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The Semantics of Innovation Exploring the ‘deep nature’ of innovation 
Michele M. Missikoff, CNR and UnivPM, Ancona, Italy 
(michele.missikoff@cnr.it) 
1 
IC3K, Rome, 21-24 October 2014
This talk objective 
Clarify what is innovation... 
What is the ‘take home’ message? I anticipate: 
Good News and Bad News... 
From Roman trireme ... 
(Good news may turn bad ...) 
To Enterprise Innovation ... 
(Bad news: it’s a very complex subject, 
Good news: next slide will clarify it ...) 
2
A clear picture of Innovation 
3
Talk Summary 
•Motivating section 
•What is innovation and why we need? 
•The nature of innovation: a first intuition 
•What is Innovation 
•Towards a deep and formal understanding 
•What digital technology can do for it 
•Innovation is a human centric endeavour 
•Technology can consistently support 
•From ERP to EIP: Enterprise Innovation Planning systems 
•A concrete example: the European Project BIVEE 
•Conclusions 
4
What is the nature of Innovation? 
Is innovation an Art? 
Is it a Practice? 
is it an Engineering Discipline? 
is it a Business opportunity? 
5
6 
Do we need innovation? 
Obvious answer ... YES! 
BUT ...
Survival Threshold 
7 
Problem Resolution 
Improvement 
Innovation 
Business as usual 
Winning Business 
Dying Business
What are the drivers? 
For a successful Innovation, what really counts? 
The fantasy and the creativity? 
A solid market research? 
The numbers of a Feasibility Study? 
Remember: 90% of ‘good’ ideas are abandoned or fail (EC statistics on project proposals) 
8
What are the Innovation targets? 
9 
(Source: BIVEE Deliverable D2.1)
Then ... Let’s go deeper! 
According to Wikipedia: 
“Innovation is a new idea, device or process. Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulated needs, or existing market needs.” 
Do you agree? 
Not ME!!! 
(it misses the point …) 
10
Let’s ask Humphrey ... 
11 
... But what’s innovation, after all? 
It’s a serious KM affair, baby!
Two Enterprise Knowledge Spaces 
Value Prodution Space: the target of innovation 
•Where value is actually produced 
•Where innovation will concretely take place, 
•While innovating, business and value production should not be affected 
•After innovation is achieved, business should improve in a measurable way 
Enterprise Innovation Space 
•Where transformation is conceived 
12
Enterprise Innovation Space 
The space where 
•Innovation needs / ideas are captured and elaborated 
•Experts are able to evaluate the chances of success 
•Cost/Benefits models are put in place 
•Risk assessment and contingency plans are established 
13
Ok, fine ... But WHAT IS INNOVATION? 
Ok, let’ try to be more precise ... 
What do you have on the table? 
•Value Production Space, where added value is created 
•Enterprise Innovation Space, where new solutions are created to improve the value production 
Therefore: EIS needs to specify the concrete impact on VPS... Otherwise we are doing philosophy! 
Here is why I do disagree with Wikipedia ... 
14
Innovation is ... 
“Creativity, invention that becomes a concrete engineering / business / market practice, i.e., a viable solution capable of changing for better the Value Production Space performance.” 
To transform creativity into business we need solid knowledge, good practices and dedicated team work, all the above supported by advanced ICT platforms and tools. 
15
Innovation is ... 
A process (is it a process?), articulated by three main events 
1. Innovation Trigger: when an innovation opportunity / need arises 
2. Innovation specification: when all the details of the new solution are defined 
3. Innovation implementation: when the innovation is trasferred into the VPS 
In essence 
Innovation is a virtuous transformation of the VPS 
16
Value Production Space (VPS) 
In: materials, resources, competences 
Out: produced goods and/or services 
Effects: Increased creation of value (hopefully) 
17 
Production Unit 
Production 
Extelirnnka l 
link 
production space is not a closed territory
Innovation as Transformation 
•The VPS is already a space where transformations take place 
•So, Innovation is a Meta-Transformation (MT) 
•A transformation of a transformation in formal terms is a Functional. 
18 
MT : VPS  VPS
So far so good, but ... 
•Doman and Range are not fully known, and 
•How to map the partially known reality (AS-IS) to the new reality (TO-BE) is also scarcely known 
In summary: 
•we need to built a Transformation starting from a partial knowledge of the territory we are operating on ... 
Then, the core of Innovation is a: 
Non-deterministic Meta-Transformation: NMT 
19
Innovation: the global picture 
Innovation = 
1. InnoTrigger + 2.NMT + 3.Achive Changes 
20 
A 
current situation 
B 
Wanted situation 
B’ 
New situation 
NMT 
1 
2 
3
1.Innovation Triggers 
Start from: need, opportunity, intuition, ... 
(i) push-mode and technology driven, when the innovation is generated on the supply side; 
(ii) pull-mode and customer driven, when the innovation is requested by the demand side; 
(iii) co-creation, when all the stakeholders cooperate together to generate product or process innovation. 
21
What are Innovation sources? 
•The creative genius? 
•User driven innovation? 
•The nurturing context? 
•The technology breakthtough? 
•Cross-fertilization between sectors? 
•Crowdsourcing? 
22
Nurture Ideas! 
23
Pull-mode Innovation 
We listed to users and we understand what they need ... 
24
User-driven Innovation ... 
25
2.Non-deterministic Meta- Transformation 
Based on Functional Theory 
•A theory on the transformation of functions 
26 
VPS-A 
VPS-B 
VPS-B’ 
NMT 
VPS: Value Production Space 
. 
. 
.
Defining NMT 
Challenges: 
•We need to define the NMT representing the core of the Innovation Project 
But ... 
•We need to identify Domain and Range 
Domain: what is the current situation? The AS-IS Value Production Space? 
Range: what is the objective? And, how we need to change the VPS to achieve it? 
Non-determinism: since we CANNOT specify everything, 
•how to proceed? 
•... wait and see the BIVEE proposal. 
27
3.Change Management 
When we move from theory to real world... 
•Is the VPS and the enterprises ready for a change 
•How much such a change will cost (Gap Analysis) 
•Can we evaluate costs and benefits 
•Did we consider the possible failures 
•Is there a Risk Management program? 
•Are there Contingency Plans (... You can die of innovation!) 
28
Change Management 
29 
Innovation means to rethink 
the reality we used to know, 
and then change it dynamically
Resistance to Change 
30
Managing the Risks 
31 
Observing, Measuring, Understanding, Assessing, Replannig
Supporting Technologies 
32 
Theory is good for ... publishing papers! 
•But in the enterprise we need concrete solutions 
•Today enterprises need to focus on continuous Open Innovation 
•From ERP to Enterprise Innovation Planning systems 
•An example: 
The BIVEE Project 
Business Innovation in Virtual Enterprise Environments
33 BIVEE - Business Innovation in Virtual Enterprise Environments, FoF - FP7 (bivee.eu) 
Mission: to addresses the full lifecycle of the ‘inventive enterprise’ that spans from creativity and idea generation to engineering of new businesses, The approach is aimed at putting people in the center, with their creativity and competencies, providing a nurturing environment where open thinking and free interaction is more important than formal processes and stringent control (without relaxing on effective monitoring and performance evaluation). 
BIVEE in a nutshell
Innovation as a Knowledge Factory 
•Innovation as an iterative, continuous venture 
•Take existing knowledge about VPS (managed by the Mission Control Room), then connect, fertilise, 
•Produce new knowledge, in the Virtual Innovation Factory, according to 4 Waves: Creativity, Feasibility, Prototyping, Engineering 
34 
K1 
K2 
KN 
M 
C 
R 
VIF
Innovation Monitoring System 
Virtual Innovation Factory 
Front-End 
Middle-Tier 
Production Innovation Knowledge Repository 
Production Monitoring System 
PRODUCTION SPACE 
INNOVATION SPACE 
Back-end 
Mission Control Room 
Raw Data Management 
BIVEE: the Big Picture
Collaborative Ontology Engineering Semantic annotation (tagging) of enterprise resources Semantic search and query to access available knowledge Semantic social networking and crowd- sourcing 
RefOnto 
PIKR Facilities 
PIKR 
36
37 
DocOnto 
(docs templates) 
Robotics 
MachineVision 
Metrology 
Domain Ontology 
PIKR 
Proposed 
Idea 
Innovation 
Report 
VIF 
Semantic 
Tagging service 
Actual 
document 
PropIdea#1 
Semantic Descriptor 
Title 
Descr 
… 
Research 
Line 
Objectives 
Rendering the Template 
Filling in the Template (semantic descriptor) 
PI_GreenSol 
This doc … 
Energy 
The proposed … 
Semantic Annotation of documents
Enterprise Knowledge transformation 
Value Production 
Space X 
Innovation / 
Improvement 
yielding new 
VPS 
Value Production 
Space X’ 
Value Production Space: Products, Production Processes, units, means, 
resources, … 
EntKw X 
EntKw X’ 
VPS X 
VPS X’ 
InnoKw 
X  X’ 
VIF
BIVEE Waves… 
Document driven ... Waves: Beyond the idea of process
Innovation Waves of BIVEE 
Creativity: starts with an innovation idea or a problem to be solved, providing a first specification. 
Feasibility: define scope and the intended impact, predicting the chance of success: a defined budget is mobilized. 
Prototyping: This wave features the first implementation of the initial ideas: the idea is drawn into the real world for the first time. 
Engineering: creation of production plans, testing, sourcing, and overhaul-procedures. 
40
Innovation Monitoring Framework 
Innovation-KPIs & W5H semantics. In essence, what should be monitored? 
•What, 
•Why, 
•Who, 
•When, 
•Where, 
•How 
41
Conclusions 
•The Nature of Innovation, requires first ... 
•The deep understanding of the essence of VPS 
•Proposing Innovation as a scientific discipline 
•To this end, we want to understand the essence and the deep nature, e.g., NMT, the way it can be built, measured, assessed, ... 
•But at the top there is the real world with people, environment, society, ... 
•So, Creativity, human fantasy, bright ideas will remain the core, but supported by solid methodologies. 
(Credits: BIVEE Project and EC, DG Connect. www.bivee.eu) 
42
?? Questions ?? 
43

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141022 ic3 k semanticsofinnovation missikoff

  • 1. The Semantics of Innovation Exploring the ‘deep nature’ of innovation Michele M. Missikoff, CNR and UnivPM, Ancona, Italy (michele.missikoff@cnr.it) 1 IC3K, Rome, 21-24 October 2014
  • 2. This talk objective Clarify what is innovation... What is the ‘take home’ message? I anticipate: Good News and Bad News... From Roman trireme ... (Good news may turn bad ...) To Enterprise Innovation ... (Bad news: it’s a very complex subject, Good news: next slide will clarify it ...) 2
  • 3. A clear picture of Innovation 3
  • 4. Talk Summary •Motivating section •What is innovation and why we need? •The nature of innovation: a first intuition •What is Innovation •Towards a deep and formal understanding •What digital technology can do for it •Innovation is a human centric endeavour •Technology can consistently support •From ERP to EIP: Enterprise Innovation Planning systems •A concrete example: the European Project BIVEE •Conclusions 4
  • 5. What is the nature of Innovation? Is innovation an Art? Is it a Practice? is it an Engineering Discipline? is it a Business opportunity? 5
  • 6. 6 Do we need innovation? Obvious answer ... YES! BUT ...
  • 7. Survival Threshold 7 Problem Resolution Improvement Innovation Business as usual Winning Business Dying Business
  • 8. What are the drivers? For a successful Innovation, what really counts? The fantasy and the creativity? A solid market research? The numbers of a Feasibility Study? Remember: 90% of ‘good’ ideas are abandoned or fail (EC statistics on project proposals) 8
  • 9. What are the Innovation targets? 9 (Source: BIVEE Deliverable D2.1)
  • 10. Then ... Let’s go deeper! According to Wikipedia: “Innovation is a new idea, device or process. Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulated needs, or existing market needs.” Do you agree? Not ME!!! (it misses the point …) 10
  • 11. Let’s ask Humphrey ... 11 ... But what’s innovation, after all? It’s a serious KM affair, baby!
  • 12. Two Enterprise Knowledge Spaces Value Prodution Space: the target of innovation •Where value is actually produced •Where innovation will concretely take place, •While innovating, business and value production should not be affected •After innovation is achieved, business should improve in a measurable way Enterprise Innovation Space •Where transformation is conceived 12
  • 13. Enterprise Innovation Space The space where •Innovation needs / ideas are captured and elaborated •Experts are able to evaluate the chances of success •Cost/Benefits models are put in place •Risk assessment and contingency plans are established 13
  • 14. Ok, fine ... But WHAT IS INNOVATION? Ok, let’ try to be more precise ... What do you have on the table? •Value Production Space, where added value is created •Enterprise Innovation Space, where new solutions are created to improve the value production Therefore: EIS needs to specify the concrete impact on VPS... Otherwise we are doing philosophy! Here is why I do disagree with Wikipedia ... 14
  • 15. Innovation is ... “Creativity, invention that becomes a concrete engineering / business / market practice, i.e., a viable solution capable of changing for better the Value Production Space performance.” To transform creativity into business we need solid knowledge, good practices and dedicated team work, all the above supported by advanced ICT platforms and tools. 15
  • 16. Innovation is ... A process (is it a process?), articulated by three main events 1. Innovation Trigger: when an innovation opportunity / need arises 2. Innovation specification: when all the details of the new solution are defined 3. Innovation implementation: when the innovation is trasferred into the VPS In essence Innovation is a virtuous transformation of the VPS 16
  • 17. Value Production Space (VPS) In: materials, resources, competences Out: produced goods and/or services Effects: Increased creation of value (hopefully) 17 Production Unit Production Extelirnnka l link production space is not a closed territory
  • 18. Innovation as Transformation •The VPS is already a space where transformations take place •So, Innovation is a Meta-Transformation (MT) •A transformation of a transformation in formal terms is a Functional. 18 MT : VPS  VPS
  • 19. So far so good, but ... •Doman and Range are not fully known, and •How to map the partially known reality (AS-IS) to the new reality (TO-BE) is also scarcely known In summary: •we need to built a Transformation starting from a partial knowledge of the territory we are operating on ... Then, the core of Innovation is a: Non-deterministic Meta-Transformation: NMT 19
  • 20. Innovation: the global picture Innovation = 1. InnoTrigger + 2.NMT + 3.Achive Changes 20 A current situation B Wanted situation B’ New situation NMT 1 2 3
  • 21. 1.Innovation Triggers Start from: need, opportunity, intuition, ... (i) push-mode and technology driven, when the innovation is generated on the supply side; (ii) pull-mode and customer driven, when the innovation is requested by the demand side; (iii) co-creation, when all the stakeholders cooperate together to generate product or process innovation. 21
  • 22. What are Innovation sources? •The creative genius? •User driven innovation? •The nurturing context? •The technology breakthtough? •Cross-fertilization between sectors? •Crowdsourcing? 22
  • 24. Pull-mode Innovation We listed to users and we understand what they need ... 24
  • 26. 2.Non-deterministic Meta- Transformation Based on Functional Theory •A theory on the transformation of functions 26 VPS-A VPS-B VPS-B’ NMT VPS: Value Production Space . . .
  • 27. Defining NMT Challenges: •We need to define the NMT representing the core of the Innovation Project But ... •We need to identify Domain and Range Domain: what is the current situation? The AS-IS Value Production Space? Range: what is the objective? And, how we need to change the VPS to achieve it? Non-determinism: since we CANNOT specify everything, •how to proceed? •... wait and see the BIVEE proposal. 27
  • 28. 3.Change Management When we move from theory to real world... •Is the VPS and the enterprises ready for a change •How much such a change will cost (Gap Analysis) •Can we evaluate costs and benefits •Did we consider the possible failures •Is there a Risk Management program? •Are there Contingency Plans (... You can die of innovation!) 28
  • 29. Change Management 29 Innovation means to rethink the reality we used to know, and then change it dynamically
  • 31. Managing the Risks 31 Observing, Measuring, Understanding, Assessing, Replannig
  • 32. Supporting Technologies 32 Theory is good for ... publishing papers! •But in the enterprise we need concrete solutions •Today enterprises need to focus on continuous Open Innovation •From ERP to Enterprise Innovation Planning systems •An example: The BIVEE Project Business Innovation in Virtual Enterprise Environments
  • 33. 33 BIVEE - Business Innovation in Virtual Enterprise Environments, FoF - FP7 (bivee.eu) Mission: to addresses the full lifecycle of the ‘inventive enterprise’ that spans from creativity and idea generation to engineering of new businesses, The approach is aimed at putting people in the center, with their creativity and competencies, providing a nurturing environment where open thinking and free interaction is more important than formal processes and stringent control (without relaxing on effective monitoring and performance evaluation). BIVEE in a nutshell
  • 34. Innovation as a Knowledge Factory •Innovation as an iterative, continuous venture •Take existing knowledge about VPS (managed by the Mission Control Room), then connect, fertilise, •Produce new knowledge, in the Virtual Innovation Factory, according to 4 Waves: Creativity, Feasibility, Prototyping, Engineering 34 K1 K2 KN M C R VIF
  • 35. Innovation Monitoring System Virtual Innovation Factory Front-End Middle-Tier Production Innovation Knowledge Repository Production Monitoring System PRODUCTION SPACE INNOVATION SPACE Back-end Mission Control Room Raw Data Management BIVEE: the Big Picture
  • 36. Collaborative Ontology Engineering Semantic annotation (tagging) of enterprise resources Semantic search and query to access available knowledge Semantic social networking and crowd- sourcing RefOnto PIKR Facilities PIKR 36
  • 37. 37 DocOnto (docs templates) Robotics MachineVision Metrology Domain Ontology PIKR Proposed Idea Innovation Report VIF Semantic Tagging service Actual document PropIdea#1 Semantic Descriptor Title Descr … Research Line Objectives Rendering the Template Filling in the Template (semantic descriptor) PI_GreenSol This doc … Energy The proposed … Semantic Annotation of documents
  • 38. Enterprise Knowledge transformation Value Production Space X Innovation / Improvement yielding new VPS Value Production Space X’ Value Production Space: Products, Production Processes, units, means, resources, … EntKw X EntKw X’ VPS X VPS X’ InnoKw X  X’ VIF
  • 39. BIVEE Waves… Document driven ... Waves: Beyond the idea of process
  • 40. Innovation Waves of BIVEE Creativity: starts with an innovation idea or a problem to be solved, providing a first specification. Feasibility: define scope and the intended impact, predicting the chance of success: a defined budget is mobilized. Prototyping: This wave features the first implementation of the initial ideas: the idea is drawn into the real world for the first time. Engineering: creation of production plans, testing, sourcing, and overhaul-procedures. 40
  • 41. Innovation Monitoring Framework Innovation-KPIs & W5H semantics. In essence, what should be monitored? •What, •Why, •Who, •When, •Where, •How 41
  • 42. Conclusions •The Nature of Innovation, requires first ... •The deep understanding of the essence of VPS •Proposing Innovation as a scientific discipline •To this end, we want to understand the essence and the deep nature, e.g., NMT, the way it can be built, measured, assessed, ... •But at the top there is the real world with people, environment, society, ... •So, Creativity, human fantasy, bright ideas will remain the core, but supported by solid methodologies. (Credits: BIVEE Project and EC, DG Connect. www.bivee.eu) 42