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Advance Physics Letter
________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
ISSN (Print) : 2349-1094, ISSN (Online) : 2349-1108, Vol_1, Issue_1, 2014
6
Structural Characterization of Combustion Synthesized Gd2O3
Nanopowder by Using Glycerin as Fuel
1
Raunak Kumar Tamrakara
, 2
D. P. Bisen, 3
Ishwar Prasad Sahu
1
Department of Applied Physics, Bhilai Institute of Technology (Seth Balkrishan Memorial), Near Bhilai House, Durg
(C.G.) Pin-491001, India
2,3
School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.) Pin-492010, India
Abstract -Combustion synthesis were accomplished to
synthesize pure Gd2O3 phosphor by using glycerin as fuel.
To investigate the luminescence behavior, excitation and
emission spectra have been recorded. The prepared
phosphor sample was characterized by using XRD, FTIR,
SEM and TEM. From the XRD data, using the Scherer’s
formula the calculated average crystallite size of pure Gd2O3
phosphor is around 8nm. The TEM (Transmission Electron
Microscope) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope)
results agree with the XRD results.
Keywords: Pure Gd2O3, Phosphors; XRD, FTIR, SEM &
TEM; Corresponding author Email Id: -
raunak.ruby@gmail.com.
I. INTRODUCTIONS:-
Nowadays, Rare earth oxide luminescent materials have
attracted great attention due to their size, shape and
phase dependent luminescence properties, which make
them suitable for fundamental and technological
applications [1-4]. Among different families of
crystalline materials, oxide crystals are of great interest
due to their unique optical properties, such as long
fluorescent lifetime, large Stokes shift, favourable
physical and chemical properties as well as good
photochemical stability. Several of the rare earth
elements and their corresponding oxides are of
exceedingly technical importance and are used in critical
parts. Rare earth oxides are this kind of advanced
materials and which are widely used as high
performance luminescent devices, magnets, catalysts,
and other functional materials such as electronic,
magnetic, nuclear, optical, and catalytic devices [2, 5-6].
Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) is a good choice to
investigate for luminescence properties due to its high
refractive index (2.3), high optical transparency, good
thermal and chemical stability, high dielectric constant,
and low phonon energy among the family of oxide hosts
[7-10]. Because of these favourable properties, it
exhibits numerous applications such as three way
catalysts for exhaust gas treatment from vehicles, oxide
ion conductors in solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen gas
sensors, electrode materials for sensors, optoelectronic
devices, high definition televisions, biological imaging,
high temperature superconducting materials, excellent
ultraviolet light absorber, photo-catalyst, therapeutic
effects in cancer treatment-enhancing the effect of
radiation on cancerous cells while reducing damage to
normal cells, luminescent inks, paints and dyes
sunscreen cosmetics and luminescent materials[11-17].
In the presented work, combustion synthesis technique
has been utilized to prepare nanopowders of gadolinium
oxide by using glycerin as a fuel. The synthesis and
characterization of Gadolinium oxide via different
techniques have attracted considerable attention. The
glycerin and metal nitrate get decomposed and give
flammable gases such as NH3, CO2, and NO. When the
solution reaches a point of spontaneous combustion, it
begins burning and becomes a burning solid. The
combustion continues until all the flammable substances
have burned out and it turns out to be a loose substance
with voids and pores formed by the escaping gases
during the combustion reaction. The whole process takes
only a few minutes to yield powder of oxide. The
structural and optical characterizations of the
synthesized powders were carried out using X-ray
powder diffractometer. Scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) was used to illustrate the formation of crystallites
and TEM was used for particle size confirmation.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
spectrum of Gd2O3 nanopowder was obtained by using
FTIR spectrophotometer (Model; MIR 8300TM) with
KBr mixture in the pellet form.
Synthesis:- For synthesis of Gd2O3 phosphor an
aqueous precursor solution containing 1 gm/ml
Gd(NO3)3.6H2O and 2.5 gm/ml urea was used. When the
solution was stirred for 1 h it was transformed into a
transparent gel. This semisolid sample was heated at 600
± 10°C in a muffle furnace. After few minutes
spontaneous ignition occurred. Conversion of the sample
Advance Physics Letter
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_______________________________________________________________________________________
ISSN (Print) : 2349-1094, ISSN (Online) : 2349-1108, Vol_1, Issue_1, 2014
7
to the anhydrous form was followed by a vigorous redox
reaction which produced Gd2O3 phosphor with liberation
of gaseous byproducts by libration of oxides of carbon
and nitrogen. The heat of this redox reaction is sufficient
for decomposition of the mixture. The resulting mixture
was heated until a controlled explosion took place
yielding a very fine powder [14]. There would be
different mechanism of combustion reaction with
different fuel-oxidizer combinations. When a mixture
containing oxidizer and fuel with required stoichiometry
is heated rapidly at or above the temperature of
exothermic decomposition of fuel, it undergoes melting
and dehydration initially. Later on this mixture foams
due to the generation of gaseous decomposition products
as intermediates and leads to enormous swelling.
The crystallinity as well as the particle size of the
phosphor were monitored X-ray diffraction
measurement. The X-ray powder diffraction data was
collected by using Bruker D8 Advanced X-ray
diffractometer using Cu Kα radiation. The X-rays were
produced using a sealed tube and the wave length of X-
ray was 0.154 nm. The X-rays were detected using a fast
counting detector based on Silicon strip technology
(Bruker Lynx Eye detector). Molecular structure was
determined by FTIR analysis done by Nicolet
Instruments Corporation USA MAGNA-550. The
surface morphology of the prepared phosphor was
determined by field emission scanning electron
microscopy (FESEM) JSM-7600F. Energy dispersive X-
ray analysis (EDX) was used for elemental analysis of
the phosphor. Particle diameter and surface morphology
of prepared phosphor were determined by Transmission
Electron Microscopy (TEM) using Philips CM-200.
II. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS:-
(I) XRD Results:- The powder X-ray diffraction
(PXRD) was used to investigate the phase structures of
the resulting powder. No crystalline impurity apart from
rare earth oxides can be determined from the PXRD
analysis. The crystallite size was calculated by the X-ray
line broadening method using the Scherrer formula [18]:
D =
kλ
βCosθ
where λ is the wave length of radiation used (Cu Kα in
this case), k is the constant, β is the full width at half
maximum (FWHM) intensity of the diffraction peak for
which the particle size is to be calculated, θ is the
diffraction angle of the concerned diffraction peak and
D is the crystallite dimension (or particle size). It can be
seen that the diffraction pattern of the phosphor is
consistent with the JCPDS data (43-1015), indicating
that the sample of Gd2O3 phosphor is in the pure
monoclinic phase [19]. The broadening of the diffraction
peaks is due to the small crystallite size of the formed
nanoparticles, which are less than 10 nm.
25 30 35 40 45 50
1x10
3
2x10
3
3x10
3
4x10
3
5x10
3
6x10
3
Intensity(Arb.Units)
2
Figure 1. Powder X-Ray Diffraction pattern of Gd2O3
phosphor
(II) FITR Results:- FTIR spectra have been recorded
for combustion synthesized Gd2O3 powders by using
glycerin as a fuel as shown in Fig. 2. The broad peak
cantered around 3400 cm-1
to 3500 cm-1
corresponds to
the O-H symmetric stretching from hydroxyl group
[4,20]. FTIR spectra revealed that the peak at 1534 to
1456 cm-1
is may be due to surface-adsorbed NO3
-
group, stretching vibration of NO [21]. The weak peak
at 1600 cm-1
are correspond to the stretching mode of
C=O in a carbonyl functional group for the prepared
material [22]. The similar results have also been
observed elsewhere [23]. Hydroxyl groups provide an
effective pathway for the radiation less energy transfer
of OH vibration and quench the emission intensity. The
band at approximately 542 cm-1
is ascribed to the Gd–O
vibration of Gd2O3 phosphor [4,14,17, 24].
Figure 2. FTIR spectra of Gd2O3 phosphor
(III) Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results:-
The morphology analysis of Gd2O3 powders have been
studied by SEM using backscattered electron detection
mode. The black and white SEM micrograph of the
prepared powder indicates that all the particles are
looking like agglomerated in homogeneousely in
different shapes/sizes of the order of nano range
50010001500200030004000
1/cm
25
50
75
100
125
150
%T
Advance Physics Letter
________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
ISSN (Print) : 2349-1094, ISSN (Online) : 2349-1108, Vol_1, Issue_1, 2014
8
Figure 3. Scanning Electron Microscope image of
Gd2O3 phosphor
Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)
The EDX spectra represent elemental analysis of the
prepared sample (Fig4). In the spectrum intense peak of
Gd, and O are present which confirms the formation of
Gd2O3 phosphor (fig 4). For EDX analysis, entire area of
the black and white SEM micrographs was analyzed
with EDX mapping and spectrum. The EDX mapping
measurements were carried Gd2O3 powders to analyze
the composition of the clustered particles.
Figure 4. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of Gd2O3
phosphor
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Results: -
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the
morphology of combustion synthesized Gd2O3 phosphor
using glycerine as fuel (Figure 5). TEM analysis shows
the nanocrystalline behavior of the prepared phosphor
with particle size in the range of 8nm to 12nm which is
identical with XRD result.
Figure 5. Transmission electron microscope image of
Gd2O3 phosphor
III. CONCLUSION: -
From above studies it is concluded that, this method is
suitable for large scale production and eco-friendly. The
sample was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and
TEM studies. From XRD pattern it is confirmed that
prepared phosphor has monoclinic structure and particle
size was determined by Debye- Scherer formula, which
was found 8 to 12 nm range. The functional group
analysis was determined by FTIR analysis which
confirms the formation of Gd2O3 nano phosphors. Also
confirmation found by the SEM and TEM micrographs
which is good agreement with XRD pattern.
IV. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:-
We are very grateful to IUC Indore for XRD
characterization and also thankful to Dr. Mukul Gupta
for his cooperation. I am very thankful to SAIF, IIT,
Bombay for other characterization such as SEM, TEM,
FTIR and EDX. Very thankful to Dr. KVR Murthy M.S.
Advance Physics Letter
________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
ISSN (Print) : 2349-1094, ISSN (Online) : 2349-1108, Vol_1, Issue_1, 2014
9
University, Baroda (Chairman Luminescence Society of
India).
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Xu, H.H. Teng, C.B. Mao, and S.K. Xu; Anal.
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[17] Ytterbium Doped Gadolinium Oxide
(Gd2O3:Yb3+
) Phosphor: Topology, Morphology,
and Luminescence Behaviour in Hindawi
Publishing Corporation Indian Journal of
Materials Science Volume 2014, Article ID
396147, 7 pages, Accepted 4 February 2014.
[18] D. Grier, G. McCarthy, North Dakota State
University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA, ICDD
Grant-in- Aid (1991).
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Lanthanide hydroxide nanorods and their
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

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  • 1. Advance Physics Letter ________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ ISSN (Print) : 2349-1094, ISSN (Online) : 2349-1108, Vol_1, Issue_1, 2014 6 Structural Characterization of Combustion Synthesized Gd2O3 Nanopowder by Using Glycerin as Fuel 1 Raunak Kumar Tamrakara , 2 D. P. Bisen, 3 Ishwar Prasad Sahu 1 Department of Applied Physics, Bhilai Institute of Technology (Seth Balkrishan Memorial), Near Bhilai House, Durg (C.G.) Pin-491001, India 2,3 School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.) Pin-492010, India Abstract -Combustion synthesis were accomplished to synthesize pure Gd2O3 phosphor by using glycerin as fuel. To investigate the luminescence behavior, excitation and emission spectra have been recorded. The prepared phosphor sample was characterized by using XRD, FTIR, SEM and TEM. From the XRD data, using the Scherer’s formula the calculated average crystallite size of pure Gd2O3 phosphor is around 8nm. The TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) results agree with the XRD results. Keywords: Pure Gd2O3, Phosphors; XRD, FTIR, SEM & TEM; Corresponding author Email Id: - raunak.ruby@gmail.com. I. INTRODUCTIONS:- Nowadays, Rare earth oxide luminescent materials have attracted great attention due to their size, shape and phase dependent luminescence properties, which make them suitable for fundamental and technological applications [1-4]. Among different families of crystalline materials, oxide crystals are of great interest due to their unique optical properties, such as long fluorescent lifetime, large Stokes shift, favourable physical and chemical properties as well as good photochemical stability. Several of the rare earth elements and their corresponding oxides are of exceedingly technical importance and are used in critical parts. Rare earth oxides are this kind of advanced materials and which are widely used as high performance luminescent devices, magnets, catalysts, and other functional materials such as electronic, magnetic, nuclear, optical, and catalytic devices [2, 5-6]. Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) is a good choice to investigate for luminescence properties due to its high refractive index (2.3), high optical transparency, good thermal and chemical stability, high dielectric constant, and low phonon energy among the family of oxide hosts [7-10]. Because of these favourable properties, it exhibits numerous applications such as three way catalysts for exhaust gas treatment from vehicles, oxide ion conductors in solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen gas sensors, electrode materials for sensors, optoelectronic devices, high definition televisions, biological imaging, high temperature superconducting materials, excellent ultraviolet light absorber, photo-catalyst, therapeutic effects in cancer treatment-enhancing the effect of radiation on cancerous cells while reducing damage to normal cells, luminescent inks, paints and dyes sunscreen cosmetics and luminescent materials[11-17]. In the presented work, combustion synthesis technique has been utilized to prepare nanopowders of gadolinium oxide by using glycerin as a fuel. The synthesis and characterization of Gadolinium oxide via different techniques have attracted considerable attention. The glycerin and metal nitrate get decomposed and give flammable gases such as NH3, CO2, and NO. When the solution reaches a point of spontaneous combustion, it begins burning and becomes a burning solid. The combustion continues until all the flammable substances have burned out and it turns out to be a loose substance with voids and pores formed by the escaping gases during the combustion reaction. The whole process takes only a few minutes to yield powder of oxide. The structural and optical characterizations of the synthesized powders were carried out using X-ray powder diffractometer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to illustrate the formation of crystallites and TEM was used for particle size confirmation. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum of Gd2O3 nanopowder was obtained by using FTIR spectrophotometer (Model; MIR 8300TM) with KBr mixture in the pellet form. Synthesis:- For synthesis of Gd2O3 phosphor an aqueous precursor solution containing 1 gm/ml Gd(NO3)3.6H2O and 2.5 gm/ml urea was used. When the solution was stirred for 1 h it was transformed into a transparent gel. This semisolid sample was heated at 600 ± 10°C in a muffle furnace. After few minutes spontaneous ignition occurred. Conversion of the sample
  • 2. Advance Physics Letter ________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ ISSN (Print) : 2349-1094, ISSN (Online) : 2349-1108, Vol_1, Issue_1, 2014 7 to the anhydrous form was followed by a vigorous redox reaction which produced Gd2O3 phosphor with liberation of gaseous byproducts by libration of oxides of carbon and nitrogen. The heat of this redox reaction is sufficient for decomposition of the mixture. The resulting mixture was heated until a controlled explosion took place yielding a very fine powder [14]. There would be different mechanism of combustion reaction with different fuel-oxidizer combinations. When a mixture containing oxidizer and fuel with required stoichiometry is heated rapidly at or above the temperature of exothermic decomposition of fuel, it undergoes melting and dehydration initially. Later on this mixture foams due to the generation of gaseous decomposition products as intermediates and leads to enormous swelling. The crystallinity as well as the particle size of the phosphor were monitored X-ray diffraction measurement. The X-ray powder diffraction data was collected by using Bruker D8 Advanced X-ray diffractometer using Cu Kα radiation. The X-rays were produced using a sealed tube and the wave length of X- ray was 0.154 nm. The X-rays were detected using a fast counting detector based on Silicon strip technology (Bruker Lynx Eye detector). Molecular structure was determined by FTIR analysis done by Nicolet Instruments Corporation USA MAGNA-550. The surface morphology of the prepared phosphor was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) JSM-7600F. Energy dispersive X- ray analysis (EDX) was used for elemental analysis of the phosphor. Particle diameter and surface morphology of prepared phosphor were determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) using Philips CM-200. II. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS:- (I) XRD Results:- The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) was used to investigate the phase structures of the resulting powder. No crystalline impurity apart from rare earth oxides can be determined from the PXRD analysis. The crystallite size was calculated by the X-ray line broadening method using the Scherrer formula [18]: D = kλ βCosθ where λ is the wave length of radiation used (Cu Kα in this case), k is the constant, β is the full width at half maximum (FWHM) intensity of the diffraction peak for which the particle size is to be calculated, θ is the diffraction angle of the concerned diffraction peak and D is the crystallite dimension (or particle size). It can be seen that the diffraction pattern of the phosphor is consistent with the JCPDS data (43-1015), indicating that the sample of Gd2O3 phosphor is in the pure monoclinic phase [19]. The broadening of the diffraction peaks is due to the small crystallite size of the formed nanoparticles, which are less than 10 nm. 25 30 35 40 45 50 1x10 3 2x10 3 3x10 3 4x10 3 5x10 3 6x10 3 Intensity(Arb.Units) 2 Figure 1. Powder X-Ray Diffraction pattern of Gd2O3 phosphor (II) FITR Results:- FTIR spectra have been recorded for combustion synthesized Gd2O3 powders by using glycerin as a fuel as shown in Fig. 2. The broad peak cantered around 3400 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 corresponds to the O-H symmetric stretching from hydroxyl group [4,20]. FTIR spectra revealed that the peak at 1534 to 1456 cm-1 is may be due to surface-adsorbed NO3 - group, stretching vibration of NO [21]. The weak peak at 1600 cm-1 are correspond to the stretching mode of C=O in a carbonyl functional group for the prepared material [22]. The similar results have also been observed elsewhere [23]. Hydroxyl groups provide an effective pathway for the radiation less energy transfer of OH vibration and quench the emission intensity. The band at approximately 542 cm-1 is ascribed to the Gd–O vibration of Gd2O3 phosphor [4,14,17, 24]. Figure 2. FTIR spectra of Gd2O3 phosphor (III) Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results:- The morphology analysis of Gd2O3 powders have been studied by SEM using backscattered electron detection mode. The black and white SEM micrograph of the prepared powder indicates that all the particles are looking like agglomerated in homogeneousely in different shapes/sizes of the order of nano range 50010001500200030004000 1/cm 25 50 75 100 125 150 %T
  • 3. Advance Physics Letter ________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ ISSN (Print) : 2349-1094, ISSN (Online) : 2349-1108, Vol_1, Issue_1, 2014 8 Figure 3. Scanning Electron Microscope image of Gd2O3 phosphor Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) The EDX spectra represent elemental analysis of the prepared sample (Fig4). In the spectrum intense peak of Gd, and O are present which confirms the formation of Gd2O3 phosphor (fig 4). For EDX analysis, entire area of the black and white SEM micrographs was analyzed with EDX mapping and spectrum. The EDX mapping measurements were carried Gd2O3 powders to analyze the composition of the clustered particles. Figure 4. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of Gd2O3 phosphor Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Results: - Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of combustion synthesized Gd2O3 phosphor using glycerine as fuel (Figure 5). TEM analysis shows the nanocrystalline behavior of the prepared phosphor with particle size in the range of 8nm to 12nm which is identical with XRD result. Figure 5. Transmission electron microscope image of Gd2O3 phosphor III. CONCLUSION: - From above studies it is concluded that, this method is suitable for large scale production and eco-friendly. The sample was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM studies. From XRD pattern it is confirmed that prepared phosphor has monoclinic structure and particle size was determined by Debye- Scherer formula, which was found 8 to 12 nm range. The functional group analysis was determined by FTIR analysis which confirms the formation of Gd2O3 nano phosphors. Also confirmation found by the SEM and TEM micrographs which is good agreement with XRD pattern. IV. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:- We are very grateful to IUC Indore for XRD characterization and also thankful to Dr. Mukul Gupta for his cooperation. I am very thankful to SAIF, IIT, Bombay for other characterization such as SEM, TEM, FTIR and EDX. Very thankful to Dr. KVR Murthy M.S.
  • 4. Advance Physics Letter ________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ ISSN (Print) : 2349-1094, ISSN (Online) : 2349-1108, Vol_1, Issue_1, 2014 9 University, Baroda (Chairman Luminescence Society of India). REFERENCE:- [1] Vijay Singh, V. K. Rai, Vineet, M. Haase, J. Appl. Phys. 112 (2012) 063105-063109. [2] C. Joshi, A. Rai, Y. Dwivedi and S. B. Rai , Journal of Luminescence 132 (2012) 806–810. [3] M. Wang, W. Hou, C.C. Mi, W. X. Wang, Z. R. Xu, H.H. Teng, C.B. Mao, and S.K. Xu; Anal. Chem., 2009, 81, 8783–8789. [4] H. Guo, Y. Li, D. Wang, W. Zhang, M. Yin, L. Lou, S. Xia, J. Alloy. Compd. 376(2004) pp. 23– 27. [5] T. Ninjbadgar, G. Garnweitner, A. Börger, L.M. Goldenberg, O.V. Sakhno, J. Stumpe, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19 (2009) 1819-1825. [6] L.D. Sun, J. Yao, C.H. Liu, C.S. Liao, C.H. Yan, J. Lumin. 87–89. [7] P.B. Xie, C.K. Duan, W.P. Zhang, et al., Eu. Chin. J. Lumin. 19 (1998) 19. [8] L.D. Sun, J. Yao, C.H. Liu, C.S. Liao, C.H. Yan, J. Lumin. 87–89 (2000) 447. [9] F. Wang, W.B. Tan, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, Y. Wang, Nanotechnology 17(1), R1–R13 (2006) [10] N. Dhananjaya, H. Nagabhushana, B.M. Nagabhushana, B. Rudraswamy, C. Shivakumara, R.P.S. Chakradhar, J. Alloys Compd. 509(5), 2368–2374 (2011) [11] T. Kim Anh, L. Quoc Minh, N. Vu, T. Thu Huong, N. Thanh Huong, C. Barthou, W. Strek, Journal of Luminescence, 102-103. (2003) 391- 394. [12] E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three Dimensional. Display,” Science 273, 1185-89 (1996). [13] M. L. Pang, J. Lin, J. Fu, R.B. Xing, C.X. Luo, Y.C. Han, Opt. Mater. 23, 547–558 (2003). [14] Raunak Kumar Tamrakar, D. P. Bisen and Nameeta Brahme, Research on Chemical Intermediates May 2014, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 1771-1779. [15] G.Z. Li, M. Yu, Z.L. Wang, J. Lin, R.S. Wang, J. Fang, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6(5), 1416–1422, (2006). [16] Yanhong Li and Guangyan Hong, , Journal of Luminescence 124 (2007) 297–301. [17] Ytterbium Doped Gadolinium Oxide (Gd2O3:Yb3+ ) Phosphor: Topology, Morphology, and Luminescence Behaviour in Hindawi Publishing Corporation Indian Journal of Materials Science Volume 2014, Article ID 396147, 7 pages, Accepted 4 February 2014. [18] D. Grier, G. McCarthy, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA, ICDD Grant-in- Aid (1991). [19] P. Klug, L.E. Alexander, X-ray Diffraction Procedure (Wiley, New York, 1954). [20] Suresh Babu, A. Schulte, S. Seal, App. Phys. Lett 92 (2008) 123112-123114. [21] B.M. Cheng, L. Yu, C.K. Duan, H. Wang, P.A. Tanner, J Phy. Conden. Mater 20 (2008) 345231- 345234. [23] Ho, J. C. Yu, T. Kwong, A. C. Mak, S. Lai, Chem. Mater. 17 (2005) 4514-4522. [24] K. Mishra, S.K. Singh, A.K. Singh, S.B. Rai, Mater. Res. Bull. 47 (2012) 1339-1344. [25] Ning Zhang, Ran Yi, Libin Zhou, Guanhua Gao, Rongrong Shi, Guanzhou Qiu, Xiaohe Liu, Lanthanide hydroxide nanorods and their thermal decomposition to lanthanide, oxide nanorods. Mater. Chem. Phys. 114, 160–167 (2009). 