SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 19
Helen Sykes
www.marineecologyfiji.com www.waitabu.org
‘10 years of community managed marine protection
supported by ecotourism-based income generation,
at Waitabu Marine Park, Fiji Islands’
Waitabu village, Taveuni Island,
Republic of Fiji
Waitabu, a traditional Fijian village, is on Taveuni, the third largest island in
the Fijian Archipelago.
Waitabu village
Waitabu has 25 houses and 129 inhabitants, living in a
collectively owned traditional village unit.
They are financially dependant on farming cash crops
such as Dalo (Taro), and Yagona (Kava) roots crops, and
on subsistence fishing for the protein in their diet.
Socio-economics
2007: Fiji Locally Managed Marine Areas (FLMMA) network
socioeconomic survey:
Material wealth status of the community is average,
with an average income per household of FJ$ 150 / month
(highly variable as monthly income depends on sales of farm products)
Most people rely heavily on farming for subsistence and commercial livelihood.
1989: Bouma Heritage Park
1989: Cash offered by logging company to cut hardwood in Bouma District
 Locals opted to preserve the forests rather than award a logging contract:
 New Zealand Overseas Development Agency (NZODA) (now NZAID)
assisted in developing the Bouma National Heritage Park
Objectives:
1. Protect the Vanua (the four communities) Bouma,
forest and ecosystems, including the marine areas of Bouma
2. To create sustainable livelihoods for the four villages
3. To preserve natural and cultural traditions where possible
4. To have projects managed by and for the local communities
Waitabu MPA started April 1998:
“Tabu” declared at village level
 recognition at “Tikina’ District level
 recognition at Provincial Council level
 Founder member of FLMMA 2001
(Fiji Locally Managed Marine Areas network)
“Fish Warden” training March 2009
Biological Monitoring
Annual surveys by a mixed team of scientists and community members,
with annual training and refreshers, and youths make their own presentations to
the community
Ecological Improvements
Results:
 Increased fish populations within the MPA after 3 years
 Increased invertebrate populations after 5 years
 Coral increasing and algae being removed by fish
Tourism started in 2001
 For the first 3 years the reef was left undisturbed to recover from many
years of subsistence fishing. In 2001, snorkelling tourism was started,
involving all clans within the community.
 Local youths receive annual training as snorkel guides and in First Aid, and
take part in annual biological monitoring
 Project is managed as a cooperative under a committee, with a Chairman,
Secretary, Treasurer and representatives from all 3 Matagalis.
 There is a paid Project Manager and Receptionist.
Tourism product
Half day trip including ride to MPA on traditional Fijian Bamboo “Bilibili”,
snorkelling in MPA, tea and entertainment in village F$50
Proceeds divided up immediately to:
Snorkel Guides, Tea ladies, Boat captain and fuel
Balance to project funds
Split into traditional community commitments and
fund for children’s school fees in 3 years’ time.
Interpretation
and explanation
Guides use posters and
maps to explain project
before snorkel trips start
Visitor numbers and earnings to date
The park hosts an average of 15 - 20 visitors per month
To date the Marine Park has received 2,832 visitors
and earned an estimated gross total of F$116,266, an average of FJ$745 per month
Earnings dropped in 2007 when
a reduced rate backpacker trip
was introduced.
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
20000
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Fiji$
Estimated annual gross income
(estimated total accumulated since start = FJ $116,266)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Totalvisitornumbers
Year
Annual Visitor Numbers
Visitor numbers were boosted in
2008/9 by a bi-annual visit of a small
nature-based cruise ship.
Good ideas that have not succeeded
Reduced rate trip for backpackers
Reduced income without raising visitor numbers
Camping
A campground has been added, so far only used by monitoring teams.
There are concerns about
cultural impacts
Website
2 websites have been created,
but without regular email and
phone contacts
are not useful to create bookings
www.waitabu.org
Ideas that have succeeded
Student groups, in homestays.
More profitable, more easily organised within the
village milieu, and also more culturally sensitive.
“Volun-tourism”
International Interns stay for months in homestays
while carrying out survey work in the marine park
Facebook
Accessible to community by smart phone.
Currently posting blogs and gaining followers
Future tourism avenues
Special interest nature-tourism groups to do all 4 of the
Bouma Heritage Park trips as a package.
These will take a great deal of training and discussion amongst the
community, but should be more profitable and sustainable.
In all enterprises it is necessary to concentrate on
mechanisms to ensure that all income generation
opportunities are fairly shared between families and clans
Community perceptions
of the importance of the MPA
Community dependence
Livelihood from harvested marine resources is minimal.
Villagers are more reliant on agriculture for cash income
The important benefits and services derived from the MPA
1. Food security
2. Monetary (Tourism)
3. Future reserve for natural resources (Fish for the Children’s Future)
Tourists / visitors to the MPA
Important as a source of supplemental income
Environmental attitudes
towards long-term commitment
and participation in the MPA
Positive in all community members
(FLMMA) network
socioeconomic survey 2007
Participation in biological monitoring
Raises awareness of the functions of the MPA
Establishes feelings of “ownership” of project
Reinforces commitment to the project
Long term project
MPA is now permanent in people’s minds.
Children have grown up with the concept
of marine protection for the past 11 years.
Some of them are now snorkel guides in the park.
Income generation through tourism
Supplementary cash income
reinforces ownership and
importance of protected area,
but it is important not to raise
unrealistic expectations and
to manage conflicts.
Reinforcement of conservation
Conclusions
Marine Conservation is very close to the hearts of Fijian people.
who often depend on subsistence fishing for protein, if not for cash income.
Involvement in MPA activities and work  stronger ownership and connectedness
to the project than may be achieved if work is entirely done by an outside agency.
Tourism activities in rural communities take a great deal of work and support,
and are unlikely to contribute a large amount of income generation in early years.
Tourism can be used
to supplement income,
raise awareness and education on
environmental issues,
and reinforce the value of an MPA.
The trick is not just how to start a project,
it is how to create long-term
sustainability.
Community involvement and income
generation can help to achieve this.
Please come and see us!
Support marine conservation by visiting
Waitabu Marine Park www.waitabu.org
Like us on Facebook!

More Related Content

What's hot

Help Needed For The Zimbabwe Mission
Help Needed For The Zimbabwe MissionHelp Needed For The Zimbabwe Mission
Help Needed For The Zimbabwe Mission12098427
 
WIWSA Apprenticeship Presentation
WIWSA Apprenticeship PresentationWIWSA Apprenticeship Presentation
WIWSA Apprenticeship PresentationJohn Lovie
 
BUHANGA - how to help an African Village
BUHANGA - how to help an African VillageBUHANGA - how to help an African Village
BUHANGA - how to help an African VillageHank Pellissier
 
2011 mini grants v1
2011 mini grants v12011 mini grants v1
2011 mini grants v1WS77Holc
 
QEW mini grants 2011
QEW mini grants 2011QEW mini grants 2011
QEW mini grants 2011fdmillar
 
Karla Purcell: JFK Magnet School Garden, Port Chester, NY
Karla Purcell: JFK Magnet School Garden, Port Chester, NYKarla Purcell: JFK Magnet School Garden, Port Chester, NY
Karla Purcell: JFK Magnet School Garden, Port Chester, NYTeaching the Hudson Valley
 
9. myaing cbt project action aid and journeys 13 june
9. myaing cbt project   action aid and journeys 13 june9. myaing cbt project   action aid and journeys 13 june
9. myaing cbt project action aid and journeys 13 juneEthical Sector
 

What's hot (8)

Help Needed For The Zimbabwe Mission
Help Needed For The Zimbabwe MissionHelp Needed For The Zimbabwe Mission
Help Needed For The Zimbabwe Mission
 
WIWSA Apprenticeship Presentation
WIWSA Apprenticeship PresentationWIWSA Apprenticeship Presentation
WIWSA Apprenticeship Presentation
 
Jnn water project
Jnn water projectJnn water project
Jnn water project
 
BUHANGA - how to help an African Village
BUHANGA - how to help an African VillageBUHANGA - how to help an African Village
BUHANGA - how to help an African Village
 
2011 mini grants v1
2011 mini grants v12011 mini grants v1
2011 mini grants v1
 
QEW mini grants 2011
QEW mini grants 2011QEW mini grants 2011
QEW mini grants 2011
 
Karla Purcell: JFK Magnet School Garden, Port Chester, NY
Karla Purcell: JFK Magnet School Garden, Port Chester, NYKarla Purcell: JFK Magnet School Garden, Port Chester, NY
Karla Purcell: JFK Magnet School Garden, Port Chester, NY
 
9. myaing cbt project action aid and journeys 13 june
9. myaing cbt project   action aid and journeys 13 june9. myaing cbt project   action aid and journeys 13 june
9. myaing cbt project action aid and journeys 13 june
 

Viewers also liked

Shahara_Wooten_final_project
Shahara_Wooten_final_projectShahara_Wooten_final_project
Shahara_Wooten_final_projectWooten-S
 
Abc jak dziala instalacja z pompa ciepla
Abc jak dziala instalacja z pompa cieplaAbc jak dziala instalacja z pompa ciepla
Abc jak dziala instalacja z pompa cieplaabc-kotly
 
Parent handbook final updated
Parent handbook final updatedParent handbook final updated
Parent handbook final updatedAibek Dunaev
 
Abc jakie grzejniki dla kotla kondensacyjnego
Abc jakie grzejniki dla kotla kondensacyjnegoAbc jakie grzejniki dla kotla kondensacyjnego
Abc jakie grzejniki dla kotla kondensacyjnegoabc-kotly
 
Abc czy oplaca sie zainwestowac w kolektory sloneczne
Abc czy oplaca sie zainwestowac w kolektory sloneczneAbc czy oplaca sie zainwestowac w kolektory sloneczne
Abc czy oplaca sie zainwestowac w kolektory sloneczneabc-kotly
 
Papi 2008 buku 2
Papi   2008 buku 2Papi   2008 buku 2
Papi 2008 buku 2citra Joni
 
Abc jaka pompe ciepla wybrac
Abc jaka pompe ciepla wybracAbc jaka pompe ciepla wybrac
Abc jaka pompe ciepla wybracabc-kotly
 
Shahara_Wooten_Final_Presentation
Shahara_Wooten_Final_PresentationShahara_Wooten_Final_Presentation
Shahara_Wooten_Final_PresentationWooten-S
 
Javascript1
Javascript1Javascript1
Javascript1mozks
 
Javascript3
Javascript3Javascript3
Javascript3mozks
 
Abc kociol jedno czy dwufunkcyjny
Abc kociol jedno czy dwufunkcyjnyAbc kociol jedno czy dwufunkcyjny
Abc kociol jedno czy dwufunkcyjnyabc-kotly
 
FCPD: Fibro Calculus Pancreatic Diabetes
FCPD: Fibro Calculus Pancreatic DiabetesFCPD: Fibro Calculus Pancreatic Diabetes
FCPD: Fibro Calculus Pancreatic DiabetesDr Joozer Rangwala
 
Protección de las mujeres contra la violencia de genero en la argentina
Protección de las mujeres contra la violencia de genero en la argentinaProtección de las mujeres contra la violencia de genero en la argentina
Protección de las mujeres contra la violencia de genero en la argentinaMaría Isabel Sanchez
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Presentm4
Presentm4Presentm4
Presentm4
 
Shahara_Wooten_final_project
Shahara_Wooten_final_projectShahara_Wooten_final_project
Shahara_Wooten_final_project
 
Abc jak dziala instalacja z pompa ciepla
Abc jak dziala instalacja z pompa cieplaAbc jak dziala instalacja z pompa ciepla
Abc jak dziala instalacja z pompa ciepla
 
Parent handbook final updated
Parent handbook final updatedParent handbook final updated
Parent handbook final updated
 
Abc jakie grzejniki dla kotla kondensacyjnego
Abc jakie grzejniki dla kotla kondensacyjnegoAbc jakie grzejniki dla kotla kondensacyjnego
Abc jakie grzejniki dla kotla kondensacyjnego
 
Abc czy oplaca sie zainwestowac w kolektory sloneczne
Abc czy oplaca sie zainwestowac w kolektory sloneczneAbc czy oplaca sie zainwestowac w kolektory sloneczne
Abc czy oplaca sie zainwestowac w kolektory sloneczne
 
Crisis
CrisisCrisis
Crisis
 
Papi 2008 buku 2
Papi   2008 buku 2Papi   2008 buku 2
Papi 2008 buku 2
 
Abc jaka pompe ciepla wybrac
Abc jaka pompe ciepla wybracAbc jaka pompe ciepla wybrac
Abc jaka pompe ciepla wybrac
 
Shahara_Wooten_Final_Presentation
Shahara_Wooten_Final_PresentationShahara_Wooten_Final_Presentation
Shahara_Wooten_Final_Presentation
 
Myfive
MyfiveMyfive
Myfive
 
Javascript1
Javascript1Javascript1
Javascript1
 
Javascript3
Javascript3Javascript3
Javascript3
 
Abc kociol jedno czy dwufunkcyjny
Abc kociol jedno czy dwufunkcyjnyAbc kociol jedno czy dwufunkcyjny
Abc kociol jedno czy dwufunkcyjny
 
FCPD: Fibro Calculus Pancreatic Diabetes
FCPD: Fibro Calculus Pancreatic DiabetesFCPD: Fibro Calculus Pancreatic Diabetes
FCPD: Fibro Calculus Pancreatic Diabetes
 
Barriers to insulin therapy
Barriers to insulin therapyBarriers to insulin therapy
Barriers to insulin therapy
 
Presentacion 0000001
Presentacion 0000001Presentacion 0000001
Presentacion 0000001
 
Waitabu eco tourism
Waitabu eco tourismWaitabu eco tourism
Waitabu eco tourism
 
Protección de las mujeres contra la violencia de genero en la argentina
Protección de las mujeres contra la violencia de genero en la argentinaProtección de las mujeres contra la violencia de genero en la argentina
Protección de las mujeres contra la violencia de genero en la argentina
 
How to phrase your
How to phrase yourHow to phrase your
How to phrase your
 

Similar to “Sacred Water”; 10 years of community managed marine protection supported by ecotourism-based income generation at Waitabu Marine Park, Fiji

Group-3_EconFinalPaper.docx
Group-3_EconFinalPaper.docxGroup-3_EconFinalPaper.docx
Group-3_EconFinalPaper.docxJoyceAnn70
 
Fiji Time Dec Jan FINAL Kay-2
Fiji Time Dec Jan FINAL Kay-2Fiji Time Dec Jan FINAL Kay-2
Fiji Time Dec Jan FINAL Kay-2Kay Dougherty
 
Rare_Book_Translation
Rare_Book_TranslationRare_Book_Translation
Rare_Book_TranslationRini Sucahyo
 
Sustainable uses of tropical ecosystems ecotourism
Sustainable uses of tropical ecosystems  ecotourismSustainable uses of tropical ecosystems  ecotourism
Sustainable uses of tropical ecosystems ecotourismMark McGinley
 
The Lake Mainit and Its Watershed
The Lake Mainit and Its WatershedThe Lake Mainit and Its Watershed
The Lake Mainit and Its WatershedJOHNY NATAD
 
How IUU fishing impacts small-scale fishers' lives
How IUU fishing impacts small-scale fishers' livesHow IUU fishing impacts small-scale fishers' lives
How IUU fishing impacts small-scale fishers' livesSWAIMSProject
 
Haribon foundation
Haribon foundationHaribon foundation
Haribon foundationclairemedina
 
Ecotourism - what does it mean in Fiji?
Ecotourism - what does it mean in Fiji?Ecotourism - what does it mean in Fiji?
Ecotourism - what does it mean in Fiji?Stuart Gow
 
BiodiversityMagazine
BiodiversityMagazineBiodiversityMagazine
BiodiversityMagazineClive Hawigen
 
ESTC 2011 Presentation by Serge Rajaobelina, FANAMBY, Wildlife Conservation a...
ESTC 2011 Presentation by Serge Rajaobelina, FANAMBY, Wildlife Conservation a...ESTC 2011 Presentation by Serge Rajaobelina, FANAMBY, Wildlife Conservation a...
ESTC 2011 Presentation by Serge Rajaobelina, FANAMBY, Wildlife Conservation a...The International Ecotourism Society (TIES)
 
Session2 03 Sergio Chiarandini
Session2 03 Sergio ChiarandiniSession2 03 Sergio Chiarandini
Session2 03 Sergio ChiarandiniTAPAS
 
Benefit sharing from tourism in protected areas
Benefit sharing from tourism in protected areasBenefit sharing from tourism in protected areas
Benefit sharing from tourism in protected areasAnna Spenceley
 
Session6 01 Ruth_Spencer
Session6 01 Ruth_SpencerSession6 01 Ruth_Spencer
Session6 01 Ruth_SpencerTAPAS
 
WCS EBM Facilitator Guide English WEB.PDF
WCS EBM Facilitator Guide English WEB.PDFWCS EBM Facilitator Guide English WEB.PDF
WCS EBM Facilitator Guide English WEB.PDFGed Acton
 
12. Working with local communities to protect the Maigue - Tom Harrington, Ma...
12. Working with local communities to protect the Maigue - Tom Harrington, Ma...12. Working with local communities to protect the Maigue - Tom Harrington, Ma...
12. Working with local communities to protect the Maigue - Tom Harrington, Ma...Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland
 
2012 wetland globe awards
2012 wetland globe awards2012 wetland globe awards
2012 wetland globe awardsESTHHUB
 

Similar to “Sacred Water”; 10 years of community managed marine protection supported by ecotourism-based income generation at Waitabu Marine Park, Fiji (20)

ESTC 2011 Presentation by Irene Lane, Greenloons, Alonissos
ESTC 2011 Presentation by Irene Lane, Greenloons, AlonissosESTC 2011 Presentation by Irene Lane, Greenloons, Alonissos
ESTC 2011 Presentation by Irene Lane, Greenloons, Alonissos
 
Group-3_EconFinalPaper.docx
Group-3_EconFinalPaper.docxGroup-3_EconFinalPaper.docx
Group-3_EconFinalPaper.docx
 
Fiji Time Dec Jan FINAL Kay-2
Fiji Time Dec Jan FINAL Kay-2Fiji Time Dec Jan FINAL Kay-2
Fiji Time Dec Jan FINAL Kay-2
 
Nature Based Tourism in COVID times 2020
Nature Based Tourism in COVID times 2020  Nature Based Tourism in COVID times 2020
Nature Based Tourism in COVID times 2020
 
Rare_Book_Translation
Rare_Book_TranslationRare_Book_Translation
Rare_Book_Translation
 
Sustainable uses of tropical ecosystems ecotourism
Sustainable uses of tropical ecosystems  ecotourismSustainable uses of tropical ecosystems  ecotourism
Sustainable uses of tropical ecosystems ecotourism
 
The Lake Mainit and Its Watershed
The Lake Mainit and Its WatershedThe Lake Mainit and Its Watershed
The Lake Mainit and Its Watershed
 
How IUU fishing impacts small-scale fishers' lives
How IUU fishing impacts small-scale fishers' livesHow IUU fishing impacts small-scale fishers' lives
How IUU fishing impacts small-scale fishers' lives
 
Haribon foundation
Haribon foundationHaribon foundation
Haribon foundation
 
Ecotourism - what does it mean in Fiji?
Ecotourism - what does it mean in Fiji?Ecotourism - what does it mean in Fiji?
Ecotourism - what does it mean in Fiji?
 
Lake mainit and its watershed
Lake mainit and its watershedLake mainit and its watershed
Lake mainit and its watershed
 
BiodiversityMagazine
BiodiversityMagazineBiodiversityMagazine
BiodiversityMagazine
 
ESTC 2011 Presentation by Serge Rajaobelina, FANAMBY, Wildlife Conservation a...
ESTC 2011 Presentation by Serge Rajaobelina, FANAMBY, Wildlife Conservation a...ESTC 2011 Presentation by Serge Rajaobelina, FANAMBY, Wildlife Conservation a...
ESTC 2011 Presentation by Serge Rajaobelina, FANAMBY, Wildlife Conservation a...
 
Session2 03 Sergio Chiarandini
Session2 03 Sergio ChiarandiniSession2 03 Sergio Chiarandini
Session2 03 Sergio Chiarandini
 
Benefit sharing from tourism in protected areas
Benefit sharing from tourism in protected areasBenefit sharing from tourism in protected areas
Benefit sharing from tourism in protected areas
 
Session6 01 Ruth_Spencer
Session6 01 Ruth_SpencerSession6 01 Ruth_Spencer
Session6 01 Ruth_Spencer
 
WCS EBM Facilitator Guide English WEB.PDF
WCS EBM Facilitator Guide English WEB.PDFWCS EBM Facilitator Guide English WEB.PDF
WCS EBM Facilitator Guide English WEB.PDF
 
12. Working with local communities to protect the Maigue - Tom Harrington, Ma...
12. Working with local communities to protect the Maigue - Tom Harrington, Ma...12. Working with local communities to protect the Maigue - Tom Harrington, Ma...
12. Working with local communities to protect the Maigue - Tom Harrington, Ma...
 
2012 wetland globe awards
2012 wetland globe awards2012 wetland globe awards
2012 wetland globe awards
 
Water For Life
Water For LifeWater For Life
Water For Life
 

Recently uploaded

一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单qogbuux
 
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单pcoow
 
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单yegohah
 
LANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptx
LANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptxLANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptx
LANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptxKrish DS
 
LaPlace Transforms 2 with use of Matlab.pptx
LaPlace Transforms 2 with use of Matlab.pptxLaPlace Transforms 2 with use of Matlab.pptx
LaPlace Transforms 2 with use of Matlab.pptxjoshuaclack73
 
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单pcoow
 
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理exehay
 
Multiple choice Qs - Construction safety
Multiple choice Qs - Construction safetyMultiple choice Qs - Construction safety
Multiple choice Qs - Construction safetyAnilDamahe1
 
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单tyvaq
 
The State Board for Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974 .pptx
The State Board for  Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974  .pptxThe State Board for  Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974  .pptx
The State Board for Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974 .pptxlinciy03
 
Climate change Presentation for students who need it
Climate change Presentation for students who need itClimate change Presentation for students who need it
Climate change Presentation for students who need itmaythadar1312
 
Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974
Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974
Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974linciy03
 
SUNDERBANS-a case study(E.V.S. PROJECT).pptx
SUNDERBANS-a case study(E.V.S. PROJECT).pptxSUNDERBANS-a case study(E.V.S. PROJECT).pptx
SUNDERBANS-a case study(E.V.S. PROJECT).pptxKrish DS
 
Powers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdf
Powers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdfPowers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdf
Powers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdflinciy03
 
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...Open Access Research Paper
 
New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)
New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)
New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)susannedejong
 
WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024
WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024
WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024Cluster H2O
 
ecosystem class 12 ppt investigatory project
ecosystem class 12 ppt investigatory projectecosystem class 12 ppt investigatory project
ecosystem class 12 ppt investigatory projectMayank524181
 
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单qogbuux
 

Recently uploaded (20)

一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
 
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
 
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
 
LANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptx
LANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptxLANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptx
LANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptx
 
LaPlace Transforms 2 with use of Matlab.pptx
LaPlace Transforms 2 with use of Matlab.pptxLaPlace Transforms 2 with use of Matlab.pptx
LaPlace Transforms 2 with use of Matlab.pptx
 
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
 
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
Multiple choice Qs - Construction safety
Multiple choice Qs - Construction safetyMultiple choice Qs - Construction safety
Multiple choice Qs - Construction safety
 
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
 
The State Board for Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974 .pptx
The State Board for  Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974  .pptxThe State Board for  Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974  .pptx
The State Board for Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974 .pptx
 
Climate change Presentation for students who need it
Climate change Presentation for students who need itClimate change Presentation for students who need it
Climate change Presentation for students who need it
 
Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974
Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974
Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974
 
SUNDERBANS-a case study(E.V.S. PROJECT).pptx
SUNDERBANS-a case study(E.V.S. PROJECT).pptxSUNDERBANS-a case study(E.V.S. PROJECT).pptx
SUNDERBANS-a case study(E.V.S. PROJECT).pptx
 
Powers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdf
Powers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdfPowers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdf
Powers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdf
 
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
 
New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)
New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)
New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)
 
WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024
WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024
WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024
 
ecosystem class 12 ppt investigatory project
ecosystem class 12 ppt investigatory projectecosystem class 12 ppt investigatory project
ecosystem class 12 ppt investigatory project
 
A systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resources
A systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resourcesA systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resources
A systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resources
 
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
 

“Sacred Water”; 10 years of community managed marine protection supported by ecotourism-based income generation at Waitabu Marine Park, Fiji

  • 1. Helen Sykes www.marineecologyfiji.com www.waitabu.org ‘10 years of community managed marine protection supported by ecotourism-based income generation, at Waitabu Marine Park, Fiji Islands’
  • 2. Waitabu village, Taveuni Island, Republic of Fiji Waitabu, a traditional Fijian village, is on Taveuni, the third largest island in the Fijian Archipelago.
  • 3. Waitabu village Waitabu has 25 houses and 129 inhabitants, living in a collectively owned traditional village unit. They are financially dependant on farming cash crops such as Dalo (Taro), and Yagona (Kava) roots crops, and on subsistence fishing for the protein in their diet.
  • 4. Socio-economics 2007: Fiji Locally Managed Marine Areas (FLMMA) network socioeconomic survey: Material wealth status of the community is average, with an average income per household of FJ$ 150 / month (highly variable as monthly income depends on sales of farm products) Most people rely heavily on farming for subsistence and commercial livelihood.
  • 5. 1989: Bouma Heritage Park 1989: Cash offered by logging company to cut hardwood in Bouma District  Locals opted to preserve the forests rather than award a logging contract:  New Zealand Overseas Development Agency (NZODA) (now NZAID) assisted in developing the Bouma National Heritage Park Objectives: 1. Protect the Vanua (the four communities) Bouma, forest and ecosystems, including the marine areas of Bouma 2. To create sustainable livelihoods for the four villages 3. To preserve natural and cultural traditions where possible 4. To have projects managed by and for the local communities Waitabu MPA started April 1998: “Tabu” declared at village level  recognition at “Tikina’ District level  recognition at Provincial Council level  Founder member of FLMMA 2001 (Fiji Locally Managed Marine Areas network) “Fish Warden” training March 2009
  • 6. Biological Monitoring Annual surveys by a mixed team of scientists and community members, with annual training and refreshers, and youths make their own presentations to the community
  • 7. Ecological Improvements Results:  Increased fish populations within the MPA after 3 years  Increased invertebrate populations after 5 years  Coral increasing and algae being removed by fish
  • 8. Tourism started in 2001  For the first 3 years the reef was left undisturbed to recover from many years of subsistence fishing. In 2001, snorkelling tourism was started, involving all clans within the community.  Local youths receive annual training as snorkel guides and in First Aid, and take part in annual biological monitoring  Project is managed as a cooperative under a committee, with a Chairman, Secretary, Treasurer and representatives from all 3 Matagalis.  There is a paid Project Manager and Receptionist.
  • 9. Tourism product Half day trip including ride to MPA on traditional Fijian Bamboo “Bilibili”, snorkelling in MPA, tea and entertainment in village F$50 Proceeds divided up immediately to: Snorkel Guides, Tea ladies, Boat captain and fuel Balance to project funds Split into traditional community commitments and fund for children’s school fees in 3 years’ time.
  • 10. Interpretation and explanation Guides use posters and maps to explain project before snorkel trips start
  • 11.
  • 12. Visitor numbers and earnings to date The park hosts an average of 15 - 20 visitors per month To date the Marine Park has received 2,832 visitors and earned an estimated gross total of F$116,266, an average of FJ$745 per month Earnings dropped in 2007 when a reduced rate backpacker trip was introduced. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Fiji$ Estimated annual gross income (estimated total accumulated since start = FJ $116,266) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Totalvisitornumbers Year Annual Visitor Numbers Visitor numbers were boosted in 2008/9 by a bi-annual visit of a small nature-based cruise ship.
  • 13. Good ideas that have not succeeded Reduced rate trip for backpackers Reduced income without raising visitor numbers Camping A campground has been added, so far only used by monitoring teams. There are concerns about cultural impacts Website 2 websites have been created, but without regular email and phone contacts are not useful to create bookings www.waitabu.org
  • 14. Ideas that have succeeded Student groups, in homestays. More profitable, more easily organised within the village milieu, and also more culturally sensitive. “Volun-tourism” International Interns stay for months in homestays while carrying out survey work in the marine park Facebook Accessible to community by smart phone. Currently posting blogs and gaining followers
  • 15. Future tourism avenues Special interest nature-tourism groups to do all 4 of the Bouma Heritage Park trips as a package. These will take a great deal of training and discussion amongst the community, but should be more profitable and sustainable. In all enterprises it is necessary to concentrate on mechanisms to ensure that all income generation opportunities are fairly shared between families and clans
  • 16. Community perceptions of the importance of the MPA Community dependence Livelihood from harvested marine resources is minimal. Villagers are more reliant on agriculture for cash income The important benefits and services derived from the MPA 1. Food security 2. Monetary (Tourism) 3. Future reserve for natural resources (Fish for the Children’s Future) Tourists / visitors to the MPA Important as a source of supplemental income Environmental attitudes towards long-term commitment and participation in the MPA Positive in all community members (FLMMA) network socioeconomic survey 2007
  • 17. Participation in biological monitoring Raises awareness of the functions of the MPA Establishes feelings of “ownership” of project Reinforces commitment to the project Long term project MPA is now permanent in people’s minds. Children have grown up with the concept of marine protection for the past 11 years. Some of them are now snorkel guides in the park. Income generation through tourism Supplementary cash income reinforces ownership and importance of protected area, but it is important not to raise unrealistic expectations and to manage conflicts. Reinforcement of conservation
  • 18. Conclusions Marine Conservation is very close to the hearts of Fijian people. who often depend on subsistence fishing for protein, if not for cash income. Involvement in MPA activities and work  stronger ownership and connectedness to the project than may be achieved if work is entirely done by an outside agency. Tourism activities in rural communities take a great deal of work and support, and are unlikely to contribute a large amount of income generation in early years. Tourism can be used to supplement income, raise awareness and education on environmental issues, and reinforce the value of an MPA. The trick is not just how to start a project, it is how to create long-term sustainability. Community involvement and income generation can help to achieve this.
  • 19. Please come and see us! Support marine conservation by visiting Waitabu Marine Park www.waitabu.org Like us on Facebook!