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Designs for active learning
Mike Sharples
Institute of Educational Technology
The Open University
@sharplm
2012: Prediction for Higher Education
By 2020, higher education will be quite different from the
way it is today. There wi...
Learning for the future
http://careers2030.cst.org/jobs/
3
Learning for a changing world
Share of 25-34 year-olds with a tertiary degree (OECD & G20)
4
https://www.oecd.org/edu/5049...
New science of learning
“Insights from many
different fields are
converging to create
a new science of
learning that may
t...
Evidence-based education
●Learning spaced over time, instead of all at once
●Questioning what you have learned
●Using mnem...
Evidence-based education
●Learning spaced over time, instead of all at once
✔
●Questioning what you have learned ✔
●Using ...
Innovating pedagogy
Annual report from The Open
University
2015, with SRI International
2016, with NIE Singapore
80,000 do...
Pedagogy
“Theory and practice of teaching,
learning and assessment.”
Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R.,...
New pedagogies
10
Social networked
learning
Peer learning through networking
Personal inquiry Personally-meaningful invest...
Explore first
Spaced learning
Conversational learning
Learning design and analytics
11
Flipped classroom
12
Image: http://www.washington.edu/teaching/files/2012/11/FlippedClassroomUWcolors-1-1024x242.jpg
In ow...
Flipped classroom
13
Image: http://www.washington.edu/teaching/files/2012/11/FlippedClassroomUWcolors-1-1024x242.jpg
Each ...
Flipped classroom
14
Image: http://www.washington.edu/teaching/files/2012/11/FlippedClassroomUWcolors-1-1024x242.jpg
Each ...
Explore first
15
EXPLORE FIRST
Group exploration
Video lecture
Students start by
exploring a new topic
and attempting to s...
Explore first
16
EXPLORE FIRST
Group exploration
Video lecture
Students start by
exploring a new topic
and attempting to s...
Spaced learning
Synapses link neurons in the brain
Learning is associated with
strengthening synaptic connections
When neu...
Spaced learning
18
http://www.innovationunit.org/sites/default/files/Spaced_Learning-downloadable_1.pdf
Kelley, P., & What...
Conversational learning:
Groupwork
People learn better when they
learn together
For groups to work:
shared goals
each pers...
Conversational learning:
FutureLearn
● Platform designed to support
learning as conversation
● The more people who
exchang...
Is conversational
learning
effective?
21
Conversation about content
Conversation at massive scale
Conversation about content
Conversation at massive scale
Social networked learning
Filtering Following Moderating Roles
35% of FutureLearn learners
post comments or replies
35% of...
Learning design and analytics
25
Student learning
Week 1Week 2 Week 30+
Rienties, B., Toetenel, L. (2016). “The impact of learning design on student behavi...
Student learning
Week 1Week 2 Week 30+
Rienties, B., Toetenel, L. (2016). “The impact of learning design on student behavi...
Student learning
Week 1Week 2 Week 30+
Rienties, B., Toetenel, L. (2016). “The impact of learning design on student behavi...
Student learning
Week 1Week 2 Week 30+
Rienties, B., Toetenel, L. (2016). “The impact of learning design on student behavi...
Student learning
Week 1Week 2 Week 30+
Rienties, B., Toetenel, L. (2016). “The impact of learning design on student behavi...
Learning design and analytics
“The potential is
emerging for a virtuous
circle, where inquiry into
the learning process
fe...
Predictive analytics
OU Analyse
32https://analyse.kmi.open.ac.uk/
Predict student outcomes based on performance early in t...
33
Analytics for personalised
learning
34
Changing higher education
35
Open
educational
resources
Enhanced Education New Education Sustainable Education
Mobile
lear...
Blended learning
●US Department of Education 2009 meta-
study of comparisons of online and face
to face teaching in higher...
Blended learning
● Blending campus and online
● Blending free and accredited/paid-for
● Connecting locations and settings
...
Blended learning
Blended learning
38
FutureLearn programs and
degrees
39
Hybrid degree courses
40
41
MOOC
MOOC
MOOC
MOOC
MOOC MOOC EXAM
Module
Module
Module
Online tutor
MOOC
MOOC
Module
Module
Module
Preparing for highe...
New models of provision
Blended learning Flexibility of study – location, pace
New modes of learning (e.g. flipped
classro...
“We already know what the college of
the future will look like, because the
non-traditional students are creating it
now. ...
“We already know what the college of
the future will look like, because the
non-traditional students are creating it
now. ...
Innovating Pedagogy
www.open.ac.uk/innovating
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Designs for Active Learning, Cambridge 2017

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New methods of teaching and learning for higher education

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Designs for Active Learning, Cambridge 2017

  1. 1. Designs for active learning Mike Sharples Institute of Educational Technology The Open University @sharplm
  2. 2. 2012: Prediction for Higher Education By 2020, higher education will be quite different from the way it is today. There will be mass adoption of teleconferencing and distance learning to leverage expert resources. Significant numbers of learning activities will move to individualized, just-in-time learning approaches. There will be a transition to "hybrid" classes that combine online learning components with less-frequent on- campus, in-person class meetings. Pew Research Center prediction from 2012 60% of respondents, from 1000 digital learning experts
  3. 3. Learning for the future http://careers2030.cst.org/jobs/ 3
  4. 4. Learning for a changing world Share of 25-34 year-olds with a tertiary degree (OECD & G20) 4 https://www.oecd.org/edu/50495363.pdf Total: 129 million in 2010, 204 million in 2020 China: 18% in 2010, 29% in 2020
  5. 5. New science of learning “Insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practice” 5 A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (2009) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284.
  6. 6. Evidence-based education ●Learning spaced over time, instead of all at once ●Questioning what you have learned ●Using mnemonics (keys) to remember content ●Summarising what you have learned ●Highlighting and underlining information ●Letting study and practice of topics overlap Which strategies are generally effective for learning? 6
  7. 7. Evidence-based education ●Learning spaced over time, instead of all at once ✔ ●Questioning what you have learned ✔ ●Using mnemonics (keys) to remember content ✗ ●Summarising what you have learned ✗ ●Highlighting and underlining key information ✗ ●Letting study and practice of topics overlap ✔ Which strategies are generally effective for learning? 7 Paul A. Kirschner & Mirjam Neelan (2015) Learning the smart way. https://3starlearningexperiences.wordpress.com/tag/ineffective-learning-strategies/
  8. 8. Innovating pedagogy Annual report from The Open University 2015, with SRI International 2016, with NIE Singapore 80,000 downloads per year www.open.ac.uk/innovating
  9. 9. Pedagogy “Theory and practice of teaching, learning and assessment.” Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R., FitzGerald, E., Hirst, T., Mor, Y., Gaved, M. and Whitelock, D. (2012). Innovating Pedagogy 2012: Open University Innovation Report 1. Milton Keynes: The Open University. 9
  10. 10. New pedagogies 10 Social networked learning Peer learning through networking Personal inquiry Personally-meaningful investigations Crossover learning Connecting informal and classroom learning Learning to learn Learning how to become an effective learner Geo-learning Learning about the landscape/environment Learning through gaming Learning by playing educational games Productive failure Learning by exploration before instruction Analytics for learning Using data analytics to help students learn Computational thinking Learning to abstract, plan, design, debug Context-based learning Learning by interaction with real objects & locations Incidental learning Learning from everyday incidents Learning by making Learning by creating and sharing objects Bricolage Learning by creative play with objects Embodied learning Learning with and about your body Dynamic assessment Discovering and overcoming learning difficulties
  11. 11. Explore first Spaced learning Conversational learning Learning design and analytics 11
  12. 12. Flipped classroom 12 Image: http://www.washington.edu/teaching/files/2012/11/FlippedClassroomUWcolors-1-1024x242.jpg In own time, students learn from videos and texts In classroom, students work in groups with a teacher to solve problems and explore misunderstandings
  13. 13. Flipped classroom 13 Image: http://www.washington.edu/teaching/files/2012/11/FlippedClassroomUWcolors-1-1024x242.jpg Each student is in control: stop/start, speed, make notes Students solve problems together and learn from each other, guided by the teacher Active learning In own time, students learn from videos and texts In classroom, students work in groups with a teacher to solve problems and explore misunderstandings
  14. 14. Flipped classroom 14 Image: http://www.washington.edu/teaching/files/2012/11/FlippedClassroomUWcolors-1-1024x242.jpg Each student is in control: stop/start, speed, make notes Students solve problems together and learn from each other, guided by the teacher Active learning “average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, … students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning” Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410-8415. “average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, … students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning” Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410-8415. In own time, students learn from videos and texts In classroom, students work in groups with a teacher to solve problems and explore misunderstandings
  15. 15. Explore first 15 EXPLORE FIRST Group exploration Video lecture Students start by exploring a new topic and attempting to solve problems together Students then engage with a video presentation, or a teacher-led lesson based on their answers
  16. 16. Explore first 16 EXPLORE FIRST Group exploration Video lecture Students start by exploring a new topic and attempting to solve problems together Students then engage with a video presentation, or a teacher-led lesson based on their answers Schneider, B., & Blikstein, P. (2016). Flipping the Flipped Classroom: A Study of the Effectiveness of Video Lectures Versus Constructivist Exploration Using Tangible User Interfaces. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 9(1), 5-17.
  17. 17. Spaced learning Synapses link neurons in the brain Learning is associated with strengthening synaptic connections When neurons are stimulated, long-term chemical connections can form in minutes, across networks of neurons Brain studies with animals and humans indicate that learning is best when short sessions are spaced with ten-minute periods of other activity, to let the synaptic connections grow
  18. 18. Spaced learning 18 http://www.innovationunit.org/sites/default/files/Spaced_Learning-downloadable_1.pdf Kelley, P., & Whatson, T. (2013). Making long-term memories in minutes: a spaced learning pattern from memory research in education. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 589. GCSE Biology course Three 20-minute learning episodes spaced by 10 minutes of physical activity (e.g. clay modelling) A controlled study found similar learning outcomes from one hour of spaced learning compared to a four-month course of classroom teaching Studies are now being repeated in 15 schools Teacher-led presentation Students recall key concepts 10 minute active break 10 minute active break Students apply knowledge
  19. 19. Conversational learning: Groupwork People learn better when they learn together For groups to work: shared goals each person knows how and when to contribute everyone makes an appropriate contribution share rewards in a fair way opportunity to reflect on progress and to discuss contributions 19 Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational researcher, 38(5), 365-379. “Generally, as the group gets larger and larger, members are less likely to see their own personal contribution to the group as being important to the group’s chances of success”
  20. 20. Conversational learning: FutureLearn ● Platform designed to support learning as conversation ● The more people who exchange ideas and perspectives, the better the learning experience ● Conversations linked to content ● Peer review and small group discussions ● Social network techniques to manage the massive scale of conversation Social learning at massive scale 20 www.futurelearn.com
  21. 21. Is conversational learning effective? 21
  22. 22. Conversation about content Conversation at massive scale
  23. 23. Conversation about content Conversation at massive scale
  24. 24. Social networked learning Filtering Following Moderating Roles 35% of FutureLearn learners post comments or replies 35% of FutureLearn learners post comments or replies
  25. 25. Learning design and analytics 25
  26. 26. Student learning Week 1Week 2 Week 30+ Rienties, B., Toetenel, L. (2016). “The impact of learning design on student behaviour, satisfaction and performance: A cross-institutional comparison across 151 modules. Computers in Human Bevavior, 60, 333-341. Assimilative Finding information Communicative Productive Learning Design 151 modules Experiential Interactive Assessment Learning design had a significant effect on student satisfaction and performance Student Satisfaction Student retention Student success Toetenel, L. and Rienties, B. (2016). Analysing 157 learning designs using learning analytic approaches as a means to evaluate the impact of pedagogical decision-making. British Journal of Educational Technology (early view)
  27. 27. Student learning Week 1Week 2 Week 30+ Rienties, B., Toetenel, L. (2016). “The impact of learning design on student behaviour, satisfaction and performance: A cross-institutional comparison across 151 modules. Computers in Human Bevavior, 60, 333-341. Assimilative Finding information Communicative Productive Learning Design 151 modules Experiential Interactive Assessment Higher satisfaction from courses with assimilative and interactive learning Student Satisfaction Student retention Student success Toetenel, L. and Rienties, B. (2016). Analysing 157 learning designs using learning analytic approaches as a means to evaluate the impact of pedagogical decision-making. British Journal of Educational Technology (early view)
  28. 28. Student learning Week 1Week 2 Week 30+ Rienties, B., Toetenel, L. (2016). “The impact of learning design on student behaviour, satisfaction and performance: A cross-institutional comparison across 151 modules. Computers in Human Bevavior, 60, 333-341. Assimilative Finding information Communicative Productive Learning Design 151 modules Experiential Interactive Assessment Higher retention from courses with communicative learning Student Satisfaction Student retention Student success Toetenel, L. and Rienties, B. (2016). Analysing 157 learning designs using learning analytic approaches as a means to evaluate the impact of pedagogical decision-making. British Journal of Educational Technology (early view)
  29. 29. Student learning Week 1Week 2 Week 30+ Rienties, B., Toetenel, L. (2016). “The impact of learning design on student behaviour, satisfaction and performance: A cross-institutional comparison across 151 modules. Computers in Human Bevavior, 60, 333-341. Assimilative Finding information Communicative Productive Learning Design 151 modules Experiential Interactive Assessment Lower success from courses with assimilative learning Student Satisfaction Student retention Student success Toetenel, L. and Rienties, B. (2016). Analysing 157 learning designs using learning analytic approaches as a means to evaluate the impact of pedagogical decision-making. British Journal of Educational Technology (early view)
  30. 30. Student learning Week 1Week 2 Week 30+ Rienties, B., Toetenel, L. (2016). “The impact of learning design on student behaviour, satisfaction and performance: A cross-institutional comparison across 151 modules. Computers in Human Bevavior, 60, 333-341. Assimilative Finding information Communicative Productive Learning Design 151 modules Experiential Interactive Assessment Learning design had a significant effect on student satisfaction and performance Higher satisfaction from courses with assimilative and interactive learning Higher retention from courses with communicative learning Lower success from courses with assimilative learning Student Satisfaction Student retention Student success Toetenel, L. and Rienties, B. (2016). Analysing 157 learning designs using learning analytic approaches as a means to evaluate the impact of pedagogical decision-making. British Journal of Educational Technology (early view)
  31. 31. Learning design and analytics “The potential is emerging for a virtuous circle, where inquiry into the learning process feeds into learning design, which motivates learning analytics, which motivate future inquiry and thus the refinement of the design and analytics.” Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R., FitzGerald, E., Hirst, T., and Gaved, M. (2013). Innovating Pedagogy 2013: Open University Innovation Report 2. Milton Keynes: The Open University.
  32. 32. Predictive analytics OU Analyse 32https://analyse.kmi.open.ac.uk/ Predict student outcomes based on performance early in the course
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. Analytics for personalised learning 34
  35. 35. Changing higher education 35 Open educational resources Enhanced Education New Education Sustainable Education Mobile learning Blended learning Hybrid courses Flipped classrooms Seamless learning Learning design Dynamic assessment Adaptive teaching Learning analytics Social networked learningMOOCs Lifelong learning support
  36. 36. Blended learning ●US Department of Education 2009 meta- study of comparisons of online and face to face teaching in higher education ●On average, students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face instruction ●Bigger effect in studies that blended online and face-to-face ●Blended conditions often included additional learning time and instructional elements not received by students in control conditions B. Means et al. (2009) Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies. US Department of Education Distinguish hype from reality
  37. 37. Blended learning ● Blending campus and online ● Blending free and accredited/paid-for ● Connecting locations and settings ● Embracing multiple cultures and languages ● Combining new methods of teaching, learning and assessment Distinguish hype from reality
  38. 38. Blended learning Blended learning 38
  39. 39. FutureLearn programs and degrees 39
  40. 40. Hybrid degree courses 40
  41. 41. 41 MOOC MOOC MOOC MOOC MOOC MOOC EXAM Module Module Module Online tutor MOOC MOOC Module Module Module Preparing for higher education Blended and hybrid university courses University B University A MOOC Professional support Module Professional development Module
  42. 42. New models of provision Blended learning Flexibility of study – location, pace New modes of learning (e.g. flipped classroom) Hybrid courses Global access to higher education, including free courses Global conversation and knowledge sharing Credit transfer Broader curriculum Disaggregation Affordable education – pay for use
  43. 43. “We already know what the college of the future will look like, because the non-traditional students are creating it now. It’s a hybrid of online and in- person classes, centered on the student and not the institution, with credits accruing from multiple schools, and adding up to a degree in alternating periods of attendance and absence.” Clay Shirky http://bit.ly/28KXjMf 43 College of the future
  44. 44. “We already know what the college of the future will look like, because the non-traditional students are creating it now. It’s a hybrid of online and in- person classes, centered on the student and not the institution, with credits accruing from multiple schools, and adding up to a degree in alternating periods of attendance and absence.” Clay Shirky http://bit.ly/28KXjMf 44 College of the future
  45. 45. Innovating Pedagogy www.open.ac.uk/innovating

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