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2. understanding innovation

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Module 2 explores the concept of innovation and lets individuals gain a greater understanding of what its all about.

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2. understanding innovation

  1. 1. Understanding Innovation 1
  2. 2. Understanding Innovation Content: 1. What is innovation? 2. Why is innovation important? 3. Types of innovation 4. Innovation drivers & barriers 5. How to “initialise” innovation? 6. Open Innovation 7. Innovation in arts & humanities 2
  3. 3. “The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.” - George Bernard Shaw - 3
  4. 4. Understanding Innovation Content: 1. What is innovation? 2. Why is innovation important? 3. Types of innovation 4. Innovation drivers & barriers 5. How to “initialise” innovation? 6. Open Innovation 7. Innovation in arts & humanities 4
  5. 5. 1. What is innovation? Innovation Something different? Something better? Something cheaper? Do at a different location? Do in a different timeframe? Something new? 5
  6. 6. 1. What is innovation? • There are many definitions for innovation! Term widely used…. • Innovation: – Lat. “novus” (new) and “innovatio” (to create sth. new) → something new or different introduced, the act of innovating, introduction of new things or methods • “[…]the application of new ideas to the products, processes, or other aspects of the activities of a firm that lead to increased “value.” (Greenhalgh & Rogers 2015: 4; „Innovation, Intellectual Property, and Economic Growth“) • “The process of translating an idea or invention into a good or service that creates value or for which costumers will pay.” (www.businessdictionary.com) 6
  7. 7. 1. What is innovation? • Innovation different from invention – Innovation → refers to the use of a better and, as a result, novel idea or method – Invention → refers to the creation of the idea or method itself • Innovation different from improvement – Innovation → refers to the notion of doing something different – Improvement → rather refers to the notion of doing the same thing better 7
  8. 8. Understanding Innovation Content: 1. What is innovation? 2. Why is innovation important? 3. Types of innovation 4. Innovation drivers & barriers 5. How to “initialise” innovation? 6. Open Innovation 7. Innovation in arts & humanities 8
  9. 9. 2. Why is innovation important ? • Innovation as a term established in the 90`s • Innovation nowadays part of daily life: Everybody is or wants to be innovative • Economist Jospeph A. Schumpeter is “father” of innovation → did not invent the term but introduced it economics! (“Theory of Economic Development”, published 1912) • Innovation is important as it is one of the primary ways to differentiate your product from the competition 9
  10. 10. 2. Why is innovation important ? • Importance of innovation may seem obvious but importance is also matter of perspective: – Macro-perspective (country-level) • Foundation for growth of a countries economy • Basis for global competiveness – Micro-perspective (firm-level) • Foundation for growth of a company • Basis to ensure long-term competitiveness of a company -> ensures “survival” of companies • However, firms are also able to survive with little amount of innovation • Macro- and micro-level importance of innovation are naturally interlinked • State policies needs to support innovation activities of companies • Companies “do” innovation 10
  11. 11. Understanding Innovation Content: 1. What is innovation? 2. Why is innovation important? 3. Types of innovation 4. Innovation drivers & barriers 5. How to “initialise” innovation? 6. Open Innovation 7. Innovation in arts & humanities 11
  12. 12. 3. Types of innovation • Different types of innovation can be classified in several ways! • Two dimensional approach on innovation to structure different types: Innovation Types Application of Innovation Degree of Novelty 12
  13. 13. 3. Types of innovation • Application of innovation – Product Innovation – Marketing Innovation – Process Innovation – Organisational Innovation • Degree of novelty (Does the innovation involve little, much or no novelty?) – Radical Innovation – Architectural Innovation – Modular Innovation – Incremental Innovation • Innovation types not 100% distinguishable, some might as well “overlap” = Henderson & Clark Modell 13
  14. 14. Product Innovation • A good or service that is new or significantly improved. This includes significant improvements in technical specifications, components and materials, software in the product, user friendliness or other functional characteristics. (OECD) • the introduction of a new product, or a significant qualitative change in an existing product – Product does not need to invented -> improvement of existing product also innovation – Trend towards product improvement rather than totally new products (since 70`s) • Examples: Dyson vacuum cleaner, Computer 14
  15. 15. Process Innovation • A new or significantly improved production or delivery method. This includes significant changes in techniques, equipment and/or software. (OECD) • the introduction of a new process for making or delivering goods and services. • Examples: automobile produced by robots compared to that produced by human workers 15
  16. 16. Marketing Innovation • A new marketing method involving significant changes in product design or packaging, product placement, product promotion or pricing. (OECD) • Example: Facebook, Twitter etc. 16
  17. 17. Organisational Innovation • A new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations. (OECD) • result from a shift in underlying organizational assumptions, • are discontinuous from previous practice, and • provide new pathways to creating public value. • Example: first implementation of an organisational model that gives the firm’s employees greater autonomy in decision making and encourages them to contribute their ideas 17
  18. 18. Radical Innovation • It represents a drastic change in the way that the product or the service is consumed. It generally, brings a new paradigm to the market segment that modifies the existing business model • Example: the evolution of the music CD to digital files in MP3 extension 18
  19. 19. Architectural Innovation • “The essence of an architectural innovation is the reconfiguration of an established system to link together existing components in a new way […] The important point is that the core design concept behind each component-and the associated scientific and engineering knowledge-remain the same.” (Henderson & Clark 1990:12) • Example: Sony Walkman (all main components existed before already but were used in other products) 19
  20. 20. Incremental Innovation • It reflects small continuous improvements in products or product lines. It generally represents small improvements in benefits noticed by the consumer and it does not change significantly the business model or the way the product is consumed. • Example: iPhone → smartphones existed before apple entered the market but apple introduced larger touchscreen, app store, and an overall improvement in usability 20
  21. 21. Modular Innovation • Uses the architecture and configuration associated with the existing system of an established product but employs new components with different design concepts • Use of new or different component is key factor of modular innovation • Less dramatic impact than radical innovation • Example: Clockwork radio (radios were already there but different power supply, not autonomously as in clockwork radio) 21
  22. 22. Technological vs. non-technological innovation • Taking the different types of innovation it is clear, that innovations can be of technological and of non- technological nature 22 Business Inno- vation Marke- ting Strategic Oper- rational Non-Technological Technological Product Etc. Process Techno- logy Etc.
  23. 23. Understanding Innovation Content: 1. What is innovation? 2. Why is innovation important? 3. Types of innovation 4. Innovation drivers & barriers 5. How to “initialise” innovation? 6. Open Innovation 7. Innovation in arts & humanities 23
  24. 24. 4. Innovation drivers & barriers • Innovation is not deterministic – There are elements that may foster or hinder the development of innovation 24
  25. 25. Innovation drivers • There are many drivers that can lead to innovation • However, certain drivers are more commons than others: 1. Frustration with the Status-Quo 2. Responding to Crisis 3. New emphasis on prevention 4. New emphasis on results 5. Adapting of technology 6. Inclination of “doing the right thing” (moral imperative) 25
  26. 26. Innovation barriers • Of course, there are also many barriers that can hinder (business) innovation • However, a couple of barriers are particularly common: 1. Inadequate funding 2. Risk avoidance 3. “Siloing” 4. Time commitments 5. Incorrect measures 26
  27. 27. Inadequate funding • Innovation usually requires some sort of funding • Funding a project leading to an innovation oftentimes means taking away money from established programs • Getting the money in the right time not easy (organisations often work on annual funding cycles) • However, there are many ways to receive (public) funding for innovational activities → check for funding programs in your community or state 27
  28. 28. Risk avoidance • Many people avoid risk to preserve what they have -> understandable but not a good attitude for becoming an innovator • No progress will be made without a certain amount of calculated risk or change • Risk avoidance goes often along with fear of failure – In some societies one gets “stigmatized” for failing – In a successful innovative company/society an atmosphere of entrepreneurial spirit ought to be created to foster innovation 28
  29. 29. “Siloing” • Organisations seek to protect their identities, get proper credit, sustain themselves and protect themselves – they create boundaries, assign responsibilities and put rules in place • By nature, innovations tend to cross boundaries and create new categories within organisations – innovations that might benefit the whole enterprise can be “killed” 29 • better understanding of the needs and concerns of organisations can be a starting point for managing natural organisational conflicts innovation creates
  30. 30. “Siloing” 30
  31. 31. Time commitments • Time is a scarce resource • Time needs to be used efficiently in a company -> management responsibility to assure that • If management invests in on-the-job training, experimentation etc. that might stimulate innovation there is no guarantee that it will pay off – Conflict of interest as innovation is wanted but not clear to what price – it’s difficult to prove that such “investments” pay off 31
  32. 32. Understanding Innovation Content: 1. What is innovation? 2. Why is innovation important? 3. Types of innovation 4. Innovation drivers & barriers 5. How to “initialise” innovation? 6. Open Innovation 7. Innovation in arts & humanities 32
  33. 33. 5. How to “initialise” innovation? • Companies must encourage and support the development of innovation • Innovation can be seen as dynamic process • → Hamel (2000): „Leading the revolution“ – describes what he calls „the wheel of innovation“ • However, this is only one concept among others – Rather “new” understanding of how innovation works 33
  34. 34. Innovation as a process • Innovation is really not only an end in itself and it can be a long-term process! 34
  35. 35. Wheel of Innovation • Innovation in a 5 step process: 1. Imagining: thinking about new possibilities, making discoveries by ingenuity of communication with others, extending existing ways 2. Designing: testing ideas on concept; discussing them with peers, customers, clients, or technicical experts; building initial models, prototypes, or samples 3. Experimenting: examining practicality and financial value through experiments and feasibility studies 4. Assesing: identifying strengths and weaknesses, potential costs and benefits, and potential markets or applications; and making constructive changes 5. Scaling: gearing up and implementing new process; putting to work what has been learned; commercialising new products or services 35 Imagining Designing Experi- menting Assessing Scaling IDEA
  36. 36. Idea Creation 36 Where do ideas come from? Where did your idea come from? Chance remark Luck Brain Stormin g Innocent remark Dream Mistake The bath (Eureka Moment)
  37. 37. Understanding Innovation Content: 1. What is innovation? 2. Why is innovation important? 3. Types of innovation 4. Innovation drivers & barriers 5. How to “initialise” innovation? 6. Open Innovation 7. Innovation in arts & humanities 37
  38. 38. 6. Open Innovation • New concept for innovation – Innovation process is not limited to inside company efforts but also open for external influences to create innovations through knowledge (sharing) – Internal and external ideas have impact on innovation (development of new products, services or business models) • 3 main approaches: – Outside-in: integration of external knowledge (e.g. make use of knowledge of external partners -> producer, supplier, customers etc.) to raise quality and pace of innovation process – Inside-out: new process already exist in company (e.g. knowledge is externalised through creation of a start-up) – Cooperative: mixture of the formers ones; externalisation of internal knowledge and internalisation of external knowledge → ideas are developed jointly (e.g. optimising processes between producers and suppliers) 38
  39. 39. Open Innovation Example: Mauna Lai Tropical I/II Situation: • a group of entrepreneurs purchased a failing beverage brand – Goal: Revitalise business within 5 years – Problem: they had all marketing rights for the products but no operational or product development capabilities (had to rely on original owner → high costs) → growth potential was very limited Strategy: • Enhance value of the brand by establishing an open innovation system for product development → Creation of new product pipeline & reduction of operating costs 39
  40. 40. Open Innovation Example: Mauna Lai Tropical II/II Tactics: • Establishment of a distributed product development team, including outside experts (product development beverage formulation, food processing and market research etc.) • Management of the team by professional consultancy in a phased review process → Cost reduction for existing products → Development of product line extensions Results: • Increased sales and profitability • New excitement about the brand among distributors (also b/c of better product pipeline increased value of the brand) • Owners were able to sell the brand two years ahead of schedule at a substantial gain 40
  41. 41. Understanding Innovation Content: 1. What is innovation? 2. Why is innovation important? 3. Types of innovation 4. Innovation drivers & barriers 5. How to “initialise” innovation? 6. Open Innovation 7. Innovation in arts & humanities 41
  42. 42. 7. Innovation in arts & humanities • Research in arts & humanities contributes significantly to growing body of knowledge on human experience, agency, identity and expression (language, literature, performance etc.) • Strong affiliation with creative industry (strongly innovative) • Sciences, technologies and arts & humanities complement each other and are interdependent – E.g. arts & humanities can help to translate science to wider public – E.g. arts & humanities provide understanding of the effects of change on society • arts & humanities create language that helps to communicate complex matters in a comprehensible way 42
  43. 43. 7. Innovation in arts & humanities • Knowledge is at the heart of innovation • HEI provide a vital source of fundamental knowledge (sharing/transmission, creating and accumulating knowledge) • Innovation system depends on knowledge coming from HEI – This not only true for technological inventions but also for innovation coming from arts & humanities – Strength of innovation system depends on effectiveness of HEI to disseminate knowledge to others • However, innovation does not just evolve within HEI→ special skills and a certain mind-set is needed to be innovative – Can be linked to entrepreneurial skills – Entrepreneurial skills need to be taught in arts & humanities to better transmit ideas from HEI to business and vice versa → ventures 43
  44. 44. 7. Innovation in arts & humanities • Everybody can be an innovator! → Concept of intrapreneurship (behaving like an entrepreneur while working within a large organisation) • Difference between entrepreneur & intrapreneur? • Entrepreneur: someone who creates (through his/her passion, skills, innovation) a business and is willing to take full account for its success or failure • Intrapreneur: utilizes his/her skill, passion and innovation to manage or create something „useful“ for someone else`s business • Arts & humanities need to teach typical skills throughout their education which enables students to become intrapreneurs! • Increases chances to become either entrepreneur or intrapreneur • Increases chances on job market as companies look increasingly for graduates with intrapreneurial mind • Increases the chances for innovation to evolve → nourishes the innovation system 44

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