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HAZARD MITIGATION PLANNING
MADE EASY!
A Simple and Easy Way to Develop Your Community’s Hazard
Mitigation Plan
Over the next couple of days you will be learning about a local
planning process called
HAZARD MITIGATION PLANNING. Before this training
program is over you will be
well on your way to developing a HAZARD MITIGATION
PLAN for your local community.
That plan if properly implemented and followed may someday
save the lives, property and
livelihoods of your friends, neighbors, family, perhaps even
yourself. Hazard mitigation
planning may sound complicated, confusing and maybe even
intimidating. It’s really not.
The first time people hear the term “hazard mitigation,” many
of them say “What’s that?”
Most people have an idea of what “hazards” are. Hazards are
dangers or things to watch out
for or risks, but what’s mitigation mean? The ancient Romans
used the word “mitigare”
meaning “to soften.” Good old Daniel Webster says it means
“to make less severe or painful,
to cause to become less harsh or hostile.” Mitigate is another
way to say “relieve” or
“alleviate.” Hazard mitigation is kind of like taking an aspirin
to make a headache go away, it
might not make it go away completely but it should help some.
That’s the general idea, to
make a dangerous situation less risky, but now let’s get down to
what Hazard Mitigation is
really all about.
Great! You’re probably thinking, now I know what the Romans
and Daniel Webster meant, what
should HAZARD MITIGATION mean to me? For our purposes
hazards are natural, man-made
or technological disasters. Hazard mitigation means reducing,
eliminating, redirecting, or
avoiding the effects of those hazards. The standard definition of
hazard mitigation that is
often used by FEMA and PEMA is:
Any cost-effective action taken to eliminate or reduce the long-
term
risk to life and property from natural and technological hazards.
The phrase “cost-effective” is added to this definition to stress
the important practical idea
that, to be beneficial, a mitigation measure should save you (the
American taxpayer) money in
the long run. For example, in the California earthquakes when
expressways and bridges
collapsed, which was more cost-effective? Rebuild structures to
the same standard they
were before the quakes or spend a little additional money to
build stronger, more earthquake-
resistant structures? The second choice probably makes more
sense. On the other hand,
California probably doesn’t need to spend a lot of money to
flood-proof homes in, let’s say,
Death Valley. A more appropriate, cost-effective mitigation
there might be against drought
and extreme heat hazards.
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OK, that’s hazard mitigation, now what’s a Hazard Mitigation
Plan, since that’s what this
course is supposed to be about?
Wow! You’re just raring to go! Well, a Hazard Mitigation Plan,
then, is:
A community’s outline for evaluating hazards, identifying
resources and
capabilities, selecting appropriate actions, and developing and
implementing mitigation measures to eliminate or reduce future
damage
from those hazards in order to protect the health, safety, and
welfare
of residents in that community.
Wait, that still sounds complicated, confusing and maybe even
intimidating, doesn’t it? Let’s
break it down into smaller, more manageable parts. It looks like
there are four parts to our
definition of a Hazard Mitigation Plan:
g hazards
The purpose of this course over the next several days is to
explain and discuss each of these
four parts and to give each course participant the opportunity to
develop a working knowledge
of each. The first three steps lead up to the fourth and final part,
“Developing &
Implementing Mitigation Measures,” in which you actually
begin to develop a Hazard Mitigation
Plan for your local community using the principles and skills
learned in this course.
So enough already with the preliminaries and the formalities!
Let’s get down to the serious
business of doing our best to protect our families and
communities from the next, sure-to-
come, life-threatening disaster through Hazard Mitigation
Planning.
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HAZARD MITIGATION PLANNING
MADE EASY!
PART ONE: HAZARD EVALUATION
Earlier we said that hazards could be natural, man-made or
technological. Most of our focus
in this program will be on natural hazards in Pennsylvania.
Remember, however, there are
significant man-made and technological threats (like chemical
spills, nuclear accidents, even,
unfortunately in today’s world, terrorist attacks) that you should
consider and include in your
hazard mitigation plan if they present a significant risk to your
community.
The first step in developing a Hazard Mitigation Plan is
determining what hazards threaten
your community. To do that you need to be able to answer
several questions about those
hazards and about your community. The first question is simple
enough:
What hazards are you and your community most worried about?
In Pennsylvania’s State Hazard Mitigation Plan seven natural
hazards are identified: floods,
tornadoes, earthquakes, drought, winter storms, wildfire and
landslides. Some or all of these
natural hazards are probably the risks you and your community
are most concerned about.
Man-made (technological) hazards from nuclear power plants,
chemical production companies,
and hazardous material spills are also real risks for many of
Pennsylvania’s communities.
Another unfortunate but growing concern comes from societal
hazards. Terrorist attacks,
mass shootings and hostage situations are all potential threats to
our communities where
mitigation may be an effective tool to reduce risks.
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Exercise #1: Hazard Identification
Make a list of all the hazards you can think of that could really
threaten your community.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
With a little thought, coming up with a list of the hazards that
your community faces is
pretty easy. But that’s just the beginning of Hazard Evaluation.
If you are going to be able
to effectively “soften” the next hazard that threatens your
community, there are a lot more
questions to answer. What hazards do you face the most often?
What ones are the most
severe? What ones cause the most damage? What ones affect the
most people? The largest
area? What ones are the most costly to businesses and the local
economy? Emergency
management specialists call this step Hazard Vulnerability
Analysis.
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HAZARD MITIGATION PLANNING
PART TWO: HAZARD EXPOSURE PROFILE
Before looking at the various hazards your community faces, it
is important to first look at
the make-up of your community itself. The reason for this is to
determine just what is
potentially at risk in your community should a disaster occur.
This basic information will be
helpful in evaluating the consequences of different types of
disasters as you develop a hazard
priority list for your hazard mitigation plan.
What is potentially at risk in your community should a disaster
occur?
Let’ call this summary information your community’s
“HAZARD EXPOSURE PROFILE.”
In 1995 the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
developed a hazard exposure
index for just about every county in the United States. To do
this, data about fourteen (14)
different parts of each community was collected. To determine
the hazard exposure of your
community, these fourteen items are a good place to start. You
can add or delete any
categories to get the best picture of your community.
EXERCISE #2: Exposure Identification
Name of Municipality/County AREA_ square miles
Population
Public Water Supplies (#)
Sewage Treatment Sites (#)
Miles of Roads/Streets
Miles of Railroad
Miles of Pipeline
Miles of Utility Lines
Airports (#)
Hospitals (#)
Bridges (#)
Dams (#)
Toxic/Chemical Inventory Sites (#)
Superfund Sites (#)
Nuclear Power plants (distance to)
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HERE ARE SOME OTHER CONSIDERATIONS YOU MIGHT
WANT TO LOOK
AT IN YOUR COMMUNITY TO ASSESS YOUR HAZARD
EXPOSURE:
HAZARD EXPOSURE
What is at risk when disaster strikes your community?
• Hazards affect people, homes and
businesses, critical facilities,
transportation routes, utilities and
services, water supplies, and the
environment.
• THE FIRST RULE:
“KNOW THY
COMMUNITY”
HAZARDS AFFECT PEOPLE
What is your community’s population like?
• Population size
• Age and gender
• Children at home & school
• Seniors & special needs people
• Population density: urban & rural
• Workforce in your community
• Workforce outside the community
• Proximity to hazard risk areas:
Nuclear plants
Chemical storage plants
Rivers & dams
HAZARDS AFFECT
HOMES & BUSINESSES
• What businesses are in your area?
• What is the size of the workforce?
• What are the largest & most critical?
• How do people get to work?
• What utilities & services are needed?
• What happens if a business closes?
• What on the job hazard risks exist?
• What is their proximity to risk areas?
• What is your housing inventory?
Number of units, building type,
method of construction, location
CRITICAL FACILITIES
INVENTORY
• Hospitals & Healthcare
• Schools & Day Cares
• Emergency Shelters
• Utilities & Services
• Communications
• Emergency Services
• Government Services
• Transportation
These are just some ideas about the basic community
information you might want to collect to
get an accurate picture of what is potentially at risk during a
disaster. The better, more
complete understanding of your community you have at the
outset, the more detailed and
accurate your hazard mitigation plan is likely to be. It will also
make it easier for you to
answer some of the questions mentioned earlier: What disasters
cause the most damage?
What ones affect the most people? The largest area? What ones
are the most costly to
businesses and the local economy? This is the heart of hazard
vulnerability analysis and
where we are going next in this training course.
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Hazard Mitigation Planning
PART THREE: HAZARD VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS
(HVA)
Let’s stop for a moment and recap. We’ve listed the various
hazards that could hit your
community and we have taken the time to get a good idea of
what is at risk in your
community. Now in the next step of developing a local hazard
mitigation plan, Hazard
Vulnerability Analysis (HVA for short), we are going to
determine what hazards pose the
greatest threat to your community.
KKKEEEYYY TTTEEERRRMMMSSS
HAZARD VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS
The process of evaluating risk associated with a
specific hazard and defined in terms of probability
and frequency of occurrence, magnitude and
severity, exposure and consequences.
There are a number of ways to go about an HVA, from the latest
high-tech, computer-based
modeling method to good, old-fashioned pencil pushing and
head scratching. Regardless of
what method you have at your disposal, the basic elements are
the same. The end result is a
method that permits decision-makers to anticipate losses,
evaluate potential impacts, and
facilitate effective emergency planning and hazard risk
management.
Defining a hazard in terms of probability and frequency of
occurrence simply means, how often
is such an event likely to happen? In the case of commonly
occurring natural disasters (floods,
winter storms) it is pretty easy to document a past history
through local news accounts,
official records and local personal experiences. Technological
hazards and accidents (nuclear
or chemical) are carefully monitored and regulated by law and
can be tracked through the
mandated reporting requirements of those laws. Some serious
hazards (earthquake) that could
pose devastating consequences to a highly developed and
populated area may not have occurred
in recent memory. In those cases you may have to rely on expert
or statistical projections of
likelihood and severity.
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After determining how often a hazard event happens, measuring
its magnitude and severity is
the next important consideration in your local HVA. Magnitude
is the strength or destructive
power of a disaster. Severity is a measure of an event’s
duration and impact area. These
two measurements go hand-in-hand with frequency and
probability in identifying the order of
risk to your community. Let’s take a few minutes to look more
closely at this relationship by
way of a couple of examples.
Winter storms are a common occurrence in Pennsylvania. Can
you imagine a PA
winter without one? The chance (or probability) of a snowfall of
at least 1”
during the course of a winter is pretty high, say 100%? The
number of times
(frequency) when we get at least 1” of snow in one winter might
be 20 days.
The strength (magnitude) and severity (duration and area) of
such a storm,
however, is very small. How great is the hazard from such an
event?
In Pennsylvania, are you kidding?
Actually, such an event without mitigation could pose a
significant risk to a community (One
PEMA staffer saw an entire military base in Texas closed by 1”
of snow and sleet). In fact,
an event of this scope is not a significant risk in Pennsylvania
because we have done things to
mitigate against its damaging and disruptive effects. Snow tires
and experience driving in
snow, cinder and plow-truck fleets, full basements, home
insulation and heating, even winter
clothing: All these factors actually mitigate to “soften” the
effects of such a storm.
More snow! This time, however, the accumulation is
significantly higher—say,
3 feet. The chance (probability) of a snowfall that deep is much
lower than
our earlier 1” snow. The frequency of such an accumulation
may be only once
or twice in a single winter. Additionally, let’s say this storm
also has high
winds and extreme cold associated with it. How great is the
hazard from such
an event?
Although its occurrence is less frequent, because of the greater
magnitude and severity of
this storm (blizzard) the risk of adverse consequences is much
higher. In terms of Hazard
Vulnerability Analysis (HVA), such a level of threat could be
considered significant in
developing a hazard mitigation plan.
As was mentioned earlier, there are a number of ways to assess
these different hazard
elements in determining risk to your community. Computer-
based geographic information
system (GIS) models like FEMA’s HAZUS program utilize
many different kinds and sources of
information to project potential losses from various types and
intensities of disasters. If you
have the resources and manpower, this method is a powerful
tool in HVA and has many
advantages. A simpler method that is available to anyone
interested in HVA and willing to
devote some time and mental energy to the task is RISK
MATRIX ANALYSIS.
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C
B
A
A
C
B
B
A
D
C
B
B
D
D
C
C
RISK MATRIX
Prioritization of Risk Among Multiple
Hazards
THE RISK MATRIX METHOD enables hazard mitigation
planners to classify various types of
hazards into different categories of priority by locating them on
a two-dimensional grid based
on their frequency and severity. The risk matrix looks like this:
EXAMPLE OF RISK MATRIX
FREQUENCY
HIGH
MODERATE
LOW
VERY LOW
MINOR SE RIO US EXTE NSIVE CATASTROPHIC
SEVERITY
10
RISK FREQUENCY
frequently than once in 10 years
Frequency: events that occur from
once in 10 years to once in 100 years
once in 100 years to once in 1,000 years
frequently than than once in 1,000 years
SEVERITY CATEGORIES
Catastrophic to Minor
RISK CATEGORIES
-risk condition with the
highest priority for mitigation and
contingency planning (immediate action)
complete shutdown of facilities and critical
services for more than 30 days, more than
50% of property located in affected area is
severely damaged.
RISK CATEGORIES
(Continued)
-to-high-risk condition
with risk addressed by mitigation and
contingency planning (prompt action).
injury/illness, complete shutdown of
facilities and critical services for more than
14 days, more than 25% of property in
affected area is severely damaged.
RISK CATEGORIES
(Continued)
give consideration for further mitigation and
planning.
disability, complete shutdown of facilities
and critical services for more than 7 days,
more than 10% of property located in
affected area is severely damaged.
RISK CATEGORIES
(Continued)
-risk condition with
additional mitigation contingency planning
(advisory in nature).
complete shutdown of facilities and critical
services for more than 1 day, no more than
1% of property located in affected area is
severely damaged.
It should be pointed out that frequency and severity are relative
terms and that you can
adopt your own criteria for each level or perhaps include more
risk classes. Whatever you
decide, your risk matrix should include the full range of
possible hazard situations your
community must consider and define clear parameters for each
class of risk condition.
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Moderererewr
er=werrroopp
1” SNOW
C
w
B
A
A
C
B
B
A
D
C
B
B
D
D
C
C
Returning to our examples of winter storms, if we apply the risk
matrix to these two events
we can get an idea of how this method is used to evaluate
various hazard conditions.
EXAMPLE #1: 1” SNOWFALL
As we said earlier, one inch of snow is a very common
occurrence during a Pennsylvania winter,
that is HIGH FREQUENCY. It severity in most cases would be
considered MINOR.
RISK MATRIX
Example #1: One Inch Snowfall
FREQUENCY
HIGH
MODERATE
LOW
VERY LOW
MINOR SERIOUS EXTENSIVE CATASTROPHIC
SEVERITY
A one-inch snowfall is a high frequency, minor severity hazard
that should be
considered, as a Class C risk, for possible further mitigation and
planning.
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Moderererewr
er=werrroopp
C
w
3 Ft Snow
B
A
A
C
B
B
A
D
C
B
B
D
D
C
C
EXAMPLE #2: 3 FOOT SNOWFALL
Three feet of snow, though not as frequent, is also a common
occurrence during a
Pennsylvania winter, that still rates as HIGH FREQUENCY. It’s
severity, however, would
probably be considered SERIOUS.
RISK MATRIX
Example #2: Three Foot Snowfall
FREQUENCY
HIGH
MODERATE
LOW
VERY LOW
MINOR SERIOUS EXTENSIVE CATASTROPHIC
SEVERITY
In our second example the risk category is increased to Class B,
a moderate
to high risk condition to be addressed by mitigation and
contingency planning
for prompt action.
13
Moderererewr
er=werrroopp
C
w
B
A
A
C
B
B
A
D
C
B
B
D
D
C
C
Get the idea? Now, let’s try the risk matrix approach with the
list of
hazards you identified for your community in Exercise #1.
EXERCISE #3: RISK MATRIX HAZARD ANALYSIS
Using the list of hazards you identified for your community in
Exercise #1, determine
which risk category on the risk matrix below each hazard falls
into. Remember to include
all of the different levels of frequency and severity that apply to
the hazards your
community contends with (For example: minor spring flooding,
moderate flash flooding,
and a hundred year flood). When you have analysis all your
hazards, classify each into a
hazard risk category (A through D) on the form provided on the
next page.
RISK MATRIX HAZARD ANALYSIS
FREQUENCY
HIGH
MODERATE
LOW
VERY LOW
MINOR SERIOUS EXTENSIVE CATASTROPHIC
SEVERITY
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EXERCISE #3 (Con’t)
RISK MATRIX HAZARD CATEGORY LIST
Category A (High risk/high priority)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Category B (Moderate to high risk/prompt action priority)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Category C (Significant risk/further consideration priority)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Category D (Low risk/advisory priority)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
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Hazard Mitigation Planning
PART FOUR: CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT
If everything is going right, by now you should have a pretty
good idea of the hazards that
threaten your community and which ones would cause the most
harm. By looking at the risk
category list you just completed, you should also be getting an
idea of which hazards require
the most immediate attention. The risk category list you just
completed is the beginning of a
hazard mitigation planning task called prioritizing risk
reduction. We will return to this
step in developing a hazard mitigation plan a little later in this
course. But before we can
properly prioritize our mitigation efforts, we need to consider
our resources and capabilities
to reduce the risk from our identified hazards. We call this next
step CAPABILITY
ASSESSMENT.
Capability Assessment, put simply, means looking at what you
are doing, what you are not
doing, what you can do, and even what you are doing wrong to
reduce your community’s risks
from hazards.
CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT ...what you are doing, what you
are
not doing, what you can do, and even what you are doing
wrong...
To some people in hazard mitigation, Capability Assessment is
like the ugly duckling or the
forgotten child of the planning process. Instead of looking at
powerful winter storms,
devastating earthquakes, giant hurricanes or tornadoes,
capability assessment looks at
government programs and policies, regulations and ordinances,
existing emergency plans,
personnel and equipment, and the like. Interesting and exciting
stuff! Are you still awake?
For all of its lack of glamour and excitement, flashing lights
and sirens, capability assessment
is arguably the first place, as the old advertisement said, “where
the rubber hits the road” in
hazard mitigation planning. Up until now our planning tasks
have focused on what might happen
and what the consequences might be, “What if” kinds of things.
Capability assessment is the
first activity where you begin to look at what is actually in
place (or not in place) in your
community to reduce the risks that you face. It is where you
first look at the nuts and bolts
of your mitigation strategy.
Capability assessment incorporates a wide range of view to be
truly worthwhile. In the case
of man-made hazards stemming from chemical production,
storage and transportation and
nuclear facilities, capability assessment means locating and
reviewing a number of legally
mandated, public documents from private facilities and
government agencies. Your local
emergency management coordinator will be able to assist you in
locating them. These
documents can assist you in locating the hazardous materials
production and storage facilities
in your community. They will also tell you the kinds and
quantities of these materials on site.
Also available are reports that tell you how many hazardous
materials have occurred in your
community, where they occurred, what chemicals where
involved and how the problem was
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handled. Many of these facilities (including nuclear power
stations) are also required to
develop “worst case scenario” reports that forecast the
consequences that would occur in your
community if a major disaster occurred at their site. This
information can be helpful to you
determining the consequences of such an event in your hazard
vulnerability analysis.
Capability assessment also means making a thorough review of
your community’s local laws and
regulations. A disaster resistant community should have in place
a number of safeguards that
control where and how development can occur. The following
list includes many of the policy
and regulatory documents to consider and evaluate, for both
positive and negative impacts on
your community’s safety:
Floodplain and storm water ordinances
nt response and recovery plans
Each of these local policies, regulations and programs can
contribute to reducing risks from
disaster.
The capability assessment should also look beyond the local
community to the next highest
level of governmental responsibility. Cities, towns, and other
municipalities should look at
what protections are in effect at the county level. Counties
should consider the mitigation
efforts and protections afforded by state government and
regulatory agencies.
Your capability assessment should recognize the positive
mitigation steps that have been taken
and realistically point out any deficiencies where improvements
can be made to increase
disaster resistance in your community. Ultimately, your hazard
mitigation plan will be included
in this list of positive risk reduction safeguards. Beyond that, a
careful and considered hazard
mitigation plan can be the centerpiece that connects and
coordinates your local policies and
regulations in a comprehensive multi-hazard defense strategy.
Capability assessments also look at the resources available to
local communities to reduce
disaster risks. Resources can be divided into five categories:
human, physical, technical,
informational and financial.
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HUMAN RESOURCES
Human resources include local police, fire, ambulance, and
emergency management & response
personnel. Local government operation and services, electric,
gas, and other utility providers,
all need to be able to function during critical periods in
disasters. Doctors, nurses and other
medical assistance personnel should also be considered in
assessing your community’s mitigation
capabilities. Teachers, social service workers, mental health
professionals, clergy and
volunteer service workers can play vital roles in public
awareness and safety education in
preparation for disasters and assist in post-disaster response and
recovery. Businesses and
local citizens can also be key assets in preparing for disasters.
These people in your local
community can become part of your hazard mitigation planning
early on with the formation of a
local hazard mitigation committee. The experience and
expertise, shared memory and
emotional ties to the community of such a local hazard
mitigation planning committee can
greatly enhance the depth and thoroughness of your plan. The
involvement of people early on
can also raise community awareness and commitment to your
plan, its objectives and its overall
purpose. That may be the most important goal of all.
PHYSICAL RESOURCES
Physical resources include the equipment, vehicles, public
lands, facilities and buildings
available to the community. The review of your physical assets
and needs should include
emergency response and recovery equipment and vehicles.
While response and recovery is
often thought to be a different aspect of emergency management
from hazard mitigation,
your community’s ability to carry out these vital tasks during
and immediately after a disaster
are important components in reducing the extent of loss and
damage—thus hazard mitigation.
Once identified, the status and condition of equipment and
vehicles and your current and
future needs can become the basis for a capital improvement,
investment and budget planning.
Facilities and buildings play a critical role in hazard mitigation.
Locations which house
essential community functions like police, fire and rescue,
sewage treatment and water supply,
government services, etc., should be evaluated for their
structural safety and ability to
sustain operations under a disaster situation. Public buildings,
like schools and churches,
should be evaluated for their disaster resistance and availability
as emergency shelters.
Hospitals, daycare and senior centers should be assessed to
determine excess capacity for
special needs persons and emergency care. Even private homes
and developments can have
emergency “safe rooms” built into them to provide accessible
security from certain types of
hazards. Locations for businesses to relocate to after a disaster,
like excess capacity at a
local industrial park or unused warehouse, can often be
identified to maintain and re-establish
important employers and the local economy.
Open public land can often be a useful resource in hazard
mitigation. If it is suitable for
development, these locations can be used for relocation or
replacement construction of homes
at risk from flooding or other hazards. Open space land along
floodways should be evaluated
to ensure it is maintained properly. Trees on public and private
land near homes and
businesses should be inventoried and regularly inspected to
reduce wind-related dangers; many
communities have shade tree commissions for this purpose.
18
TECHNICAL/TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES
In addition to the human and physical resources available to
improve their ability to reduce the
consequences of disaster, communities also need to consider
their technical and technological
resources. Early warning systems, weather alert radios, stream-
level monitoring gages, 911
communication systems, all are technological systems with
which most communities are familiar.
As familiar as some of these systems are, with the rate of
technological advancement today,
each of these technologies is becoming more sophisticated and
more useful in effective
mitigation. Weather alert radios can now be turned on from a
remote warning
site for specific locations and sound an emergency tone and
instructions. “Real-time” stream
gages that send measurements via satellite for better advance
flash flood warning are
currently (no pun intended) being incorporated into the existing
monitoring system. “Reverse”
911 systems allow emergency centers to reach specific at-risk
locations in event of pending
threat.
In today’s world, it’s impossible to talk about technological
resources without mentioning
computers and the Internet. With more “computer literate”
people in our society and the
affordability of the technology, computer systems are within the
means of almost every
community in Pennsylvania today. Of most interest today to
emergency management and
mitigation planners are computer based mapping programs,
known as Geographical Information
Systems or GIS. These software programs produce
sophisticated map images of communities
which, when coupled with other information databases, can
provide a wealth of visual and
factual information for disaster planning, response and
recovery. While the initial cost for
GIS and the skill and training requirements for such systems
may be beyond some communities
means, it is important to at least develop access to this tool
through other local and county
governments that have it.
The Internet is home to hundreds of web pages and home sites
related to all types of
disasters, emergency management and hazard mitigation, as
well as State and Federal
agencies like PEMA ( www.pema.state.pa.us ) and FEMA (
www.fema.gov ). At the end of
this manual is a list of Internet addresses about hazard
mitigation topics you can check out.
INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES
Besides the wealth of information about disasters, hazard
mitigation, and planning that is
available on the Internet, there are other very good sources of
helpful information in print
and on video from a number of sources. Some of these sources
you have already received as
a part of the training packet for this course. As with the Internet
addresses, a list of these
reference publications and video presentations are provided at
the end of this manual.
Assessment of informational resources should also consider a
community’s ongoing public
awareness and education efforts and needs. A community that is
informed and knowledgeable
about disasters, risk reduction, and how to react is better
prepared when disaster strikes.
http://www.pema.state.pa.us/
http://www.fema.gov/
19
FINANCIAL RESOURCES
The final portion of our hazard mitigation capability assessment
is often the one of most
concern to local communities: Where will we get the money for
hazard mitigation in our
community? To begin with let’s look at the federal and state
sources for funding, listing them
first and then going on to discuss them in more detail.
(FEMA/PEMA)
(FEMA/PEMA)
(PEMA)
ACT (FEMA)
Other State agencies that have funding programs related to
mitigation include:
sportation
Most State and Federal grant programs require local
communities to provide at least part of
the necessary project funding in real dollars or through “in-
kind” services. While the
percentage of local contribution varies from program to
program, local communities need to
assess their financial capability and resources to implement
their hazard mitigation action
plans.
PRIORITIZING HAZARDS
Upon completing your capability assessment, you should have a
pretty good idea of your
community’s assets and potential needs to now develop and
implement a comprehensive, multi-
hazard mitigation action plan. For an effective plan to take
shape, it is necessary to review
the types of hazards and risk levels identified in your hazard
vulnerability analysis and rank
them in order of priority. The hazards identified as most
destructive and of greatest danger
(Category A) will be the first priority, Category B the second
priority level, and so on until all
of your identified hazards have been classified. Once this
priority review has been
completed, the work of matching capabilities to specific types
of hazards, deciding on
mitigation measures, and developing a local hazard mitigation
action plan can FINALLY
proceed.
DID SOMEBODY SAY---ABOUT 20 PAGES AGO---THAT
THIS WAS SIMPLE??????
20
Hazard Mitigation Planning
PART FIVE: TYPES OF MITIGATION MEASURES
By now in your hazard mitigation planning activities, you
should have a good idea of where your
community’s greatest risks lie and what resources are at your
disposal. The next step is to
determine what mitigation alternatives exist to effectively
reduce your risks and the
destructive consequences of your identified hazards.
If we try to address each specific hazard for each community
and develop mitigation measures
for each type and severity level of hazard, this course would
continue for a very long time.
It is probably safe to say that nobody wants that. That level of
specificity really needs to
occur at the local level with the people who best know the
territory and risks, and will most
directly suffer the consequences of a disaster. Where this course
can be helpful in getting
that process started is in providing some general ideas about
different types of mitigation
measures.
There are six general approaches to reducing hazard risks:
Preventive measures, property
protection, emergency services measures, structural projects,
natural resource protection, and
public information.
PREVENTIVE MEASURES keep problems from getting started
or getting worse. The
use of known hazard areas, like floodplains for example, can be
limited through planning, land
acquisition, or regulation. These activities are usually
administered by building, zoning,
planning, and/or code enforcement officials:
codes and enforcement
PROPERTY PROTECTION measures are those actions, which
go directly to permanently
getting people, property, and businesses out of unsafe areas
where, in terms of wise disaster
planning, they shouldn’t have been in the first place.
The first of these measures is property acquisition: public
procurement and management of
lands that are vulnerable to damage from hazards. In
Pennsylvania, for example, over 700
flood-damaged homes have been purchased by local
municipalities (using state, federal, and
local funds) and removed from flood-prone areas (by demolition
or relocation). The acquired
land then becomes public property, which can only be used as
“open space” in the future.
Open space use means that future development of the site is
restricted to low-impact uses
21
like parks, playing fields, gravel parking lots or agriculture--no
permanent or enclosed
structures.
Relocation of at-risk structures also achieves the same result as
acquisition. The home or
business is moved to a safer location but it remains the property
of the individual owner, the
original site is purchased and maintained by the local
municipality.
Elevation of structures can be an effective in-place mitigation
for some flood-threatened
homes. By raising the height of the structure’s living area above
flood levels, damage and
threat to life can be reduced. Retrofitting of homes is another
in-place damage reduction
method. Utilities, services, systems and appliances in some
homes can be raised above flood
levels. Construction techniques to improve structural resistance
to high wind or heavy snow
accumulation can be incorporated into new homes or retrofitted
into existing structures.
Private home and business insurance policies and participation
in the National Flood Insurance
Program can also reduce uninsured losses to properties.
EMERGENCY SERVICES MEASURES are taken during a
disaster to minimize its impact.
These measures are the responsibility of city or county
emergency management staff,
operators of major and critical facilities, and other local
emergency service organizations.
They include:
tems
STRUCTURAL PROJECTS are usually designed by engineers
and managed and maintained
by public works staffs. They are designed to reduce or redirect
the impact of natural
disasters (especially floods) away from at-risk population areas.
Examples include:
NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION preserves or restores
natural areas or their
natural functions. Such measures are usually implemented by
park & recreation organizations,
conservation agencies or wildlife groups. They include:
ent practices
22
PUBLIC INFORMATION PROGRAMS advise property owners,
potential property
owners, and others of hazards and ways to protect people and
property from them. A public
information office usually implements them. Public information
activities can include:
Your mitigation planning committee should look at the range of
measures for each identified
risk in your community. Working together, “brainstorm” all of
the possible mitigation
measures that might help reduce risks for the range of hazards
your community is susceptible
to. These are your “mitigation alternatives.” The next step is
to review all of these
alternatives and select the most appropriate ones for your
community. Finally, you are ready
to document your hazard mitigation recommendations in a
written plan.
Before we close, a few words about adoption, implementation,
monitoring, evaluation and
review of your local hazard mitigation plan.
ADOPTION OF THE PLAN
Getting public acceptance of a hazard mitigation plan is vital to
reducing conflicts and building
support for your recommendations. A draft plan should be
advertised and made available for
review by affected residents, businesses, community
departments, interested organizations,
state and federal agencies, and neighboring communities. If
your mitigation planning
committee represents other interests or organizations in your
community, their organizations
could pass resolutions to officially support the plan.
After the public has had several weeks to review your plan, hold
a public meeting or workshop
to allow comment, discussion and suggestions about the plan
and revise your plan accordingly.
Final adoption by the local governing body can then occur.
Once approved the plan should be
made available to the public, sent to local, state and federal
government agencies. PEMA is
the State agency of record for mitigation plans.
IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, EVALUATION AND
REVISION
The key to successful implementation is ensuring that the
people responsible for the
recommendations understand what is expected of them and are
willing to work toward their
implementation. That’s why it’s important to involve those
people in the planning process right
23
from the start. Your plan should identify some visible but
inexpensive projects that can be
quickly implemented to help reassure the public and those
involved that something is being
accomplished. A locally organized and inexpensive project,
such as a stream clean-up or public
information campaign, can be achieved quickly with local
resources to help get the ball rolling
and generate attention.
Monitoring the plan ensures that your plan is being
implemented and staying on track. You
should realize that no plan is perfect and changes will be needed
along the way. You should
have a formal method to measure progress, assess your
implementation, and decide on needed
changes. The person or agency responsible for monitoring your
plan and how that task is
accomplished should be expressed clearly in your plan. Your
mitigation planning committee can
continue to function to periodically review progress and make
further recommendations to
those responsible for implementation.
CONCLUSION
We are finally at the end of our little “How To” guide to hazard
mitigation planning and you
may be thinking, “You call that simple and easy?” You may be
right. As much as we have
tried to stick to the basics and avoid unnecessary information,
looking at an entire community,
all of the risks it faces, and coming up with ways to reduce
those risks, may not be all that
simple and all that easy. The point here is that it can be done by
virtual any community in
Pennsylvania, large or small, if they have the right people
involved, take their mission
seriously, and take the time to think things through and
carefully consider what the best
course of action is. Even if you decide to have a mitigation
plan developed by an outside
consultant, at least this guide can help you recognize what a
good plan should be.
Finally, a community can be defined as a group of people who
have a common self-interest or
who together face a common adversary. This meaning of
community is rarely ever better
illustrated then in the case of disaster. In working together to
develop a plan that prepares
you for future disasters you demonstrate community in the
fullest sense.
Reference materials for this guide include:
Post-Disaster Hazard Mitigation Planning Guidance for State
and Local Governments (FEMA)
Mitigation For Emergency Managers Course (FEMA,
Emergency Management Institute)
An Evaluation Checklist For Review of State Hazard Mitigation
Plans (FEMA Mitigation Directorate)
Local Hazard Mitigation Planning Manual (North Carolina
Division of Emergency Management)
Flood Mitigation Planning, The CRS Approach, Wetmore and
Jamieson (Natural Hazards Informer)
Hazard Mitigation Planning Course: Regional Level (Emergency
Management Institute NETR)
Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction
(FEMA, American Planning Association)
Multi-Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Report
(FEMA)
“Hazard Mitigation Made Easy” was developed for the
Pennsylvania Emergency
Management Agency by Don Smith, Hazard Mitigation
Specialist.
W1 "Hazard Mitigation Response Paper for W7 Instructions"
Content
Emergency Planning
Hazard Mitigation Response Paper for W7 Instructions
Download "Hazard Mitigation Template" See Attached
This assignment is intended to grasp your insight into the
numerous potential and man-made disasters for which
emergency planners must be prepared to deal. Emergency
management is a quickly evolving profession with many
opportunities for individuals who wish to pursue it as a career.
This exercise will offer insights into the scope and
responsibilities of individuals in the profession.
You will be provided a "Hazard Mitigation Template" (see
attached), from the Pennsylvania Emergency Management
Agency. You will be asked to complete the five exercises in the
worksheet for your community, or a community of your choice,
as the focus for the mitigation study. This exercise requires a
deal of research and analysis on their part. After doing the
research required to complete each of the five sections of the
worksheet, you must also final report which thoroughly
examines the risks, preparedness, and response capabilities of
the community.
At the end of Week 3, you will develop an outline and email
that course of action for the exercise to your instructor for
approval, and comments.
For the final report you should also include suggestions on how
to mitigate the risks and improve response capabilities. You
may also include relevant charts, graphs, and other illustrations
to support, supplement and/or clarify.
Thorough data collection for this exercise requires time. You
should start data collection immediately in order to have enough
time to collect, synthesize and report on the data.
Some possible resources for data include:
· Emergency management web sites of the community the
students have selected.
· Police and fire websites.
· Their local emergency management department. Often
communities of size have an emergency management
department. In smaller communities it is often the fire chief
who is the designated emergency manager.
· The community’s Streets Department or Traffic Engineering
Department.
· Local utility companies.
· Other internet sources.
Outside readings for this project include:
· Your text
· The Hazard Mitigation Planning Template itself is a great
source of information.
· The Hazard Mitigation Planning Tools and Techniques Guide,
Download here.
· The community’s planning department.
· The community’s budget department.
You must remember when doing the exercise to also consider
surrounding communities because their disasters can also affect
your community and become your responsibility. Consider
industrial manufacturing using toxic substances, military bases,
large scale utility sites, etc. that may be close by. This exercise
is a chance for you to develop a mitigation plan for the
community you have chosen.
View this exercise as if you are the newly appointed emergency
manager of the community. Prepare a written report to the
governmental entity to which you are accountable, i.e. city
council, county board of supervisors, or other legislative
bodies. Prepare a thorough report to provide to them as part of
your first meeting with this group. The report should be
thorough, professional, and audience appropriate. The report
can also include charts, graphs, and other illustrations for
clarification.
The final document must comply with the writing guidelines
established for this course. It will be a minimum of seven (7)
pages, not including the cover and reference pages. A thorough
exercise, particularly one including charts and graphs, will
exceed this minimum by several pages. The students must
include in-text citations indicating where they obtained data and
information. Also they must remember to support their findings
and recommendations with references from relevant sources.
Hazard Mitigation Plan Outline
1. Introduction
· The community’s disaster history.
· What is mitigation and why is a mitigation plan necessary?
· How was the plan prepared?
· How did you obtain your information?
· The goals and objectives of the mitigation plan?
2. Community and Hazard Exposure Profile (part 2 of the
template)
· Community population
· Miles of roads
· Airports
· Manufacturing plants
· Military bases
· Hospitals
· Dams
· Schools
· Etc.
3. List of possible community hazards (part 1 of the template).
For each hazard discuss:
· Hazard description
· impact on property
· Impact on safety and health
· Any other community considerations
4. Hazard Vulnerability analysis and frequency chart (part 3 of
the template)
· Explanation of a hazard vulnerability analysis
· Your chart or list matrix
5. Your community’s capability assessment (part 4 of the
worksheet)
· Community response capabilities
· Description of local law enforcement response capabilities
(size, capability, etc.)
· Description of local fire agencies and response capabilities
· EMS capabilities, ambulance services, hospitals, etc.
· Physical resources
· Technical resources (example: early warning systems)
· Information resources (radio, TV, etc.)
· Financial resources (emergency funds in the community,
grants, state funds, etc.)
6. Recommended Mitigation Measures (part 5 of the template).
For each measure include information such as:
· Description
· Objectives supported
· Who is responsible
· When must it be done
· Who can help
· Budget
7. Conclusion
· Their overall assessment of response capabilities
· Their recommendations for implementing priority mitigation
projects for the community
· Their overall assessment of the community’s vulnerability and
response capabilities
8. Any additional charts, graphs, illustrations, etc.
· They may include charts, graphs, and illustrations in the
mitigation plan itself to assist with clarification and
explanation. They must remember to include source citations if
they copied items and/or for the information provided in the
item if they created the chart or graph.
9. Cover page and reference page
· The cover page and reference page must be included.
Remember these pages are not to be counted as part of the seven
(7) page minimum.

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1 HAZARD MITIGATION PLANNING MADE EASY! A Simple .docx

  • 1. 1 HAZARD MITIGATION PLANNING MADE EASY! A Simple and Easy Way to Develop Your Community’s Hazard Mitigation Plan Over the next couple of days you will be learning about a local planning process called HAZARD MITIGATION PLANNING. Before this training program is over you will be well on your way to developing a HAZARD MITIGATION PLAN for your local community. That plan if properly implemented and followed may someday save the lives, property and livelihoods of your friends, neighbors, family, perhaps even yourself. Hazard mitigation planning may sound complicated, confusing and maybe even intimidating. It’s really not. The first time people hear the term “hazard mitigation,” many of them say “What’s that?”
  • 2. Most people have an idea of what “hazards” are. Hazards are dangers or things to watch out for or risks, but what’s mitigation mean? The ancient Romans used the word “mitigare” meaning “to soften.” Good old Daniel Webster says it means “to make less severe or painful, to cause to become less harsh or hostile.” Mitigate is another way to say “relieve” or “alleviate.” Hazard mitigation is kind of like taking an aspirin to make a headache go away, it might not make it go away completely but it should help some. That’s the general idea, to make a dangerous situation less risky, but now let’s get down to what Hazard Mitigation is really all about. Great! You’re probably thinking, now I know what the Romans and Daniel Webster meant, what should HAZARD MITIGATION mean to me? For our purposes hazards are natural, man-made or technological disasters. Hazard mitigation means reducing, eliminating, redirecting, or avoiding the effects of those hazards. The standard definition of hazard mitigation that is often used by FEMA and PEMA is:
  • 3. Any cost-effective action taken to eliminate or reduce the long- term risk to life and property from natural and technological hazards. The phrase “cost-effective” is added to this definition to stress the important practical idea that, to be beneficial, a mitigation measure should save you (the American taxpayer) money in the long run. For example, in the California earthquakes when expressways and bridges collapsed, which was more cost-effective? Rebuild structures to the same standard they were before the quakes or spend a little additional money to build stronger, more earthquake- resistant structures? The second choice probably makes more sense. On the other hand, California probably doesn’t need to spend a lot of money to flood-proof homes in, let’s say, Death Valley. A more appropriate, cost-effective mitigation there might be against drought and extreme heat hazards.
  • 4. 2 OK, that’s hazard mitigation, now what’s a Hazard Mitigation Plan, since that’s what this course is supposed to be about? Wow! You’re just raring to go! Well, a Hazard Mitigation Plan, then, is: A community’s outline for evaluating hazards, identifying resources and capabilities, selecting appropriate actions, and developing and implementing mitigation measures to eliminate or reduce future damage from those hazards in order to protect the health, safety, and welfare of residents in that community.
  • 5. Wait, that still sounds complicated, confusing and maybe even intimidating, doesn’t it? Let’s break it down into smaller, more manageable parts. It looks like there are four parts to our definition of a Hazard Mitigation Plan: g hazards The purpose of this course over the next several days is to explain and discuss each of these four parts and to give each course participant the opportunity to develop a working knowledge of each. The first three steps lead up to the fourth and final part, “Developing & Implementing Mitigation Measures,” in which you actually begin to develop a Hazard Mitigation Plan for your local community using the principles and skills learned in this course. So enough already with the preliminaries and the formalities! Let’s get down to the serious
  • 6. business of doing our best to protect our families and communities from the next, sure-to- come, life-threatening disaster through Hazard Mitigation Planning. 3 HAZARD MITIGATION PLANNING MADE EASY! PART ONE: HAZARD EVALUATION Earlier we said that hazards could be natural, man-made or technological. Most of our focus in this program will be on natural hazards in Pennsylvania. Remember, however, there are significant man-made and technological threats (like chemical spills, nuclear accidents, even, unfortunately in today’s world, terrorist attacks) that you should consider and include in your hazard mitigation plan if they present a significant risk to your community.
  • 7. The first step in developing a Hazard Mitigation Plan is determining what hazards threaten your community. To do that you need to be able to answer several questions about those hazards and about your community. The first question is simple enough: What hazards are you and your community most worried about? In Pennsylvania’s State Hazard Mitigation Plan seven natural hazards are identified: floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, drought, winter storms, wildfire and landslides. Some or all of these natural hazards are probably the risks you and your community are most concerned about. Man-made (technological) hazards from nuclear power plants, chemical production companies, and hazardous material spills are also real risks for many of Pennsylvania’s communities. Another unfortunate but growing concern comes from societal hazards. Terrorist attacks, mass shootings and hostage situations are all potential threats to our communities where
  • 8. mitigation may be an effective tool to reduce risks. 4 Exercise #1: Hazard Identification Make a list of all the hazards you can think of that could really threaten your community. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.
  • 9. 14. 15. 16. With a little thought, coming up with a list of the hazards that your community faces is pretty easy. But that’s just the beginning of Hazard Evaluation. If you are going to be able to effectively “soften” the next hazard that threatens your community, there are a lot more questions to answer. What hazards do you face the most often? What ones are the most severe? What ones cause the most damage? What ones affect the most people? The largest area? What ones are the most costly to businesses and the local economy? Emergency management specialists call this step Hazard Vulnerability Analysis. 5
  • 10. HAZARD MITIGATION PLANNING PART TWO: HAZARD EXPOSURE PROFILE Before looking at the various hazards your community faces, it is important to first look at the make-up of your community itself. The reason for this is to determine just what is potentially at risk in your community should a disaster occur. This basic information will be helpful in evaluating the consequences of different types of disasters as you develop a hazard priority list for your hazard mitigation plan. What is potentially at risk in your community should a disaster occur? Let’ call this summary information your community’s “HAZARD EXPOSURE PROFILE.” In 1995 the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a hazard exposure
  • 11. index for just about every county in the United States. To do this, data about fourteen (14) different parts of each community was collected. To determine the hazard exposure of your community, these fourteen items are a good place to start. You can add or delete any categories to get the best picture of your community. EXERCISE #2: Exposure Identification Name of Municipality/County AREA_ square miles Population Public Water Supplies (#) Sewage Treatment Sites (#) Miles of Roads/Streets Miles of Railroad Miles of Pipeline Miles of Utility Lines Airports (#) Hospitals (#)
  • 12. Bridges (#) Dams (#) Toxic/Chemical Inventory Sites (#) Superfund Sites (#) Nuclear Power plants (distance to) 6 HERE ARE SOME OTHER CONSIDERATIONS YOU MIGHT WANT TO LOOK AT IN YOUR COMMUNITY TO ASSESS YOUR HAZARD EXPOSURE: HAZARD EXPOSURE What is at risk when disaster strikes your community? • Hazards affect people, homes and businesses, critical facilities, transportation routes, utilities and
  • 13. services, water supplies, and the environment. • THE FIRST RULE: “KNOW THY COMMUNITY” HAZARDS AFFECT PEOPLE What is your community’s population like? • Population size • Age and gender • Children at home & school • Seniors & special needs people • Population density: urban & rural • Workforce in your community • Workforce outside the community • Proximity to hazard risk areas: Nuclear plants Chemical storage plants Rivers & dams
  • 14. HAZARDS AFFECT HOMES & BUSINESSES • What businesses are in your area? • What is the size of the workforce? • What are the largest & most critical? • How do people get to work? • What utilities & services are needed? • What happens if a business closes? • What on the job hazard risks exist? • What is their proximity to risk areas? • What is your housing inventory? Number of units, building type, method of construction, location CRITICAL FACILITIES INVENTORY • Hospitals & Healthcare
  • 15. • Schools & Day Cares • Emergency Shelters • Utilities & Services • Communications • Emergency Services • Government Services • Transportation These are just some ideas about the basic community information you might want to collect to get an accurate picture of what is potentially at risk during a disaster. The better, more complete understanding of your community you have at the outset, the more detailed and accurate your hazard mitigation plan is likely to be. It will also make it easier for you to answer some of the questions mentioned earlier: What disasters cause the most damage? What ones affect the most people? The largest area? What ones are the most costly to businesses and the local economy? This is the heart of hazard vulnerability analysis and
  • 16. where we are going next in this training course. 7 Hazard Mitigation Planning PART THREE: HAZARD VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS (HVA) Let’s stop for a moment and recap. We’ve listed the various hazards that could hit your community and we have taken the time to get a good idea of what is at risk in your community. Now in the next step of developing a local hazard mitigation plan, Hazard Vulnerability Analysis (HVA for short), we are going to determine what hazards pose the greatest threat to your community. KKKEEEYYY TTTEEERRRMMMSSS
  • 17. HAZARD VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS The process of evaluating risk associated with a specific hazard and defined in terms of probability and frequency of occurrence, magnitude and severity, exposure and consequences. There are a number of ways to go about an HVA, from the latest high-tech, computer-based modeling method to good, old-fashioned pencil pushing and head scratching. Regardless of what method you have at your disposal, the basic elements are the same. The end result is a method that permits decision-makers to anticipate losses, evaluate potential impacts, and facilitate effective emergency planning and hazard risk management. Defining a hazard in terms of probability and frequency of
  • 18. occurrence simply means, how often is such an event likely to happen? In the case of commonly occurring natural disasters (floods, winter storms) it is pretty easy to document a past history through local news accounts, official records and local personal experiences. Technological hazards and accidents (nuclear or chemical) are carefully monitored and regulated by law and can be tracked through the mandated reporting requirements of those laws. Some serious hazards (earthquake) that could pose devastating consequences to a highly developed and populated area may not have occurred in recent memory. In those cases you may have to rely on expert or statistical projections of likelihood and severity. 8 After determining how often a hazard event happens, measuring its magnitude and severity is the next important consideration in your local HVA. Magnitude is the strength or destructive power of a disaster. Severity is a measure of an event’s
  • 19. duration and impact area. These two measurements go hand-in-hand with frequency and probability in identifying the order of risk to your community. Let’s take a few minutes to look more closely at this relationship by way of a couple of examples. Winter storms are a common occurrence in Pennsylvania. Can you imagine a PA winter without one? The chance (or probability) of a snowfall of at least 1” during the course of a winter is pretty high, say 100%? The number of times (frequency) when we get at least 1” of snow in one winter might be 20 days. The strength (magnitude) and severity (duration and area) of such a storm, however, is very small. How great is the hazard from such an event? In Pennsylvania, are you kidding? Actually, such an event without mitigation could pose a significant risk to a community (One
  • 20. PEMA staffer saw an entire military base in Texas closed by 1” of snow and sleet). In fact, an event of this scope is not a significant risk in Pennsylvania because we have done things to mitigate against its damaging and disruptive effects. Snow tires and experience driving in snow, cinder and plow-truck fleets, full basements, home insulation and heating, even winter clothing: All these factors actually mitigate to “soften” the effects of such a storm. More snow! This time, however, the accumulation is significantly higher—say, 3 feet. The chance (probability) of a snowfall that deep is much lower than our earlier 1” snow. The frequency of such an accumulation may be only once or twice in a single winter. Additionally, let’s say this storm also has high winds and extreme cold associated with it. How great is the hazard from such an event?
  • 21. Although its occurrence is less frequent, because of the greater magnitude and severity of this storm (blizzard) the risk of adverse consequences is much higher. In terms of Hazard Vulnerability Analysis (HVA), such a level of threat could be considered significant in developing a hazard mitigation plan. As was mentioned earlier, there are a number of ways to assess these different hazard elements in determining risk to your community. Computer- based geographic information system (GIS) models like FEMA’s HAZUS program utilize many different kinds and sources of information to project potential losses from various types and intensities of disasters. If you have the resources and manpower, this method is a powerful tool in HVA and has many advantages. A simpler method that is available to anyone interested in HVA and willing to devote some time and mental energy to the task is RISK MATRIX ANALYSIS.
  • 24. Prioritization of Risk Among Multiple Hazards THE RISK MATRIX METHOD enables hazard mitigation planners to classify various types of hazards into different categories of priority by locating them on a two-dimensional grid based on their frequency and severity. The risk matrix looks like this: EXAMPLE OF RISK MATRIX FREQUENCY HIGH MODERATE LOW
  • 25. VERY LOW MINOR SE RIO US EXTE NSIVE CATASTROPHIC SEVERITY 10 RISK FREQUENCY frequently than once in 10 years Frequency: events that occur from once in 10 years to once in 100 years once in 100 years to once in 1,000 years frequently than than once in 1,000 years SEVERITY CATEGORIES
  • 26. Catastrophic to Minor RISK CATEGORIES -risk condition with the highest priority for mitigation and contingency planning (immediate action) complete shutdown of facilities and critical services for more than 30 days, more than 50% of property located in affected area is severely damaged. RISK CATEGORIES
  • 27. (Continued) -to-high-risk condition with risk addressed by mitigation and contingency planning (prompt action). injury/illness, complete shutdown of facilities and critical services for more than 14 days, more than 25% of property in affected area is severely damaged. RISK CATEGORIES (Continued) give consideration for further mitigation and planning. disability, complete shutdown of facilities and critical services for more than 7 days,
  • 28. more than 10% of property located in affected area is severely damaged. RISK CATEGORIES (Continued) -risk condition with additional mitigation contingency planning (advisory in nature). complete shutdown of facilities and critical services for more than 1 day, no more than 1% of property located in affected area is severely damaged. It should be pointed out that frequency and severity are relative terms and that you can adopt your own criteria for each level or perhaps include more risk classes. Whatever you decide, your risk matrix should include the full range of possible hazard situations your community must consider and define clear parameters for each
  • 29. class of risk condition. 11 Moderererewr er=werrroopp 1” SNOW C w B A A C B
  • 30. B A D C B B D D C C Returning to our examples of winter storms, if we apply the risk matrix to these two events we can get an idea of how this method is used to evaluate various hazard conditions.
  • 31. EXAMPLE #1: 1” SNOWFALL As we said earlier, one inch of snow is a very common occurrence during a Pennsylvania winter, that is HIGH FREQUENCY. It severity in most cases would be considered MINOR. RISK MATRIX Example #1: One Inch Snowfall FREQUENCY HIGH MODERATE LOW VERY LOW MINOR SERIOUS EXTENSIVE CATASTROPHIC
  • 32. SEVERITY A one-inch snowfall is a high frequency, minor severity hazard that should be considered, as a Class C risk, for possible further mitigation and planning. 12 Moderererewr er=werrroopp C w 3 Ft Snow B
  • 34. C C EXAMPLE #2: 3 FOOT SNOWFALL Three feet of snow, though not as frequent, is also a common occurrence during a Pennsylvania winter, that still rates as HIGH FREQUENCY. It’s severity, however, would probably be considered SERIOUS. RISK MATRIX Example #2: Three Foot Snowfall FREQUENCY HIGH MODERATE
  • 35. LOW VERY LOW MINOR SERIOUS EXTENSIVE CATASTROPHIC SEVERITY In our second example the risk category is increased to Class B, a moderate to high risk condition to be addressed by mitigation and contingency planning for prompt action. 13 Moderererewr er=werrroopp
  • 37. B B D D C C Get the idea? Now, let’s try the risk matrix approach with the list of hazards you identified for your community in Exercise #1. EXERCISE #3: RISK MATRIX HAZARD ANALYSIS Using the list of hazards you identified for your community in Exercise #1, determine which risk category on the risk matrix below each hazard falls into. Remember to include all of the different levels of frequency and severity that apply to the hazards your
  • 38. community contends with (For example: minor spring flooding, moderate flash flooding, and a hundred year flood). When you have analysis all your hazards, classify each into a hazard risk category (A through D) on the form provided on the next page. RISK MATRIX HAZARD ANALYSIS FREQUENCY HIGH MODERATE LOW VERY LOW MINOR SERIOUS EXTENSIVE CATASTROPHIC
  • 39. SEVERITY 14 EXERCISE #3 (Con’t) RISK MATRIX HAZARD CATEGORY LIST Category A (High risk/high priority) 1. 2. 3. 4. Category B (Moderate to high risk/prompt action priority) 1. 2. 3.
  • 40. 4. Category C (Significant risk/further consideration priority) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Category D (Low risk/advisory priority) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
  • 41. 7. 8. 9. 15 Hazard Mitigation Planning PART FOUR: CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT If everything is going right, by now you should have a pretty good idea of the hazards that threaten your community and which ones would cause the most harm. By looking at the risk category list you just completed, you should also be getting an idea of which hazards require the most immediate attention. The risk category list you just completed is the beginning of a hazard mitigation planning task called prioritizing risk reduction. We will return to this step in developing a hazard mitigation plan a little later in this course. But before we can properly prioritize our mitigation efforts, we need to consider our resources and capabilities
  • 42. to reduce the risk from our identified hazards. We call this next step CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT. Capability Assessment, put simply, means looking at what you are doing, what you are not doing, what you can do, and even what you are doing wrong to reduce your community’s risks from hazards. CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT ...what you are doing, what you are not doing, what you can do, and even what you are doing wrong... To some people in hazard mitigation, Capability Assessment is like the ugly duckling or the forgotten child of the planning process. Instead of looking at powerful winter storms, devastating earthquakes, giant hurricanes or tornadoes, capability assessment looks at government programs and policies, regulations and ordinances, existing emergency plans, personnel and equipment, and the like. Interesting and exciting stuff! Are you still awake?
  • 43. For all of its lack of glamour and excitement, flashing lights and sirens, capability assessment is arguably the first place, as the old advertisement said, “where the rubber hits the road” in hazard mitigation planning. Up until now our planning tasks have focused on what might happen and what the consequences might be, “What if” kinds of things. Capability assessment is the first activity where you begin to look at what is actually in place (or not in place) in your community to reduce the risks that you face. It is where you first look at the nuts and bolts of your mitigation strategy. Capability assessment incorporates a wide range of view to be truly worthwhile. In the case of man-made hazards stemming from chemical production, storage and transportation and nuclear facilities, capability assessment means locating and reviewing a number of legally mandated, public documents from private facilities and government agencies. Your local emergency management coordinator will be able to assist you in locating them. These documents can assist you in locating the hazardous materials
  • 44. production and storage facilities in your community. They will also tell you the kinds and quantities of these materials on site. Also available are reports that tell you how many hazardous materials have occurred in your community, where they occurred, what chemicals where involved and how the problem was 16 handled. Many of these facilities (including nuclear power stations) are also required to develop “worst case scenario” reports that forecast the consequences that would occur in your community if a major disaster occurred at their site. This information can be helpful to you determining the consequences of such an event in your hazard vulnerability analysis. Capability assessment also means making a thorough review of your community’s local laws and regulations. A disaster resistant community should have in place a number of safeguards that control where and how development can occur. The following list includes many of the policy
  • 45. and regulatory documents to consider and evaluate, for both positive and negative impacts on your community’s safety: Floodplain and storm water ordinances nt response and recovery plans Each of these local policies, regulations and programs can contribute to reducing risks from disaster. The capability assessment should also look beyond the local community to the next highest
  • 46. level of governmental responsibility. Cities, towns, and other municipalities should look at what protections are in effect at the county level. Counties should consider the mitigation efforts and protections afforded by state government and regulatory agencies. Your capability assessment should recognize the positive mitigation steps that have been taken and realistically point out any deficiencies where improvements can be made to increase disaster resistance in your community. Ultimately, your hazard mitigation plan will be included in this list of positive risk reduction safeguards. Beyond that, a careful and considered hazard mitigation plan can be the centerpiece that connects and coordinates your local policies and regulations in a comprehensive multi-hazard defense strategy. Capability assessments also look at the resources available to local communities to reduce disaster risks. Resources can be divided into five categories: human, physical, technical, informational and financial.
  • 47. 17 HUMAN RESOURCES Human resources include local police, fire, ambulance, and emergency management & response personnel. Local government operation and services, electric, gas, and other utility providers, all need to be able to function during critical periods in disasters. Doctors, nurses and other medical assistance personnel should also be considered in assessing your community’s mitigation capabilities. Teachers, social service workers, mental health professionals, clergy and volunteer service workers can play vital roles in public awareness and safety education in preparation for disasters and assist in post-disaster response and recovery. Businesses and local citizens can also be key assets in preparing for disasters. These people in your local community can become part of your hazard mitigation planning early on with the formation of a local hazard mitigation committee. The experience and expertise, shared memory and
  • 48. emotional ties to the community of such a local hazard mitigation planning committee can greatly enhance the depth and thoroughness of your plan. The involvement of people early on can also raise community awareness and commitment to your plan, its objectives and its overall purpose. That may be the most important goal of all. PHYSICAL RESOURCES Physical resources include the equipment, vehicles, public lands, facilities and buildings available to the community. The review of your physical assets and needs should include emergency response and recovery equipment and vehicles. While response and recovery is often thought to be a different aspect of emergency management from hazard mitigation, your community’s ability to carry out these vital tasks during and immediately after a disaster are important components in reducing the extent of loss and damage—thus hazard mitigation. Once identified, the status and condition of equipment and
  • 49. vehicles and your current and future needs can become the basis for a capital improvement, investment and budget planning. Facilities and buildings play a critical role in hazard mitigation. Locations which house essential community functions like police, fire and rescue, sewage treatment and water supply, government services, etc., should be evaluated for their structural safety and ability to sustain operations under a disaster situation. Public buildings, like schools and churches, should be evaluated for their disaster resistance and availability as emergency shelters. Hospitals, daycare and senior centers should be assessed to determine excess capacity for special needs persons and emergency care. Even private homes and developments can have emergency “safe rooms” built into them to provide accessible security from certain types of hazards. Locations for businesses to relocate to after a disaster, like excess capacity at a local industrial park or unused warehouse, can often be identified to maintain and re-establish
  • 50. important employers and the local economy. Open public land can often be a useful resource in hazard mitigation. If it is suitable for development, these locations can be used for relocation or replacement construction of homes at risk from flooding or other hazards. Open space land along floodways should be evaluated to ensure it is maintained properly. Trees on public and private land near homes and businesses should be inventoried and regularly inspected to reduce wind-related dangers; many communities have shade tree commissions for this purpose. 18 TECHNICAL/TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES In addition to the human and physical resources available to improve their ability to reduce the consequences of disaster, communities also need to consider their technical and technological resources. Early warning systems, weather alert radios, stream- level monitoring gages, 911
  • 51. communication systems, all are technological systems with which most communities are familiar. As familiar as some of these systems are, with the rate of technological advancement today, each of these technologies is becoming more sophisticated and more useful in effective mitigation. Weather alert radios can now be turned on from a remote warning site for specific locations and sound an emergency tone and instructions. “Real-time” stream gages that send measurements via satellite for better advance flash flood warning are currently (no pun intended) being incorporated into the existing monitoring system. “Reverse” 911 systems allow emergency centers to reach specific at-risk locations in event of pending threat. In today’s world, it’s impossible to talk about technological resources without mentioning computers and the Internet. With more “computer literate” people in our society and the affordability of the technology, computer systems are within the means of almost every
  • 52. community in Pennsylvania today. Of most interest today to emergency management and mitigation planners are computer based mapping programs, known as Geographical Information Systems or GIS. These software programs produce sophisticated map images of communities which, when coupled with other information databases, can provide a wealth of visual and factual information for disaster planning, response and recovery. While the initial cost for GIS and the skill and training requirements for such systems may be beyond some communities means, it is important to at least develop access to this tool through other local and county governments that have it. The Internet is home to hundreds of web pages and home sites related to all types of disasters, emergency management and hazard mitigation, as well as State and Federal agencies like PEMA ( www.pema.state.pa.us ) and FEMA ( www.fema.gov ). At the end of this manual is a list of Internet addresses about hazard mitigation topics you can check out.
  • 53. INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES Besides the wealth of information about disasters, hazard mitigation, and planning that is available on the Internet, there are other very good sources of helpful information in print and on video from a number of sources. Some of these sources you have already received as a part of the training packet for this course. As with the Internet addresses, a list of these reference publications and video presentations are provided at the end of this manual. Assessment of informational resources should also consider a community’s ongoing public awareness and education efforts and needs. A community that is informed and knowledgeable about disasters, risk reduction, and how to react is better prepared when disaster strikes. http://www.pema.state.pa.us/ http://www.fema.gov/
  • 54. 19 FINANCIAL RESOURCES The final portion of our hazard mitigation capability assessment is often the one of most concern to local communities: Where will we get the money for hazard mitigation in our community? To begin with let’s look at the federal and state sources for funding, listing them first and then going on to discuss them in more detail. (FEMA/PEMA) (FEMA/PEMA) (PEMA) ACT (FEMA) Other State agencies that have funding programs related to mitigation include:
  • 55. sportation Most State and Federal grant programs require local communities to provide at least part of the necessary project funding in real dollars or through “in- kind” services. While the percentage of local contribution varies from program to program, local communities need to assess their financial capability and resources to implement their hazard mitigation action plans. PRIORITIZING HAZARDS Upon completing your capability assessment, you should have a pretty good idea of your community’s assets and potential needs to now develop and implement a comprehensive, multi- hazard mitigation action plan. For an effective plan to take shape, it is necessary to review
  • 56. the types of hazards and risk levels identified in your hazard vulnerability analysis and rank them in order of priority. The hazards identified as most destructive and of greatest danger (Category A) will be the first priority, Category B the second priority level, and so on until all of your identified hazards have been classified. Once this priority review has been completed, the work of matching capabilities to specific types of hazards, deciding on mitigation measures, and developing a local hazard mitigation action plan can FINALLY proceed. DID SOMEBODY SAY---ABOUT 20 PAGES AGO---THAT THIS WAS SIMPLE?????? 20 Hazard Mitigation Planning PART FIVE: TYPES OF MITIGATION MEASURES
  • 57. By now in your hazard mitigation planning activities, you should have a good idea of where your community’s greatest risks lie and what resources are at your disposal. The next step is to determine what mitigation alternatives exist to effectively reduce your risks and the destructive consequences of your identified hazards. If we try to address each specific hazard for each community and develop mitigation measures for each type and severity level of hazard, this course would continue for a very long time. It is probably safe to say that nobody wants that. That level of specificity really needs to occur at the local level with the people who best know the territory and risks, and will most directly suffer the consequences of a disaster. Where this course can be helpful in getting that process started is in providing some general ideas about different types of mitigation measures. There are six general approaches to reducing hazard risks: Preventive measures, property
  • 58. protection, emergency services measures, structural projects, natural resource protection, and public information. PREVENTIVE MEASURES keep problems from getting started or getting worse. The use of known hazard areas, like floodplains for example, can be limited through planning, land acquisition, or regulation. These activities are usually administered by building, zoning, planning, and/or code enforcement officials: codes and enforcement PROPERTY PROTECTION measures are those actions, which go directly to permanently getting people, property, and businesses out of unsafe areas where, in terms of wise disaster
  • 59. planning, they shouldn’t have been in the first place. The first of these measures is property acquisition: public procurement and management of lands that are vulnerable to damage from hazards. In Pennsylvania, for example, over 700 flood-damaged homes have been purchased by local municipalities (using state, federal, and local funds) and removed from flood-prone areas (by demolition or relocation). The acquired land then becomes public property, which can only be used as “open space” in the future. Open space use means that future development of the site is restricted to low-impact uses 21 like parks, playing fields, gravel parking lots or agriculture--no permanent or enclosed structures. Relocation of at-risk structures also achieves the same result as acquisition. The home or business is moved to a safer location but it remains the property of the individual owner, the
  • 60. original site is purchased and maintained by the local municipality. Elevation of structures can be an effective in-place mitigation for some flood-threatened homes. By raising the height of the structure’s living area above flood levels, damage and threat to life can be reduced. Retrofitting of homes is another in-place damage reduction method. Utilities, services, systems and appliances in some homes can be raised above flood levels. Construction techniques to improve structural resistance to high wind or heavy snow accumulation can be incorporated into new homes or retrofitted into existing structures. Private home and business insurance policies and participation in the National Flood Insurance Program can also reduce uninsured losses to properties. EMERGENCY SERVICES MEASURES are taken during a disaster to minimize its impact. These measures are the responsibility of city or county emergency management staff,
  • 61. operators of major and critical facilities, and other local emergency service organizations. They include: tems STRUCTURAL PROJECTS are usually designed by engineers and managed and maintained by public works staffs. They are designed to reduce or redirect the impact of natural disasters (especially floods) away from at-risk population areas. Examples include:
  • 62. NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION preserves or restores natural areas or their natural functions. Such measures are usually implemented by park & recreation organizations, conservation agencies or wildlife groups. They include: ent practices 22 PUBLIC INFORMATION PROGRAMS advise property owners, potential property owners, and others of hazards and ways to protect people and property from them. A public information office usually implements them. Public information activities can include:
  • 63. Your mitigation planning committee should look at the range of measures for each identified risk in your community. Working together, “brainstorm” all of the possible mitigation measures that might help reduce risks for the range of hazards your community is susceptible to. These are your “mitigation alternatives.” The next step is to review all of these alternatives and select the most appropriate ones for your community. Finally, you are ready to document your hazard mitigation recommendations in a written plan. Before we close, a few words about adoption, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review of your local hazard mitigation plan.
  • 64. ADOPTION OF THE PLAN Getting public acceptance of a hazard mitigation plan is vital to reducing conflicts and building support for your recommendations. A draft plan should be advertised and made available for review by affected residents, businesses, community departments, interested organizations, state and federal agencies, and neighboring communities. If your mitigation planning committee represents other interests or organizations in your community, their organizations could pass resolutions to officially support the plan. After the public has had several weeks to review your plan, hold a public meeting or workshop to allow comment, discussion and suggestions about the plan and revise your plan accordingly. Final adoption by the local governing body can then occur. Once approved the plan should be made available to the public, sent to local, state and federal government agencies. PEMA is
  • 65. the State agency of record for mitigation plans. IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, EVALUATION AND REVISION The key to successful implementation is ensuring that the people responsible for the recommendations understand what is expected of them and are willing to work toward their implementation. That’s why it’s important to involve those people in the planning process right 23 from the start. Your plan should identify some visible but inexpensive projects that can be quickly implemented to help reassure the public and those involved that something is being accomplished. A locally organized and inexpensive project, such as a stream clean-up or public information campaign, can be achieved quickly with local resources to help get the ball rolling
  • 66. and generate attention. Monitoring the plan ensures that your plan is being implemented and staying on track. You should realize that no plan is perfect and changes will be needed along the way. You should have a formal method to measure progress, assess your implementation, and decide on needed changes. The person or agency responsible for monitoring your plan and how that task is accomplished should be expressed clearly in your plan. Your mitigation planning committee can continue to function to periodically review progress and make further recommendations to those responsible for implementation. CONCLUSION We are finally at the end of our little “How To” guide to hazard mitigation planning and you may be thinking, “You call that simple and easy?” You may be right. As much as we have tried to stick to the basics and avoid unnecessary information, looking at an entire community,
  • 67. all of the risks it faces, and coming up with ways to reduce those risks, may not be all that simple and all that easy. The point here is that it can be done by virtual any community in Pennsylvania, large or small, if they have the right people involved, take their mission seriously, and take the time to think things through and carefully consider what the best course of action is. Even if you decide to have a mitigation plan developed by an outside consultant, at least this guide can help you recognize what a good plan should be. Finally, a community can be defined as a group of people who have a common self-interest or who together face a common adversary. This meaning of community is rarely ever better illustrated then in the case of disaster. In working together to develop a plan that prepares you for future disasters you demonstrate community in the fullest sense. Reference materials for this guide include:
  • 68. Post-Disaster Hazard Mitigation Planning Guidance for State and Local Governments (FEMA) Mitigation For Emergency Managers Course (FEMA, Emergency Management Institute) An Evaluation Checklist For Review of State Hazard Mitigation Plans (FEMA Mitigation Directorate) Local Hazard Mitigation Planning Manual (North Carolina Division of Emergency Management) Flood Mitigation Planning, The CRS Approach, Wetmore and Jamieson (Natural Hazards Informer) Hazard Mitigation Planning Course: Regional Level (Emergency Management Institute NETR) Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction (FEMA, American Planning Association) Multi-Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Report (FEMA) “Hazard Mitigation Made Easy” was developed for the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency by Don Smith, Hazard Mitigation Specialist. W1 "Hazard Mitigation Response Paper for W7 Instructions" Content Emergency Planning Hazard Mitigation Response Paper for W7 Instructions Download "Hazard Mitigation Template" See Attached This assignment is intended to grasp your insight into the numerous potential and man-made disasters for which emergency planners must be prepared to deal. Emergency
  • 69. management is a quickly evolving profession with many opportunities for individuals who wish to pursue it as a career. This exercise will offer insights into the scope and responsibilities of individuals in the profession. You will be provided a "Hazard Mitigation Template" (see attached), from the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. You will be asked to complete the five exercises in the worksheet for your community, or a community of your choice, as the focus for the mitigation study. This exercise requires a deal of research and analysis on their part. After doing the research required to complete each of the five sections of the worksheet, you must also final report which thoroughly examines the risks, preparedness, and response capabilities of the community. At the end of Week 3, you will develop an outline and email that course of action for the exercise to your instructor for approval, and comments. For the final report you should also include suggestions on how to mitigate the risks and improve response capabilities. You may also include relevant charts, graphs, and other illustrations to support, supplement and/or clarify. Thorough data collection for this exercise requires time. You should start data collection immediately in order to have enough time to collect, synthesize and report on the data. Some possible resources for data include: · Emergency management web sites of the community the students have selected. · Police and fire websites. · Their local emergency management department. Often communities of size have an emergency management department. In smaller communities it is often the fire chief who is the designated emergency manager. · The community’s Streets Department or Traffic Engineering Department. · Local utility companies. · Other internet sources.
  • 70. Outside readings for this project include: · Your text · The Hazard Mitigation Planning Template itself is a great source of information. · The Hazard Mitigation Planning Tools and Techniques Guide, Download here. · The community’s planning department. · The community’s budget department. You must remember when doing the exercise to also consider surrounding communities because their disasters can also affect your community and become your responsibility. Consider industrial manufacturing using toxic substances, military bases, large scale utility sites, etc. that may be close by. This exercise is a chance for you to develop a mitigation plan for the community you have chosen. View this exercise as if you are the newly appointed emergency manager of the community. Prepare a written report to the governmental entity to which you are accountable, i.e. city council, county board of supervisors, or other legislative bodies. Prepare a thorough report to provide to them as part of your first meeting with this group. The report should be thorough, professional, and audience appropriate. The report can also include charts, graphs, and other illustrations for clarification. The final document must comply with the writing guidelines established for this course. It will be a minimum of seven (7) pages, not including the cover and reference pages. A thorough exercise, particularly one including charts and graphs, will exceed this minimum by several pages. The students must include in-text citations indicating where they obtained data and information. Also they must remember to support their findings and recommendations with references from relevant sources. Hazard Mitigation Plan Outline 1. Introduction · The community’s disaster history. · What is mitigation and why is a mitigation plan necessary?
  • 71. · How was the plan prepared? · How did you obtain your information? · The goals and objectives of the mitigation plan? 2. Community and Hazard Exposure Profile (part 2 of the template) · Community population · Miles of roads · Airports · Manufacturing plants · Military bases · Hospitals · Dams · Schools · Etc. 3. List of possible community hazards (part 1 of the template). For each hazard discuss: · Hazard description · impact on property · Impact on safety and health · Any other community considerations 4. Hazard Vulnerability analysis and frequency chart (part 3 of the template) · Explanation of a hazard vulnerability analysis · Your chart or list matrix 5. Your community’s capability assessment (part 4 of the worksheet) · Community response capabilities · Description of local law enforcement response capabilities (size, capability, etc.) · Description of local fire agencies and response capabilities · EMS capabilities, ambulance services, hospitals, etc. · Physical resources · Technical resources (example: early warning systems) · Information resources (radio, TV, etc.) · Financial resources (emergency funds in the community, grants, state funds, etc.)
  • 72. 6. Recommended Mitigation Measures (part 5 of the template). For each measure include information such as: · Description · Objectives supported · Who is responsible · When must it be done · Who can help · Budget 7. Conclusion · Their overall assessment of response capabilities · Their recommendations for implementing priority mitigation projects for the community · Their overall assessment of the community’s vulnerability and response capabilities 8. Any additional charts, graphs, illustrations, etc. · They may include charts, graphs, and illustrations in the mitigation plan itself to assist with clarification and explanation. They must remember to include source citations if they copied items and/or for the information provided in the item if they created the chart or graph. 9. Cover page and reference page · The cover page and reference page must be included. Remember these pages are not to be counted as part of the seven (7) page minimum.