SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 19
Antimicrobials
Definition
Antibiotics: Natural substances produced by certain groups of
microorganisms that kill or inhibit the growth of other
microorganisms.
Most of the natural antibiotics that are being used in medicine are produced
by three unrelated groups of microbes:
• Penicillium and Cephalosporium molds
• Actinomycetes, mainly Streptomyces species
• Bacillus species
Features of Antimicrobial Drugs
1. Most modern antibiotics come from species of microorganisms
that live in the soil
2. Should have selective toxicity (Cause greater harm to
microorganisms than to host)
3. Some antibiotic are Bacteriostatic: Inhibits growth of
microorganisms
4. Some are Bactericidal: Kills microorganisms
5. They have a variety of Spectrum of Activity
• Some kill or inhibit only limited range : Narrow-spectrum
antimicrobial
• While others kill or inhibit wide range of microorganisms: Broad-
spectrum antimicrobial
• If effective against a single organism or disease, they are referred
to as limited spectrum
6. Effects of Combining Drugs can be:
• Combinations are sometimes used to fight infections.
• Synergistic: action of one drug enhances the activity of
another
• Antagonistic: activity of one drug interferes with the action of
another
7. Adverse Effects
1. Allergic Reactions: some people develop hypersensitivities
to antimicrobials
2. Toxic Effects: some antimicrobials toxic at high
concentrations.
3. Suppression of normal flora: when normal flora killed,
other pathogens may be able to grow to high numbers
Mechanisms of action of Antibiotics
• Some microorganisms inherently resistant.
• Production of enzymes which inactivate or modify antibiotics.
• Changes in the bacterial cell membrane, preventing the uptake of an
antimicrobial.
• Modification of the target so that it no longer interacts with the
antimicrobial.
• Development of metabolic pathways by bacteria which enable the
site of antimicrobial action to be by passed.
Antimicrobial resistance
• Production of enzymes which inactivate or modify antibiotics,
• Changes in the bacterial cell membrane, preventing the uptake of an
antimicrobial.
• Modification of the target so that it no longer interacts with the antimicrobial.
• Development of metabolic pathways by bacteria which enable the site of
antimicrobial action to be by passed.
Antimicrobial resistance
Bacteria become resistant to antimicrobial agents by a
number of mechanisms, the commonest being:
ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING
A test done to check the effectiveness of a drug against the bacteria and
to select the best drug that acts against the bacteria.
• To guide the clinician in selecting the best antibiotic.
• To control the use of inappropriate antibiotics in clinical practice.
• To accumulate epidemiological information on the resistance of
microorganisms within the community.
• To reveal the changing trends in the local isolates.
ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING
Antibiotic Sensitivity Tests
Diffusion
Kirby-Bauer
Method
Stokes
Method
Dilution
Tube
Dilution
Agar
Dilution
Diffusion &
Dilution
E-Test
Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods
Turbidity standard equivalent to McFarland 0.5
• This is a Barium sulphate standard against which the turbidity of the test
and control inocula can be compared. When matched with the
standard,
Shake the standard
immediately before use.
Kirby-Bauer modified disc diffusion
• Using discs of correct antimicrobial content, an inoculum which gives
confluent growth, and a reliable Mueller Hinton agar.
• Incubation at 35 OC for 16–18 hours
• Zone sizes are measured in mm and interpreted using CLSI (Clinical
Laboratory Standard Institute) standards.
Measurement of zone sizes
Using the Interpretative Chart of CLSI,
interpret the zones
• Resistant, Intermediate or Susceptible
Stokes disc diffusion technique
• Both the test and control organisms are inoculated on the same
plate.
• The zone sizes of the test organism are compared directly with that
of the control.
Stokes disc diffusion technique
QCdone by American Type
Culture Collection (ATCC)
Control strains
• Used to determine the (MIC) of
antibiotic to inhibit the microorganism.
• Achieved by dilution of antibiotic in either agar or broth media.
Patient's organism is added to
tubes containing decreasing
amounts of the antibiotic
Incubation
At 37°C overnight
Lowest concentration of drug that
inhibits growth is Minimum Inhibitory
Concentration (MIC)
Lowest concentration of drug that kills
the growth of bacteria is Minimum
Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)
MBC MIC
• Varying concentrations of the antibiotics are coated on the wells.
• During testing, multiple microtiter plates are filled with a broth composed
of bacterial suspension.
• The plate is then placed into an incubator overnight at 35oC.
• The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by the first
well where there is no visible growth.
• Serial dilutions of the drug are prepared in agar and poured into
plates.
• Many strains can be inoculated on each plate containing an
antibiotic dilution.
E-Test (Epsilometer test)
• Manufactured by bioMérieux, is a manual in
vitro diagnostic to detect MIC.
• Different concentration of an antibiotic are the
on the same strip.
Thank You

More Related Content

Similar to 11. Antimicrobials.pptx

Antibiotic susceptibility testing بكتريا عملي
Antibiotic susceptibility testing بكتريا عملي Antibiotic susceptibility testing بكتريا عملي
Antibiotic susceptibility testing بكتريا عملي في رحاب الله
 
Antibiotics in periodontics
Antibiotics in periodonticsAntibiotics in periodontics
Antibiotics in periodonticsRinisha Sinha
 
Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing and Antimicrobial Stewardship.pptx
Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing and Antimicrobial Stewardship.pptxAntibiotic Sensitivity Testing and Antimicrobial Stewardship.pptx
Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing and Antimicrobial Stewardship.pptxDr. Rakesh Prasad Sah
 
Antibiotic resistance,introduction, cause, mechanism and solution of Antibiot...
Antibiotic resistance,introduction, cause, mechanism and solution of Antibiot...Antibiotic resistance,introduction, cause, mechanism and solution of Antibiot...
Antibiotic resistance,introduction, cause, mechanism and solution of Antibiot...Dr. Sharad Chand
 
7._LS_ang_Pract_ATB_sensitivity_testing.pdf
7._LS_ang_Pract_ATB_sensitivity_testing.pdf7._LS_ang_Pract_ATB_sensitivity_testing.pdf
7._LS_ang_Pract_ATB_sensitivity_testing.pdfDrIssamIrak
 
Antibacterial agents are a group of materials that selectively destroy bacter...
Antibacterial agents are a group of materials that selectively destroy bacter...Antibacterial agents are a group of materials that selectively destroy bacter...
Antibacterial agents are a group of materials that selectively destroy bacter...Smitha Vijayan
 
Antibiotic selection /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental ac...
Antibiotic selection /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental ac...Antibiotic selection /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental ac...
Antibiotic selection /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental ac...Indian dental academy
 
Antibiotic Resistance & stewardship program in children
Antibiotic  Resistance & stewardship program in childrenAntibiotic  Resistance & stewardship program in children
Antibiotic Resistance & stewardship program in childrenAzad Haleem
 
Antibiotic resistance and suceptibility.
Antibiotic resistance and suceptibility.Antibiotic resistance and suceptibility.
Antibiotic resistance and suceptibility.MariamShafique5
 
0VERVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 111.pptx
0VERVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 111.pptx0VERVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 111.pptx
0VERVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 111.pptxKrishnaSupalkar
 
ANTIBIOTIC AND IT'S CONROVERSIES
ANTIBIOTIC AND IT'S CONROVERSIESANTIBIOTIC AND IT'S CONROVERSIES
ANTIBIOTIC AND IT'S CONROVERSIESIRFAN KADER
 
Intro to Antibacterial drugs (Final Draft).pptx
Intro to Antibacterial drugs (Final Draft).pptxIntro to Antibacterial drugs (Final Draft).pptx
Intro to Antibacterial drugs (Final Draft).pptxAroobaAthar
 
Neonatal pharm 3 .ppt
Neonatal pharm 3 .pptNeonatal pharm 3 .ppt
Neonatal pharm 3 .pptMesfinShifara
 
Microbiological culture sensitivity test
Microbiological culture sensitivity testMicrobiological culture sensitivity test
Microbiological culture sensitivity testAkhil Joseph
 
Chp no 2 anti-microbial.pptx
Chp no 2 anti-microbial.pptxChp no 2 anti-microbial.pptx
Chp no 2 anti-microbial.pptxMahnoorFatima92
 
Antimicrobial alpana
Antimicrobial alpanaAntimicrobial alpana
Antimicrobial alpanaBruno Mmassy
 
Antibiotics and its principles
Antibiotics and its principlesAntibiotics and its principles
Antibiotics and its principlesAkansha Kandoi
 

Similar to 11. Antimicrobials.pptx (20)

Antibiotic susceptibility testing بكتريا عملي
Antibiotic susceptibility testing بكتريا عملي Antibiotic susceptibility testing بكتريا عملي
Antibiotic susceptibility testing بكتريا عملي
 
Antibiotics in periodontics
Antibiotics in periodonticsAntibiotics in periodontics
Antibiotics in periodontics
 
Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing and Antimicrobial Stewardship.pptx
Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing and Antimicrobial Stewardship.pptxAntibiotic Sensitivity Testing and Antimicrobial Stewardship.pptx
Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing and Antimicrobial Stewardship.pptx
 
Antibiotic resistance,introduction, cause, mechanism and solution of Antibiot...
Antibiotic resistance,introduction, cause, mechanism and solution of Antibiot...Antibiotic resistance,introduction, cause, mechanism and solution of Antibiot...
Antibiotic resistance,introduction, cause, mechanism and solution of Antibiot...
 
7._LS_ang_Pract_ATB_sensitivity_testing.pdf
7._LS_ang_Pract_ATB_sensitivity_testing.pdf7._LS_ang_Pract_ATB_sensitivity_testing.pdf
7._LS_ang_Pract_ATB_sensitivity_testing.pdf
 
Antibacterial agents are a group of materials that selectively destroy bacter...
Antibacterial agents are a group of materials that selectively destroy bacter...Antibacterial agents are a group of materials that selectively destroy bacter...
Antibacterial agents are a group of materials that selectively destroy bacter...
 
Antibiotic selection /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental ac...
Antibiotic selection /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental ac...Antibiotic selection /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental ac...
Antibiotic selection /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental ac...
 
antibiotic-sensitivity testing
antibiotic-sensitivity testingantibiotic-sensitivity testing
antibiotic-sensitivity testing
 
Antibacterial drugs medical.pdf
Antibacterial drugs medical.pdfAntibacterial drugs medical.pdf
Antibacterial drugs medical.pdf
 
Antibiotic Resistance & stewardship program in children
Antibiotic  Resistance & stewardship program in childrenAntibiotic  Resistance & stewardship program in children
Antibiotic Resistance & stewardship program in children
 
Antibiotic resistance and suceptibility.
Antibiotic resistance and suceptibility.Antibiotic resistance and suceptibility.
Antibiotic resistance and suceptibility.
 
0VERVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 111.pptx
0VERVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 111.pptx0VERVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 111.pptx
0VERVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 111.pptx
 
ANTIBIOTIC AND IT'S CONROVERSIES
ANTIBIOTIC AND IT'S CONROVERSIESANTIBIOTIC AND IT'S CONROVERSIES
ANTIBIOTIC AND IT'S CONROVERSIES
 
Intro to Antibacterial drugs (Final Draft).pptx
Intro to Antibacterial drugs (Final Draft).pptxIntro to Antibacterial drugs (Final Draft).pptx
Intro to Antibacterial drugs (Final Draft).pptx
 
Neonatal pharm 3 .ppt
Neonatal pharm 3 .pptNeonatal pharm 3 .ppt
Neonatal pharm 3 .ppt
 
Microbiological culture sensitivity test
Microbiological culture sensitivity testMicrobiological culture sensitivity test
Microbiological culture sensitivity test
 
Chp no 2 anti-microbial.pptx
Chp no 2 anti-microbial.pptxChp no 2 anti-microbial.pptx
Chp no 2 anti-microbial.pptx
 
Antimicrobial alpana
Antimicrobial alpanaAntimicrobial alpana
Antimicrobial alpana
 
Antibiotics and its principles
Antibiotics and its principlesAntibiotics and its principles
Antibiotics and its principles
 
antibiotic resistance whats new???
antibiotic resistance  whats new???antibiotic resistance  whats new???
antibiotic resistance whats new???
 

More from AbdallahAlasal1

ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptxACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptxPra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptxمقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.pptLower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptxMethods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.pptdigestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptxProtein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).pptlect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptxChaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.pptweek 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 

More from AbdallahAlasal1 (20)

ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptxACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
 
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
 
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptxPra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
 
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptxمقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
 
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.pptLower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
 
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptxMethods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
 
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
 
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.pptdigestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
 
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptxProtein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
 
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
 
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).pptlect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
 
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
 
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptxChaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
 
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.pptweek 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
 
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
 
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
 
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx
 
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
 
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx
 
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Abortion Clinic in Kempton Park +27791653574 WhatsApp Abortion Clinic Service...
Abortion Clinic in Kempton Park +27791653574 WhatsApp Abortion Clinic Service...Abortion Clinic in Kempton Park +27791653574 WhatsApp Abortion Clinic Service...
Abortion Clinic in Kempton Park +27791653574 WhatsApp Abortion Clinic Service...mikehavy0
 
SCI8-Q4-MOD11.pdfwrwujrrjfaajerjrajrrarj
SCI8-Q4-MOD11.pdfwrwujrrjfaajerjrajrrarjSCI8-Q4-MOD11.pdfwrwujrrjfaajerjrajrrarj
SCI8-Q4-MOD11.pdfwrwujrrjfaajerjrajrrarjadimosmejiaslendon
 
obat aborsi Banjarmasin wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di Ban...
obat aborsi Banjarmasin wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di  Ban...obat aborsi Banjarmasin wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di  Ban...
obat aborsi Banjarmasin wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di Ban...siskavia95
 
Solution manual for managerial accounting 8th edition by john wild ken shaw b...
Solution manual for managerial accounting 8th edition by john wild ken shaw b...Solution manual for managerial accounting 8th edition by john wild ken shaw b...
Solution manual for managerial accounting 8th edition by john wild ken shaw b...rightmanforbloodline
 
Seven tools of quality control.slideshare
Seven tools of quality control.slideshareSeven tools of quality control.slideshare
Seven tools of quality control.slideshareraiaryan448
 
obat aborsi Bontang wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di Bontang
obat aborsi Bontang wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di  Bontangobat aborsi Bontang wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di  Bontang
obat aborsi Bontang wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di Bontangsiskavia95
 
Ranking and Scoring Exercises for Research
Ranking and Scoring Exercises for ResearchRanking and Scoring Exercises for Research
Ranking and Scoring Exercises for ResearchRajesh Mondal
 
Jual Obat Aborsi Lhokseumawe ( Asli No.1 ) 088980685493 Obat Penggugur Kandun...
Jual Obat Aborsi Lhokseumawe ( Asli No.1 ) 088980685493 Obat Penggugur Kandun...Jual Obat Aborsi Lhokseumawe ( Asli No.1 ) 088980685493 Obat Penggugur Kandun...
Jual Obat Aborsi Lhokseumawe ( Asli No.1 ) 088980685493 Obat Penggugur Kandun...Obat Aborsi 088980685493 Jual Obat Aborsi
 
Jual Obat Aborsi Bandung (Asli No.1) Wa 082134680322 Klinik Obat Penggugur Ka...
Jual Obat Aborsi Bandung (Asli No.1) Wa 082134680322 Klinik Obat Penggugur Ka...Jual Obat Aborsi Bandung (Asli No.1) Wa 082134680322 Klinik Obat Penggugur Ka...
Jual Obat Aborsi Bandung (Asli No.1) Wa 082134680322 Klinik Obat Penggugur Ka...Klinik Aborsi
 
Northern New England Tableau User Group (TUG) May 2024
Northern New England Tableau User Group (TUG) May 2024Northern New England Tableau User Group (TUG) May 2024
Northern New England Tableau User Group (TUG) May 2024patrickdtherriault
 
如何办理(UPenn毕业证书)宾夕法尼亚大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UPenn毕业证书)宾夕法尼亚大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UPenn毕业证书)宾夕法尼亚大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UPenn毕业证书)宾夕法尼亚大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证acoha1
 
Jual obat aborsi Bandung ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur ka...
Jual obat aborsi Bandung ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur ka...Jual obat aborsi Bandung ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur ka...
Jual obat aborsi Bandung ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur ka...Klinik kandungan
 
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdfFormulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdfRobertoOcampo24
 
Digital Transformation Playbook by Graham Ware
Digital Transformation Playbook by Graham WareDigital Transformation Playbook by Graham Ware
Digital Transformation Playbook by Graham WareGraham Ware
 
Identify Customer Segments to Create Customer Offers for Each Segment - Appli...
Identify Customer Segments to Create Customer Offers for Each Segment - Appli...Identify Customer Segments to Create Customer Offers for Each Segment - Appli...
Identify Customer Segments to Create Customer Offers for Each Segment - Appli...ThinkInnovation
 
MATERI MANAJEMEN OF PENYAKIT TETANUS.ppt
MATERI  MANAJEMEN OF PENYAKIT TETANUS.pptMATERI  MANAJEMEN OF PENYAKIT TETANUS.ppt
MATERI MANAJEMEN OF PENYAKIT TETANUS.pptRachmaGhifari
 
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Data Mining Concepts and Techniques.pptx
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Data Mining Concepts and Techniques.pptxChapter 1 - Introduction to Data Mining Concepts and Techniques.pptx
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Data Mining Concepts and Techniques.pptxkusamee0
 
RESEARCH-FINAL-DEFENSE-PPT-TEMPLATE.pptx
RESEARCH-FINAL-DEFENSE-PPT-TEMPLATE.pptxRESEARCH-FINAL-DEFENSE-PPT-TEMPLATE.pptx
RESEARCH-FINAL-DEFENSE-PPT-TEMPLATE.pptxronsairoathenadugay
 
What is Insertion Sort. Its basic information
What is Insertion Sort. Its basic informationWhat is Insertion Sort. Its basic information
What is Insertion Sort. Its basic informationmuqadasqasim10
 
原件一样伦敦国王学院毕业证成绩单留信学历认证
原件一样伦敦国王学院毕业证成绩单留信学历认证原件一样伦敦国王学院毕业证成绩单留信学历认证
原件一样伦敦国王学院毕业证成绩单留信学历认证pwgnohujw
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Abortion Clinic in Kempton Park +27791653574 WhatsApp Abortion Clinic Service...
Abortion Clinic in Kempton Park +27791653574 WhatsApp Abortion Clinic Service...Abortion Clinic in Kempton Park +27791653574 WhatsApp Abortion Clinic Service...
Abortion Clinic in Kempton Park +27791653574 WhatsApp Abortion Clinic Service...
 
SCI8-Q4-MOD11.pdfwrwujrrjfaajerjrajrrarj
SCI8-Q4-MOD11.pdfwrwujrrjfaajerjrajrrarjSCI8-Q4-MOD11.pdfwrwujrrjfaajerjrajrrarj
SCI8-Q4-MOD11.pdfwrwujrrjfaajerjrajrrarj
 
obat aborsi Banjarmasin wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di Ban...
obat aborsi Banjarmasin wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di  Ban...obat aborsi Banjarmasin wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di  Ban...
obat aborsi Banjarmasin wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di Ban...
 
Solution manual for managerial accounting 8th edition by john wild ken shaw b...
Solution manual for managerial accounting 8th edition by john wild ken shaw b...Solution manual for managerial accounting 8th edition by john wild ken shaw b...
Solution manual for managerial accounting 8th edition by john wild ken shaw b...
 
Seven tools of quality control.slideshare
Seven tools of quality control.slideshareSeven tools of quality control.slideshare
Seven tools of quality control.slideshare
 
obat aborsi Bontang wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di Bontang
obat aborsi Bontang wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di  Bontangobat aborsi Bontang wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di  Bontang
obat aborsi Bontang wa 082135199655 jual obat aborsi cytotec asli di Bontang
 
Ranking and Scoring Exercises for Research
Ranking and Scoring Exercises for ResearchRanking and Scoring Exercises for Research
Ranking and Scoring Exercises for Research
 
Jual Obat Aborsi Lhokseumawe ( Asli No.1 ) 088980685493 Obat Penggugur Kandun...
Jual Obat Aborsi Lhokseumawe ( Asli No.1 ) 088980685493 Obat Penggugur Kandun...Jual Obat Aborsi Lhokseumawe ( Asli No.1 ) 088980685493 Obat Penggugur Kandun...
Jual Obat Aborsi Lhokseumawe ( Asli No.1 ) 088980685493 Obat Penggugur Kandun...
 
Jual Obat Aborsi Bandung (Asli No.1) Wa 082134680322 Klinik Obat Penggugur Ka...
Jual Obat Aborsi Bandung (Asli No.1) Wa 082134680322 Klinik Obat Penggugur Ka...Jual Obat Aborsi Bandung (Asli No.1) Wa 082134680322 Klinik Obat Penggugur Ka...
Jual Obat Aborsi Bandung (Asli No.1) Wa 082134680322 Klinik Obat Penggugur Ka...
 
Northern New England Tableau User Group (TUG) May 2024
Northern New England Tableau User Group (TUG) May 2024Northern New England Tableau User Group (TUG) May 2024
Northern New England Tableau User Group (TUG) May 2024
 
如何办理(UPenn毕业证书)宾夕法尼亚大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UPenn毕业证书)宾夕法尼亚大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UPenn毕业证书)宾夕法尼亚大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UPenn毕业证书)宾夕法尼亚大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
Jual obat aborsi Bandung ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur ka...
Jual obat aborsi Bandung ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur ka...Jual obat aborsi Bandung ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur ka...
Jual obat aborsi Bandung ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur ka...
 
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdfFormulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
 
Digital Transformation Playbook by Graham Ware
Digital Transformation Playbook by Graham WareDigital Transformation Playbook by Graham Ware
Digital Transformation Playbook by Graham Ware
 
Identify Customer Segments to Create Customer Offers for Each Segment - Appli...
Identify Customer Segments to Create Customer Offers for Each Segment - Appli...Identify Customer Segments to Create Customer Offers for Each Segment - Appli...
Identify Customer Segments to Create Customer Offers for Each Segment - Appli...
 
MATERI MANAJEMEN OF PENYAKIT TETANUS.ppt
MATERI  MANAJEMEN OF PENYAKIT TETANUS.pptMATERI  MANAJEMEN OF PENYAKIT TETANUS.ppt
MATERI MANAJEMEN OF PENYAKIT TETANUS.ppt
 
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Data Mining Concepts and Techniques.pptx
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Data Mining Concepts and Techniques.pptxChapter 1 - Introduction to Data Mining Concepts and Techniques.pptx
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Data Mining Concepts and Techniques.pptx
 
RESEARCH-FINAL-DEFENSE-PPT-TEMPLATE.pptx
RESEARCH-FINAL-DEFENSE-PPT-TEMPLATE.pptxRESEARCH-FINAL-DEFENSE-PPT-TEMPLATE.pptx
RESEARCH-FINAL-DEFENSE-PPT-TEMPLATE.pptx
 
What is Insertion Sort. Its basic information
What is Insertion Sort. Its basic informationWhat is Insertion Sort. Its basic information
What is Insertion Sort. Its basic information
 
原件一样伦敦国王学院毕业证成绩单留信学历认证
原件一样伦敦国王学院毕业证成绩单留信学历认证原件一样伦敦国王学院毕业证成绩单留信学历认证
原件一样伦敦国王学院毕业证成绩单留信学历认证
 

11. Antimicrobials.pptx

  • 2. Definition Antibiotics: Natural substances produced by certain groups of microorganisms that kill or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Most of the natural antibiotics that are being used in medicine are produced by three unrelated groups of microbes: • Penicillium and Cephalosporium molds • Actinomycetes, mainly Streptomyces species • Bacillus species
  • 3. Features of Antimicrobial Drugs 1. Most modern antibiotics come from species of microorganisms that live in the soil 2. Should have selective toxicity (Cause greater harm to microorganisms than to host) 3. Some antibiotic are Bacteriostatic: Inhibits growth of microorganisms 4. Some are Bactericidal: Kills microorganisms
  • 4. 5. They have a variety of Spectrum of Activity • Some kill or inhibit only limited range : Narrow-spectrum antimicrobial • While others kill or inhibit wide range of microorganisms: Broad- spectrum antimicrobial • If effective against a single organism or disease, they are referred to as limited spectrum
  • 5. 6. Effects of Combining Drugs can be: • Combinations are sometimes used to fight infections. • Synergistic: action of one drug enhances the activity of another • Antagonistic: activity of one drug interferes with the action of another
  • 6. 7. Adverse Effects 1. Allergic Reactions: some people develop hypersensitivities to antimicrobials 2. Toxic Effects: some antimicrobials toxic at high concentrations. 3. Suppression of normal flora: when normal flora killed, other pathogens may be able to grow to high numbers
  • 7. Mechanisms of action of Antibiotics
  • 8. • Some microorganisms inherently resistant. • Production of enzymes which inactivate or modify antibiotics. • Changes in the bacterial cell membrane, preventing the uptake of an antimicrobial. • Modification of the target so that it no longer interacts with the antimicrobial. • Development of metabolic pathways by bacteria which enable the site of antimicrobial action to be by passed. Antimicrobial resistance
  • 9. • Production of enzymes which inactivate or modify antibiotics, • Changes in the bacterial cell membrane, preventing the uptake of an antimicrobial. • Modification of the target so that it no longer interacts with the antimicrobial. • Development of metabolic pathways by bacteria which enable the site of antimicrobial action to be by passed. Antimicrobial resistance Bacteria become resistant to antimicrobial agents by a number of mechanisms, the commonest being:
  • 10. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING A test done to check the effectiveness of a drug against the bacteria and to select the best drug that acts against the bacteria. • To guide the clinician in selecting the best antibiotic. • To control the use of inappropriate antibiotics in clinical practice. • To accumulate epidemiological information on the resistance of microorganisms within the community. • To reveal the changing trends in the local isolates.
  • 11. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING Antibiotic Sensitivity Tests Diffusion Kirby-Bauer Method Stokes Method Dilution Tube Dilution Agar Dilution Diffusion & Dilution E-Test Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods
  • 12. Turbidity standard equivalent to McFarland 0.5 • This is a Barium sulphate standard against which the turbidity of the test and control inocula can be compared. When matched with the standard, Shake the standard immediately before use.
  • 13. Kirby-Bauer modified disc diffusion • Using discs of correct antimicrobial content, an inoculum which gives confluent growth, and a reliable Mueller Hinton agar. • Incubation at 35 OC for 16–18 hours • Zone sizes are measured in mm and interpreted using CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute) standards. Measurement of zone sizes Using the Interpretative Chart of CLSI, interpret the zones • Resistant, Intermediate or Susceptible
  • 14. Stokes disc diffusion technique • Both the test and control organisms are inoculated on the same plate. • The zone sizes of the test organism are compared directly with that of the control. Stokes disc diffusion technique QCdone by American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Control strains
  • 15. • Used to determine the (MIC) of antibiotic to inhibit the microorganism. • Achieved by dilution of antibiotic in either agar or broth media.
  • 16. Patient's organism is added to tubes containing decreasing amounts of the antibiotic Incubation At 37°C overnight Lowest concentration of drug that inhibits growth is Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Lowest concentration of drug that kills the growth of bacteria is Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)
  • 18. • Varying concentrations of the antibiotics are coated on the wells. • During testing, multiple microtiter plates are filled with a broth composed of bacterial suspension. • The plate is then placed into an incubator overnight at 35oC. • The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by the first well where there is no visible growth.
  • 19. • Serial dilutions of the drug are prepared in agar and poured into plates. • Many strains can be inoculated on each plate containing an antibiotic dilution. E-Test (Epsilometer test) • Manufactured by bioMérieux, is a manual in vitro diagnostic to detect MIC. • Different concentration of an antibiotic are the on the same strip. Thank You