct sequence of amino acids in proteins • RNA uses the information in DNA to assemble the amino acids and make the proteins.
  • 28. The Compounds of Life Composition (elements present) Function Examples Monomer Nucleic acids Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Nitrogen C,H,O,P,N Pass on traits Code for amino acids Deoxyribo- nucleic acid (DNA) Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Nucleotides
  • 29. Lesson Summary • Carbon’s exceptional ability to form bonds with other elements and with itself allows it to form a huge number of large, complex molecules called organic molecules. These molecules make up organisms and carry out life processes. • Carbohydrates are organic molecules that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are made up of repeating units called saccharides. They provide cells with energy, store energy, and form structural tissues. • Lipids are organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are made up of fatty acids and other compounds. They provide cells with energy, store energy, and help form cell membranes. • Proteins are organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and, in some cases, sulfur. They are made up of repeating units called amino acids. They provide cells with energy, form tissues, speed up chemical reactions throughout the body, and perform many other cellular functions. • Nucleic acids are organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. They are made up of repeating units called nucleotides. They contain genetic instructions for proteins, help synthesize proteins, and pass genetic instructions on to daughter cells and offspring.