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COURSE A4
Pedagogy of Teaching Science
(B Ed Special Education – Hearing Impairment/
B Ed Special Education-- Learning Disability
University of Mumbai
TOPIC : 2.1. Aims and Objectives of Teaching Science
Dr.Amit Hemant Mishal,
Associate Professor
CCYM’S Hashu Advani College of Special Education
https://www.hashuadvanismarak.org/hacse/introduction.html
Dr.Amit Hemant Mishal, Associate Professor 1
NCF 2005 Science
• The teaching of science should be recast so that it enables children to examine
and analyse everyday experiences.
• Concerns and issues pertaining to the environment should be emphasised in
every subject and through a wide range of activities involving outdoor project
work.
• Some of the information and understanding flowing from such projects could
contribute to the elaboration of a publicly accessible, transparent database on
India’s environment, which would in turn become a most valuable educational
resource.
• If well planned, many of these student projects could lead to knowledge
generation.
• A social movement along the lines of Children’s Science Congress should be
visualised in order to promote discovery learning across the nation, and
eventually throughout South Asia.
• Good science education is true to the child, true to life and true to science.
• This simple observation leads to the following basic criteria of validity of a
science curriculum:
• 1. Cognitive validity requires -content, process, language and pedagogical
practices of curriculum are age appropriate,and within cognitive reach of child.
• 2. Content validity requires - curriculum must convey significant/correct
scientific information.
Simplification of content, which is necessary for adapting the curriculum
to cognitive level of learner, must not be so trivialised as to convey something
basically flawed and/or meaningless.
• 3. Process validity requires that the curriculum should engage the learner in
acquiring the methods and processes that lead to the generation and
validation of scientific knowledge and nurture the natural curiosity and
creativity of the child in science.
Process validity - important criterion since it helps student in 'learning to
learn' science.
• 4. Historical validity requires science curriculum be informed by a
historical perspective, enabling learner to appreciate how the concepts of
science evolve over time.
It also helps learner to view science as a social enterprise and to
understand how social factors influence development of science.
• 5. Environmental validity requires -science be placed in wider context of
learner's environment, local and global, enabling him/her to appreciate
issues at interface of science, technology and society, and equipping
him/her with requisite knowledge and skills to enter world of work.
• 6. Ethical validity requires - curriculum promote values of honesty,
objectivity, cooperation, and freedom from fear and prejudice, and
inculcate in learner a concern for life and preservation of environment.
PRIMARY STAGE
• At the primary stage, the child should be engaged in joyfully exploring the world
around and harmonising with it.
• objectives at this stage:
- to nurture the curiosity of the child about the world (natural environment, artifacts
and people),
- to have child engage in exploratory and hands-on activities for acquiring basic
cognitive and psychomotor skills through observation, classification, inference, etc.;
- to emphasise design and fabrication, estimation and measurement as a prelude to the
development of technological and quantitative skills at later stages;
- and to develop basic language skills: speaking, reading and writing not only for
science but also through science.
• Science and social science should be integrated as 'environmental studies' as at
present, with health as an important component. Throughout the primary stage, there
should be no formal periodic tests, no awarding of grades or marks, and no detention.
Upper primary stage
• At the upper primary stage, the child should be engaged in learning principles of science through
familiar experiences, working with hands to design simple technological units and modules (e.g.
designing and making a working model of a windmill to lift weights) and continuing to learn more
about the environment and health, including reproductive and sexual health, through activities
and surveys.
• Scientific concepts are to be arrived at mainly from activities and experiments. 
• Science content at this stage is not to be regarded as a diluted version of secondary school
science.
• Group activities, discussions with peers and teachers, surveys, organization of data and their
display through exhibitions, etc. in schools and the neighborhood should be important
components of pedagogy.
• There should be continuous as well as periodic assessment (unit tests, term-end tests). The
system of 'direct' grades should be adopted.
• There should be no detention.
• Every child who attends eight years of school should be eligible to enter Class IX.
SECONDARY STAGE
• At the secondary stage, students should be engaged in learning
science as a composite discipline, in working with hands and tools to
design more advanced technological modules than at the upper
primary stage, and in activities and analyses on issues concerning the
environment and health, including reproductive and sexual health.
• Systematic experimentation as a tool to discover/verify theoretical
principles, and working on locally significant projects involving science
and technology, are to be important parts of the curriculum at this
stage.
Higher Secondary Sage
• At the higher secondary stage, science should be introduced as separate
disciplines, with emphasis on experiments/technology and problem solving.
• The current two streams, academic and vocational, being pursued as per NPE-
1986, may require a fresh look in the present scenario.
• Students may be given the option of choosing the subjects of their interest
freely, though it may not be feasible to offer all the different subjects in every
school.
• The curriculum load should be rationalized to avoid the steep gradient
between secondary and higher secondary syllabi.
• At this stage, the core topics of a discipline, taking into account recent
advances in the field, should be identified carefully and treated with
appropriate rigour and depth.
• The tendency to cover a large number of topics of the discipline superficially
should be avoided.
References:
• https://ncert.nic.in/pdf/nc-framework/nf2005-english.pdf Retrieved on
16.4.2024)
THANK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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1.1. Aims and Objectives of Teaching Science.pptx

  • 1. COURSE A4 Pedagogy of Teaching Science (B Ed Special Education – Hearing Impairment/ B Ed Special Education-- Learning Disability University of Mumbai TOPIC : 2.1. Aims and Objectives of Teaching Science Dr.Amit Hemant Mishal, Associate Professor CCYM’S Hashu Advani College of Special Education https://www.hashuadvanismarak.org/hacse/introduction.html Dr.Amit Hemant Mishal, Associate Professor 1
  • 2. NCF 2005 Science • The teaching of science should be recast so that it enables children to examine and analyse everyday experiences. • Concerns and issues pertaining to the environment should be emphasised in every subject and through a wide range of activities involving outdoor project work. • Some of the information and understanding flowing from such projects could contribute to the elaboration of a publicly accessible, transparent database on India’s environment, which would in turn become a most valuable educational resource. • If well planned, many of these student projects could lead to knowledge generation. • A social movement along the lines of Children’s Science Congress should be visualised in order to promote discovery learning across the nation, and eventually throughout South Asia.
  • 3. • Good science education is true to the child, true to life and true to science. • This simple observation leads to the following basic criteria of validity of a science curriculum: • 1. Cognitive validity requires -content, process, language and pedagogical practices of curriculum are age appropriate,and within cognitive reach of child. • 2. Content validity requires - curriculum must convey significant/correct scientific information. Simplification of content, which is necessary for adapting the curriculum to cognitive level of learner, must not be so trivialised as to convey something basically flawed and/or meaningless. • 3. Process validity requires that the curriculum should engage the learner in acquiring the methods and processes that lead to the generation and validation of scientific knowledge and nurture the natural curiosity and creativity of the child in science. Process validity - important criterion since it helps student in 'learning to learn' science.
  • 4. • 4. Historical validity requires science curriculum be informed by a historical perspective, enabling learner to appreciate how the concepts of science evolve over time. It also helps learner to view science as a social enterprise and to understand how social factors influence development of science. • 5. Environmental validity requires -science be placed in wider context of learner's environment, local and global, enabling him/her to appreciate issues at interface of science, technology and society, and equipping him/her with requisite knowledge and skills to enter world of work. • 6. Ethical validity requires - curriculum promote values of honesty, objectivity, cooperation, and freedom from fear and prejudice, and inculcate in learner a concern for life and preservation of environment.
  • 5. PRIMARY STAGE • At the primary stage, the child should be engaged in joyfully exploring the world around and harmonising with it. • objectives at this stage: - to nurture the curiosity of the child about the world (natural environment, artifacts and people), - to have child engage in exploratory and hands-on activities for acquiring basic cognitive and psychomotor skills through observation, classification, inference, etc.; - to emphasise design and fabrication, estimation and measurement as a prelude to the development of technological and quantitative skills at later stages; - and to develop basic language skills: speaking, reading and writing not only for science but also through science. • Science and social science should be integrated as 'environmental studies' as at present, with health as an important component. Throughout the primary stage, there should be no formal periodic tests, no awarding of grades or marks, and no detention.
  • 6. Upper primary stage • At the upper primary stage, the child should be engaged in learning principles of science through familiar experiences, working with hands to design simple technological units and modules (e.g. designing and making a working model of a windmill to lift weights) and continuing to learn more about the environment and health, including reproductive and sexual health, through activities and surveys. • Scientific concepts are to be arrived at mainly from activities and experiments. • Science content at this stage is not to be regarded as a diluted version of secondary school science. • Group activities, discussions with peers and teachers, surveys, organization of data and their display through exhibitions, etc. in schools and the neighborhood should be important components of pedagogy. • There should be continuous as well as periodic assessment (unit tests, term-end tests). The system of 'direct' grades should be adopted. • There should be no detention. • Every child who attends eight years of school should be eligible to enter Class IX.
  • 7. SECONDARY STAGE • At the secondary stage, students should be engaged in learning science as a composite discipline, in working with hands and tools to design more advanced technological modules than at the upper primary stage, and in activities and analyses on issues concerning the environment and health, including reproductive and sexual health. • Systematic experimentation as a tool to discover/verify theoretical principles, and working on locally significant projects involving science and technology, are to be important parts of the curriculum at this stage.
  • 8. Higher Secondary Sage • At the higher secondary stage, science should be introduced as separate disciplines, with emphasis on experiments/technology and problem solving. • The current two streams, academic and vocational, being pursued as per NPE- 1986, may require a fresh look in the present scenario. • Students may be given the option of choosing the subjects of their interest freely, though it may not be feasible to offer all the different subjects in every school. • The curriculum load should be rationalized to avoid the steep gradient between secondary and higher secondary syllabi. • At this stage, the core topics of a discipline, taking into account recent advances in the field, should be identified carefully and treated with appropriate rigour and depth. • The tendency to cover a large number of topics of the discipline superficially should be avoided.