Mlearn 2011 conference keynote

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Mlearn 2011 conference keynote

  1. 1. Innovation in Mobile Learning: An International Perspective Mike Sharples Institute of Educational Technology The Open University, UK
  2. 2. 10th World Conference on Mobile andContextual Learning
  3. 3. We are all connected by
  4. 4. A globaleconomiccrisis
  5. 5. A worldwidemarket fortechnology,culture andeducation
  6. 6. TheWorldwideWeb
  7. 7. And theneed toeducate andempowerpeople forthe 21stcentury
  8. 8. • ¼ of the population of China is learning English (300 million people)• In the next 5 years all Chinese schools will teach English in kindergarten• All state employees younger than 40 will be required to master 1,000 English phrases• “ Numerous obstacles stand in the way of China‟s quest, including a shortage of good English teachers and the country‟s test-oriented education system”• 1 billion people in China use mobile phones (67% of the population) of which 100 million are smartphones• 21st century education opportunity: smartphones for language learningSource: Indianapolis Business Journal, “Report from China”, March 2011
  9. 9. International Mobile Learningcollaboration – smartphones forlanguage learningSharp Labs EuropeUniversity of NottinghamTokushima University, Japan
  10. 10. Incidental second language learningE-book Selected Personal Game Mobile words words vocabulary game Read story for Rehearsevocabulary Practise vocabulary sentence list construction Missing words
  11. 11. Elmo Mark 2 for smartphones
  12. 12. Research questionAre there differences in the learning ofEnglish vocabulary through readingnovels, depending on the mode of mobileinteraction?
  13. 13. Three modes of interaction• Paper book Paper book• e-book reader with English dictionary• „ELMO‟: e-book reader with enhanced software, including E-book adaptive user modelling and additional interactivity Elmo adaptive system
  14. 14. Participants• 39 students (24 female, 15 male) aged 15- 17 at a Japanese high school• 3 comparison groups balanced in terms of English vocabulary and gender
  15. 15. Crossover design Cycle A Cycle B Cycle C The Hound of The Thirty- Little Women the nine Steps Survey and focus groups Baskervilles Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk 1 2 3 4 5 6 Post-test threeGp ELMO e-book book Base-line test Post-test two Post-test oneAGp e-book book ELMOBGp book ELMO e-bookC
  16. 16. The study• Pre-test: test of specific vocabulary from the three novels• Two weeks to read a novel – students could decide how much, when and where• Discussion of novel allowed, but no swapping• No school implications of results• Post-test: the same words as in pre-test (scored out of 30)
  17. 17. The resultsAdaptive handheld learning device 9.5 9 Vocabulary 8.5 8 score 7.5 7 6.5 6 5.5 5 Pre Post
  18. 18. Comparison with paper book 9.5 9 8.5 Vocabulary 8 score 7.5 Adaptive 7 Book 6.5 6 5.5 5 Pre Post
  19. 19. Comparison with e-book 9.5 9 8.5 Vocabulary 8 7.5 Adaptive score Ebook 7 Book 6.5 6 5.5 5 Pre Post
  20. 20. Log data pages dictionary Pages Dictionary id book read lookups id book read lookups 1 39_Steps 8 1 1 Little_Women 7 1 10 39_Steps 1 1 08 Little_Women 1 0 17 39_Steps 12 3 11 Little_Women 16 13 18 39_Steps 1 0 16 Little_Women 3 0 34 39_Steps 3 0 17 Little_Women 9 1 11 39_Steps 13 7 19 Little_Women 4 2 12 39_Steps 2 1 22 Little_Women 1 1 15 39_Steps 4 0 24 Little_Women 1 2 2 39_Steps 3 10 25 Little_Women 1 0 20 39_Steps 7 1 28 Little_Women 4 2 21 39_Steps 1 0 3 Little_Women 1 0 24 39_Steps 1 0 30 Little_Women 4 0 25 39_Steps 8 0 31 Little_Women 2 0 26 39_Steps 5 0 32 Little_Women 1 0 27 39_Steps 2 10 34 Little_Women 1 0 28 39_Steps 8 1 35 Little_Women 2 0 29 39_Steps 15 2 36 Little_Women 1 0 3 39_Steps 1 2 39 Little_Women 2 0 31 39_Steps 1 0 40 Little_Women 3 0 32 39_Steps 5 0 42 Little_Women 5 4 37 39_Steps 1 2 44 Little_Women 2 0 38 39_Steps 3 1 5 Little_Women 1 1 4 39_Steps 3 8 9 Little_Women 1 1 41 39_Steps 1 2 43 39_Steps 28 2 44 39_Steps 10 6
  21. 21. Interview data• “Made my eyes tired, so I recommend „paper book‟”• “It is good to write down whatever I want on „paper book‟”• “I do not want to bring another device with me other than my mobile phone to read novels”• “Many say that if a small and light device with a satisfactory English-Japanese dictionary, smooth scrolling, less charging is possible, then Adaptive Device would be best” (Teacher)
  22. 22. Conclusions• The study was carefully set up and rigorously conducted• It didn‟t show any particular technology to be effective in enhancing incidental learning of English vocabulary• The technology wasn‟t engaging• The books were too difficult and boring• Since the work was not assessed there was no external motivation• Japanese teenagers have little or no free time in the evenings
  23. 23. Elmo Mk3 for Android deviceProduct launch by Sharp in Autumn 2011
  24. 24. • International collaboration• Iterative design• Comparative evaluation
  25. 25. But we are divided by
  26. 26. National and cultural differences• Education system • Access to powerful personal• Curriculum technology• Government education policy • Relations between formal and non- formal learning• Access to higher education• Traditional teaching methods • Opportunity for field trips and cultural visits• Cultural expectations and inhibitions • Modes of travel to school or work• Motivation of young people to • Adult education and workplace training (e.g. apprenticeships) engage in schooling • Work-life balance• Computers in schools • After-school activities • Leisure and play
  27. 27. Africa M4D (mobile learning for Focus on access, development) emerging contexts, basic technologiesUnited States Anytime, anywhere Focus on delivery, learning relevance Corporate trainingUS/Taiwan/Singapore 1to1 learning Focus on personalised learning in classrooms and field tripsEurope Contextual learning, Focus on context, Connected learning community, connecting formal and informal learningSingapore Seamless learning Focus on continuityCanada/Australia/UK Personalised distance Focus on learning design, education open content, standardsJapan Ubiquitous learning Focus on availability and embedding in everyday world
  28. 28. Africa M4D (mobile learning for Focus on access, development) emerging contexts, basic technologiesUnited States Anytime, anywhere Focus on delivery, learning relevance Corporate trainingUS/Taiwan/Singapore 1to1 learning Focus on personalised learning in classrooms and field tripsEurope Contextual learning, Focus on context, Connected learning community, connecting formal and informal learningSingapore Seamless learning Focus on continuityCanada/Australia/UK Personalised distance Focus on learning design, education open content, standardsJapan Ubiquitous learning Focus on availability and embedding in everyday world
  29. 29. Access RelevanceCommunity ContextEmbedding Continuity Learning Personalisation Design
  30. 30. Access RelevanceCommunity ContextEmbedding Continuity Learning Personalisation Design
  31. 31. Context In a context Creating a context “that which “that which surrounds us” weaves together”Source: Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  32. 32. Context as a „shell‟ that surrounds thehuman user of technologyContext created by the constructiveinteraction between people andtechnologySource: Dourish, P. (2004) What we talk about when we talk about context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 8 (1): 19-30.
  33. 33. Learning in context Data filtering and integration Data filtering and integration Computer User Context
  34. 34. Nottingham Castle museum
  35. 35. CAGE system• Navigation in a conceptual space through physical movement• Location-based content delivery• Ultrasound tracking system• Context awareness: – which painting? – how long? – been there before?
  36. 36. Creating contextLearning assituated socialinteraction andknowledgeconstruction
  37. 37. An interaction view ofcontext• Context is a dynamic and historical process• to enable appropriate action (learning)• constructed through interaction between people, settings, technologies, obje cts and activities
  38. 38. Access RelevanceCommunity ContextEmbedding Continuity Learning Personalisation Design
  39. 39. Access RelevanceCommunity Context Anytime anywhere learningEmbedding Continuity Learning Personalisation Design
  40. 40. Access RelevanceCommunity Context Seamless learningEmbedding Continuity Learning Personalisation Design
  41. 41. Access RelevanceCommunity Ubiquitous Context learningEmbedding Continuity Learning Personalisation Design
  42. 42. Access RelevanceCommunity Connected Context learningEmbedding Continuity Learning Personalisation Design
  43. 43. Global mobile learning Access RelevanceCommunity ContextEmbedding Continuity Learning Personalisation Design

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