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Mike Sharples
The Open University
Pedagogy of FutureLearn
How our learners learn
Pedagogy
“Theory and practice of te
aching, learning and asse
ssment”
Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R....
How do we learn?
For me learning is ….
Learning is…
Making connections Neuroscience
Cognitive sciences
Changing behaviour Behavioural science
Enhancing skills Co...
New science of learning
A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J.
Sejnowski (2009) Foundations for a New Science
of ...
New science of learning
“A key component is the role of ‘the
social’ in learning. What makes
social interaction such a pow...
Evidence-based pedagogy
Learning spaced over time, instead of all at once
Questioning what you have learned
Using mnemonic...
Evidence-based pedagogy
Learning spaced over time, instead of all at once ✔
Questioning what you have learned ✔
Using mnem...
Telling stories
Storytelling provides a unifying framework around which we build
and think about courses
Provoking Convers...
Why these?
Storytelling and narrative
León, C. (2016). An architecture of narrative memory. Biologically Inspired
Cognitive Architect...
All human learning involves
conversation
We converse with ourselves to
reflect on experience
We converse with teachers to
...
Visible progress
“What is most important is that
teaching is visible to the
student, and that the learning is
visible to t...
What pedagogy works best at massive scale?
Some educational methods get worse with
scale
e.g. personal tutoring, sports coaching
Some educational methods don’t chang...
Pedagogy Learners… Technology-based example
Assessing give or receive constructive feedback engaging in online peer review...
Pedagogy Learners… Technology-based example
Assessing give or receive constructive feedback engaging in online peer review...
18
Learning as conversation
Act
Experience
Check
Effect
How do we do that?
Human adaptivity
Reflect
Understand
Plan
Act
Experience
Check
Effect
Level of actions
Level of descriptions
How do we do that?
Why are we d...
Learner
• demonstrates understanding
• proposes solutions to problems
Learner
• acts to develop models
• acts to solve pro...
Learner
• demonstrates understanding
• proposes solutions to problems
Learner
• acts to develop models
• acts to solve pro...
Vicarious learning from conversation
Comment posted by Karen Carmichael Timson, Learner on Ecosystems course
I read throug...
Learner
• demonstrates understanding
• proposes solutions to problems
Learner
• acts to develop models
• acts to solve pro...
Learner
• demonstrates understanding
• proposes solutions to problems
Learner
• acts to develop models
• acts to solve pro...
Learner
• demonstrates understanding
• proposes solutions to problems
Learner
• acts to develop models
• acts to solve pro...
How to improve study group
conversation?
For groups to work:
shared goals
each person knows how and when
to contribute
everyone makes an appropriate
contribution
s...
Why do we have weeks, activities
and steps?
Weeks
Personally meaningful study periods. ‘Each week I
will…?’
Activities
Elements of pedagogy – each with a defined goal...
Activity Steps
What is good
learning?
1.1
DI
Discussion
1.2
VI
Video
1.3
AR
Article
1.4
AR
Article
High level course
desig...
Activity Steps
What is good
learning?
1.1
DI
Discussion
1.2
VI
Video
1.3
AR
Article
1.4
AR
Article
High level course
desig...
Activity Pedagogy Steps
What is good
learning?
Receive
Discuss
1.1
DI
Discussion
1.2
VI
Video
1.3
AR
Article
1.4
AR
Articl...
Why are FutureLearn steps 20
minutes?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuron#/media/File:Complete_neuron_cell_diagram_en.svg
Synapses link neurons
Learning is associated with
strengthening synaptic connections
Lasting chemical connections can be
f...
20 minute
teacher-led
presentation
20 minutes
students recall key
concepts
10
minute
active
break
10
minute
active
break
2...
Why do we ask our learners
big questions?
39
Active learning: Flipped classroom
In their own time,
students learn from
videos and texts
Then students work
together ...
40
Active learning: Explore first
Students start by exploring
a new topic and
attempting to solve
problems together
Studen...
What’s missing?
Learning
analytics
Analysis of
learning
Learning design
Learning
activity
Linking learning design and learning
analytics
Learning by construction
Co-creating
and sharing
artefacts
Professional development
Team learning
Company cohorts
Mentoring
Competency learning
Case-based learning
Reflective portfo...
Reputation management
Supporting advancers
to gain long-term
expertise and
reputation
https://www.ispotnature.org/view/use...
What next for pedagogy?
Personalised and social learning at massive scale
How to combine the learning benefits of social a...
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Pedagogy of FutureLearn

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Principles of teaching and learning underlying FutureLearn. Why we designed the MOOC platform in the way we did.

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Pedagogy of FutureLearn

  1. 1. Mike Sharples The Open University Pedagogy of FutureLearn How our learners learn
  2. 2. Pedagogy “Theory and practice of te aching, learning and asse ssment” Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R., FitzGerald, E., Hirst, T., Mor, Y., Gaved, M. and Whitelock, D. (2012). Innovating Pedagogy 2012: Open University Innovation Report 1. Milton Keynes: The Open University. www.open.ac.uk/innovating
  3. 3. How do we learn? For me learning is ….
  4. 4. Learning is… Making connections Neuroscience Cognitive sciences Changing behaviour Behavioural science Enhancing skills Cognitive development Gaining knowledge Epistemology Making sense of the world Social sciences Socio-cultural and activity theory Interpreting the world in a new way Phenomenology Personal change Psychoanalysis
  5. 5. New science of learning A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (2009) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284. “Insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practice.”
  6. 6. New science of learning “A key component is the role of ‘the social’ in learning. What makes social interaction such a powerful catalyst for learning? Can key elements be embodied in technology to improve learning?”
  7. 7. Evidence-based pedagogy Learning spaced over time, instead of all at once Questioning what you have learned Using mnemonics (keys) to remember content Summarising what you have learned Highlighting and underlining information Letting study and practice of topics overlap Which strategies are generally effective for learning? Paul A. Kirschner & Mirjam Neelan (2015) Learning the smart way. https://3starlearningexperiences.wordpress.com/tag/ineffective-learning-strategies/
  8. 8. Evidence-based pedagogy Learning spaced over time, instead of all at once ✔ Questioning what you have learned ✔ Using mnemonics (keys) to remember content ✘ Summarising what you have learned ✘ Highlighting and underlining information ✘ Letting study and practice of topics overlap ✔ Which strategies are generally effective for learning? Paul A. Kirschner & Mirjam Neelan (2015) Learning the smart way. https://3starlearningexperiences.wordpress.com/tag/ineffective-learning-strategies/
  9. 9. Telling stories Storytelling provides a unifying framework around which we build and think about courses Provoking Conversation Conversational learning is at the core of our belief about how people come together and learn Celebrating progress Step completion, peer interaction, timed emails, quizzes and tests with meaningful and formative feedback FutureLearn Pedagogy
  10. 10. Why these?
  11. 11. Storytelling and narrative León, C. (2016). An architecture of narrative memory. Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, 16, 19-33. Figure 10 Overall architecture of the narrative memory. PS stands for procedural-semantic memory and NG stands for narrative generation. “Narrative is central to our cognition … It helps us think, remember, communicate, and make sense of the world” Plowman et al. (1999) Designing multimedia for learning: Narrative guidance and narrative construction. CHI ’99.
  12. 12. All human learning involves conversation We converse with ourselves to reflect on experience We converse with teachers to understand their expert knowledge We converse with other learners to try and reach shared understanding How can I understand what you are thinking? How can I understand what you are thinking? Let’s try to reach agreement http://clipart-library.com/images/Biarp5X4T.jpg Learning as conversation
  13. 13. Visible progress “What is most important is that teaching is visible to the student, and that the learning is visible to the teacher. The more the student becomes the teacher, and the more the teacher becomes the learner, then the more successful are the outcomes ” John Hattie, Visible Learning p.17
  14. 14. What pedagogy works best at massive scale?
  15. 15. Some educational methods get worse with scale e.g. personal tutoring, sports coaching Some educational methods don’t change with scale e.g. lecturing, testing Which educational methods improve with scale?
  16. 16. Pedagogy Learners… Technology-based example Assessing give or receive constructive feedback engaging in online peer review Browsing seek and collate information using search engines to find educational materials Case-based investigate individual cases investigating medical cases online Collaborative construct shared understanding creating a shared Google doc Construction create artefacts engaging with big construction set, e.g. Minecraft Conversation converse with others engaging in online discussion Cross-context learn across different settings learning between classroom and home with tablet Delivered comprehend information watching an online video Embodied use their bodies to learn motor skills monitoring exercise with Fitbit activity tracker Game-based engage with game environments multiplayer educational game, e.g. Endless Ocean Inquiry-driven investigate authentic situations using digital probes to collect and analyse data Networked interact with networks of peers educational social networking Performative present for an audience creating a video blogs of learning activities Problem-solving try to solve problems working in online teams to solve problems Reflective reflect on information and activities reviewing e-portfolio of learning activities Simulation interact with a simulated tool learning science in a virtual world
  17. 17. Pedagogy Learners… Technology-based example Assessing give or receive constructive feedback engaging in online peer review Browsing seek and collate information using search engines to find educational materials Case-based investigate individual cases investigating medical cases online Collaborative construct shared understanding creating a shared Google doc Construction create artefacts engaging with big construction set, e.g. Minecraft ✔ Conversation converse with others engaging in online discussion ✔ Cross-context learn across different settings learning between classroom and home with tablet Delivered comprehend information watching an online video Embodied use their bodies to learn motor skills monitoring exercise with Fitbit activity tracker Game-based engage with game environments multiplayer educational game, e.g. Endless Ocean ? Inquiry-driven investigate authentic situations using digital probes to collect and analyse data Networked interact with networks of peers educational social networking ✔ Performative present for an audience creating a video blogs of learning activities Problem-solving try to solve problems working in online teams to solve problems Reflective reflect on information and activities reviewing e-portfolio of learning activities Simulation interact with a simulated tool learning science in a virtual world
  18. 18. 18 Learning as conversation
  19. 19. Act Experience Check Effect How do we do that? Human adaptivity
  20. 20. Reflect Understand Plan Act Experience Check Effect Level of actions Level of descriptions How do we do that? Why are we doing that? Human adaptive learning
  21. 21. Learner • demonstrates understanding • proposes solutions to problems Learner • acts to develop models • acts to solve problems Partner • demonstrates understanding • elaborates solutions to problems Partner • acts to develop models • helps to solve problems Level of descriptions Level of actions Shared medium • enables learners and partners to represent arguments and reach agreements Shared medium • enables learners and partners to access information, develop models and solve problems ‘how?’ questions and responses ‘what?’ and ‘why?’ questions and responses offering conceptions and explanations proposing goals and modifying actions reflect adapt reflect adapt
  22. 22. Learner • demonstrates understanding • proposes solutions to problems Learner • acts to develop models • acts to solve problems Partner • demonstrates understanding • elaborates solutions to problems Partner • acts to develop models • helps to solve problems Level of descriptions Level of actions Shared medium • enables learners and partners to represent arguments and reach agreements Shared medium • enables learners and partners to access information, develop models and solve problems ‘how?’ questions and responses ‘why?’ questions and responses offering conceptions and explanations proposing goals and modifying actions reflect adapt reflect adapt
  23. 23. Vicarious learning from conversation Comment posted by Karen Carmichael Timson, Learner on Ecosystems course I read through the above article and thought "that's interesting" then I read the comments below, particularly the discussion of niches, and suddenly thought a whole lot more… … it’s almost as if the basic course is in 2D but the postings lift it to 3D and really make it come alive
  24. 24. Learner • demonstrates understanding • proposes solutions to problems Learner • acts to develop models • acts to solve problems Partner • demonstrates understanding • elaborates solutions to problems Partner • acts to develop models • helps to solve problems Level of descriptions Level of actions Shared medium • enables learners and partners to represent arguments and reach agreements Shared medium • enables learners and partners to access information, develop models and solve problems ‘how?’ questions and responses ‘why?’ questions and responses offering conceptions and explanations proposing goals and modifying actions reflect adapt reflect adapt
  25. 25. Learner • demonstrates understanding • proposes solutions to problems Learner • acts to develop models • acts to solve problems Partner • demonstrates understanding • elaborates solutions to problems Partner • acts to develop models • helps to solve problems Level of descriptions Level of actions Shared medium • enables learners and partners to represent arguments and reach agreements Shared medium • enables learners and partners to access information, develop models and solve problems ‘how?’ questions and responses ‘why?’ questions and responses offering conceptions and explanations proposing goals and modifying actions reflect adapt reflect adapt
  26. 26. Learner • demonstrates understanding • proposes solutions to problems Learner • acts to develop models • acts to solve problems Partner • demonstrates understanding • elaborates solutions to problems Partner • acts to develop models • helps to solve problems Level of descriptions Level of actions Shared medium • enables learners and partners to represent arguments and reach agreements Shared medium • enables learners and partners to access information, develop models and solve problems ‘how?’ questions and responses ‘why?’ questions and responses offering conceptions and explanations proposing goals and modifying actions reflect adapt reflect adapt
  27. 27. How to improve study group conversation?
  28. 28. For groups to work: shared goals each person knows how and when to contribute everyone makes an appropriate contribution share rewards in a fair way opportunity to reflect on progress and to discuss contributions Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational researcher, 38(5), 365-379.
  29. 29. Why do we have weeks, activities and steps?
  30. 30. Weeks Personally meaningful study periods. ‘Each week I will…?’ Activities Elements of pedagogy – each with a defined goal, learning methods, and outcome. Design learning around activities. Steps Pedagogic ‘Lego bricks’ that form an activity Learning design
  31. 31. Activity Steps What is good learning? 1.1 DI Discussion 1.2 VI Video 1.3 AR Article 1.4 AR Article High level course design 1.5 DI Discussion 1.6 AR Article 1.7 DI Discussion 1.8 DI Discussion Diving straight in 1.9 VI Video 1.10 AS Assignment 1.11 RV Review 1.12 RE Reflection What have we learnt so far about learning? 1.13 AR Article 1.14 AR Article 1.15 VI Video 1.16 DI Discussion How to Create a Great FutureLearn Course Week 1
  32. 32. Activity Steps What is good learning? 1.1 DI Discussion 1.2 VI Video 1.3 AR Article 1.4 AR Article High level course design 1.5 DI Discussion 1.6 AR Article 1.7 DI Discussion 1.8 DI Discussion Diving straight in 1.9 VI Video 1.10 AS Assignment 1.11 RV Review 1.12 RE Reflection What have we learnt so far about learning? 1.13 AR Article 1.14 AR Article 1.15 VI Video 1.16 DI Discussion How to Create a Great FutureLearn Course Week 1 Pedagogy from Learning Design Studio, Hong Kong University http://ilap- sdls.cite.hku.hk/ld_alpaca/in dex.php?lang=en
  33. 33. Activity Pedagogy Steps What is good learning? Receive Discuss 1.1 DI Discussion 1.2 VI Video 1.3 AR Article 1.4 AR Article High level course design Receive Reflect Discuss Create 1.5 DI Discussion 1.6 AR Article 1.7 DI Discussion 1.8 DI Discussion Diving straight in Receive Practice Discuss Reflect 1.9 VI Video 1.10 AS Assignment 1.11 RV Review 1.12 RE Reflection What have we learnt so far about learning? Receive Investigate Discuss 1.13 AR Article 1.14 AR Article 1.15 VI Video 1.16 DI Discussion How to Create a Great FutureLearn Course Week 1 Pedagogy from Learning Design Studio, Hong Kong University http://ilap- sdls.cite.hku.hk/ld_alpaca/in dex.php?lang=en
  34. 34. Why are FutureLearn steps 20 minutes?
  35. 35. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuron#/media/File:Complete_neuron_cell_diagram_en.svg
  36. 36. Synapses link neurons Learning is associated with strengthening synaptic connections Lasting chemical connections can be formed in minutes, for networks of neurons Neural learning works best when short sessions of stimulation are spaced with periods of other activity, to let the synaptic connections grow Spaced learning
  37. 37. 20 minute teacher-led presentation 20 minutes students recall key concepts 10 minute active break 10 minute active break 20 minutes students apply knowledge GCSE biology course Three 20-minute learning episodes spaced by 10 minutes of physical activity (e.g. clay modelling) A controlled study found similar learning outcomes from one hour of spaced learning compared to a four-month course of classroom teaching Trials in UK schools of short spaces, plus longer 24 hour spaces Kelley, P., & Whatson, T. (2013). Making long-term memories in minutes: a spaced learning pattern from memory research in education. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 589.
  38. 38. Why do we ask our learners big questions?
  39. 39. 39 Active learning: Flipped classroom In their own time, students learn from videos and texts Then students work together to solve problems and explore misunderstandings Image: http://www.washington.edu/teaching/files/2012/11/FlippedClassroomUWcolors-1-1024x242.jpg Each student is in control: stop/start, speed, make notes Students solve problems together and learn from each other, guided by the teacher Active learning
  40. 40. 40 Active learning: Explore first Students start by exploring a new topic and attempting to solve problems together Students then engage with a video presentation, or a teacher-led lesson based on their answers Schneider, B., & Blikstein, P. (2016). Flipping the Flipped Classroom: A Study of the Effectiveness of Video Lectures Versus Constructivist Exploration Using Tangible User Interfaces. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 9(1), 5-17.
  41. 41. What’s missing?
  42. 42. Learning analytics Analysis of learning Learning design Learning activity Linking learning design and learning analytics
  43. 43. Learning by construction Co-creating and sharing artefacts
  44. 44. Professional development Team learning Company cohorts Mentoring Competency learning Case-based learning Reflective portfolio https://www.cipd.co.uk/learn/cpd/cycle
  45. 45. Reputation management Supporting advancers to gain long-term expertise and reputation https://www.ispotnature.org/view/user/19634
  46. 46. What next for pedagogy? Personalised and social learning at massive scale How to combine the learning benefits of social and personal learning Lifelong professional development Connecting learning in workplaces and online Distributed accreditation Blockchain technologies for education Formative analytics Big data analytics to support learning Neuroscience and learning High and low focused thinking, spaced learning, neural plasticity and game-based learning, intelligent tutoring, stealth assessment, citizen inquiry, seamless http://blockchain.open.ac.uk/

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