Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Pedagogy of FutureLearn

1,101 views

Published on

Principles of teaching and learning underlying FutureLearn. Why we designed the MOOC platform in the way we did.

Published in: Education
  • Hi there! Get Your Professional Job-Winning Resume Here - Check our website! http://bit.ly/resumpro
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Pedagogy of FutureLearn

  1. 1. Mike Sharples The Open University Pedagogy of FutureLearn How our learners learn
  2. 2. Pedagogy “Theory and practice of te aching, learning and asse ssment” Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R., FitzGerald, E., Hirst, T., Mor, Y., Gaved, M. and Whitelock, D. (2012). Innovating Pedagogy 2012: Open University Innovation Report 1. Milton Keynes: The Open University. www.open.ac.uk/innovating
  3. 3. How do we learn? For me learning is ….
  4. 4. Learning is… Making connections Neuroscience Cognitive sciences Changing behaviour Behavioural science Enhancing skills Cognitive development Gaining knowledge Epistemology Making sense of the world Social sciences Socio-cultural and activity theory Interpreting the world in a new way Phenomenology Personal change Psychoanalysis
  5. 5. New science of learning A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (2009) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284. “Insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practice.”
  6. 6. New science of learning “A key component is the role of ‘the social’ in learning. What makes social interaction such a powerful catalyst for learning? Can key elements be embodied in technology to improve learning?”
  7. 7. Evidence-based pedagogy Learning spaced over time, instead of all at once Questioning what you have learned Using mnemonics (keys) to remember content Summarising what you have learned Highlighting and underlining information Letting study and practice of topics overlap Which strategies are generally effective for learning? Paul A. Kirschner & Mirjam Neelan (2015) Learning the smart way. https://3starlearningexperiences.wordpress.com/tag/ineffective-learning-strategies/
  8. 8. Evidence-based pedagogy Learning spaced over time, instead of all at once ✔ Questioning what you have learned ✔ Using mnemonics (keys) to remember content ✘ Summarising what you have learned ✘ Highlighting and underlining information ✘ Letting study and practice of topics overlap ✔ Which strategies are generally effective for learning? Paul A. Kirschner & Mirjam Neelan (2015) Learning the smart way. https://3starlearningexperiences.wordpress.com/tag/ineffective-learning-strategies/
  9. 9. Telling stories Storytelling provides a unifying framework around which we build and think about courses Provoking Conversation Conversational learning is at the core of our belief about how people come together and learn Celebrating progress Step completion, peer interaction, timed emails, quizzes and tests with meaningful and formative feedback FutureLearn Pedagogy
  10. 10. Why these?
  11. 11. Storytelling and narrative León, C. (2016). An architecture of narrative memory. Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, 16, 19-33. Figure 10 Overall architecture of the narrative memory. PS stands for procedural-semantic memory and NG stands for narrative generation. “Narrative is central to our cognition … It helps us think, remember, communicate, and make sense of the world” Plowman et al. (1999) Designing multimedia for learning: Narrative guidance and narrative construction. CHI ’99.
  12. 12. All human learning involves conversation We converse with ourselves to reflect on experience We converse with teachers to understand their expert knowledge We converse with other learners to try and reach shared understanding How can I understand what you are thinking? How can I understand what you are thinking? Let’s try to reach agreement http://clipart-library.com/images/Biarp5X4T.jpg Learning as conversation
  13. 13. Visible progress “What is most important is that teaching is visible to the student, and that the learning is visible to the teacher. The more the student becomes the teacher, and the more the teacher becomes the learner, then the more successful are the outcomes ” John Hattie, Visible Learning p.17
  14. 14. What pedagogy works best at massive scale?
  15. 15. Some educational methods get worse with scale e.g. personal tutoring, sports coaching Some educational methods don’t change with scale e.g. lecturing, testing Which educational methods improve with scale?
  16. 16. Pedagogy Learners… Technology-based example Assessing give or receive constructive feedback engaging in online peer review Browsing seek and collate information using search engines to find educational materials Case-based investigate individual cases investigating medical cases online Collaborative construct shared understanding creating a shared Google doc Construction create artefacts engaging with big construction set, e.g. Minecraft Conversation converse with others engaging in online discussion Cross-context learn across different settings learning between classroom and home with tablet Delivered comprehend information watching an online video Embodied use their bodies to learn motor skills monitoring exercise with Fitbit activity tracker Game-based engage with game environments multiplayer educational game, e.g. Endless Ocean Inquiry-driven investigate authentic situations using digital probes to collect and analyse data Networked interact with networks of peers educational social networking Performative present for an audience creating a video blogs of learning activities Problem-solving try to solve problems working in online teams to solve problems Reflective reflect on information and activities reviewing e-portfolio of learning activities Simulation interact with a simulated tool learning science in a virtual world
  17. 17. Pedagogy Learners… Technology-based example Assessing give or receive constructive feedback engaging in online peer review Browsing seek and collate information using search engines to find educational materials Case-based investigate individual cases investigating medical cases online Collaborative construct shared understanding creating a shared Google doc Construction create artefacts engaging with big construction set, e.g. Minecraft ✔ Conversation converse with others engaging in online discussion ✔ Cross-context learn across different settings learning between classroom and home with tablet Delivered comprehend information watching an online video Embodied use their bodies to learn motor skills monitoring exercise with Fitbit activity tracker Game-based engage with game environments multiplayer educational game, e.g. Endless Ocean ? Inquiry-driven investigate authentic situations using digital probes to collect and analyse data Networked interact with networks of peers educational social networking ✔ Performative present for an audience creating a video blogs of learning activities Problem-solving try to solve problems working in online teams to solve problems Reflective reflect on information and activities reviewing e-portfolio of learning activities Simulation interact with a simulated tool learning science in a virtual world
  18. 18. 18 Learning as conversation
  19. 19. Act Experience Check Effect How do we do that? Human adaptivity
  20. 20. Reflect Understand Plan Act Experience Check Effect Level of actions Level of descriptions How do we do that? Why are we doing that? Human adaptive learning
  21. 21. Learner • demonstrates understanding • proposes solutions to problems Learner • acts to develop models • acts to solve problems Partner • demonstrates understanding • elaborates solutions to problems Partner • acts to develop models • helps to solve problems Level of descriptions Level of actions Shared medium • enables learners and partners to represent arguments and reach agreements Shared medium • enables learners and partners to access information, develop models and solve problems ‘how?’ questions and responses ‘what?’ and ‘why?’ questions and responses offering conceptions and explanations proposing goals and modifying actions reflect adapt reflect adapt
  22. 22. Learner • demonstrates understanding • proposes solutions to problems Learner • acts to develop models • acts to solve problems Partner • demonstrates understanding • elaborates solutions to problems Partner • acts to develop models • helps to solve problems Level of descriptions Level of actions Shared medium • enables learners and partners to represent arguments and reach agreements Shared medium • enables learners and partners to access information, develop models and solve problems ‘how?’ questions and responses ‘why?’ questions and responses offering conceptions and explanations proposing goals and modifying actions reflect adapt reflect adapt
  23. 23. Vicarious learning from conversation Comment posted by Karen Carmichael Timson, Learner on Ecosystems course I read through the above article and thought "that's interesting" then I read the comments below, particularly the discussion of niches, and suddenly thought a whole lot more… … it’s almost as if the basic course is in 2D but the postings lift it to 3D and really make it come alive
  24. 24. Learner • demonstrates understanding • proposes solutions to problems Learner • acts to develop models • acts to solve problems Partner • demonstrates understanding • elaborates solutions to problems Partner • acts to develop models • helps to solve problems Level of descriptions Level of actions Shared medium • enables learners and partners to represent arguments and reach agreements Shared medium • enables learners and partners to access information, develop models and solve problems ‘how?’ questions and responses ‘why?’ questions and responses offering conceptions and explanations proposing goals and modifying actions reflect adapt reflect adapt
  25. 25. Learner • demonstrates understanding • proposes solutions to problems Learner • acts to develop models • acts to solve problems Partner • demonstrates understanding • elaborates solutions to problems Partner • acts to develop models • helps to solve problems Level of descriptions Level of actions Shared medium • enables learners and partners to represent arguments and reach agreements Shared medium • enables learners and partners to access information, develop models and solve problems ‘how?’ questions and responses ‘why?’ questions and responses offering conceptions and explanations proposing goals and modifying actions reflect adapt reflect adapt
  26. 26. Learner • demonstrates understanding • proposes solutions to problems Learner • acts to develop models • acts to solve problems Partner • demonstrates understanding • elaborates solutions to problems Partner • acts to develop models • helps to solve problems Level of descriptions Level of actions Shared medium • enables learners and partners to represent arguments and reach agreements Shared medium • enables learners and partners to access information, develop models and solve problems ‘how?’ questions and responses ‘why?’ questions and responses offering conceptions and explanations proposing goals and modifying actions reflect adapt reflect adapt
  27. 27. How to improve study group conversation?
  28. 28. For groups to work: shared goals each person knows how and when to contribute everyone makes an appropriate contribution share rewards in a fair way opportunity to reflect on progress and to discuss contributions Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational researcher, 38(5), 365-379.
  29. 29. Why do we have weeks, activities and steps?
  30. 30. Weeks Personally meaningful study periods. ‘Each week I will…?’ Activities Elements of pedagogy – each with a defined goal, learning methods, and outcome. Design learning around activities. Steps Pedagogic ‘Lego bricks’ that form an activity Learning design
  31. 31. Activity Steps What is good learning? 1.1 DI Discussion 1.2 VI Video 1.3 AR Article 1.4 AR Article High level course design 1.5 DI Discussion 1.6 AR Article 1.7 DI Discussion 1.8 DI Discussion Diving straight in 1.9 VI Video 1.10 AS Assignment 1.11 RV Review 1.12 RE Reflection What have we learnt so far about learning? 1.13 AR Article 1.14 AR Article 1.15 VI Video 1.16 DI Discussion How to Create a Great FutureLearn Course Week 1
  32. 32. Activity Steps What is good learning? 1.1 DI Discussion 1.2 VI Video 1.3 AR Article 1.4 AR Article High level course design 1.5 DI Discussion 1.6 AR Article 1.7 DI Discussion 1.8 DI Discussion Diving straight in 1.9 VI Video 1.10 AS Assignment 1.11 RV Review 1.12 RE Reflection What have we learnt so far about learning? 1.13 AR Article 1.14 AR Article 1.15 VI Video 1.16 DI Discussion How to Create a Great FutureLearn Course Week 1 Pedagogy from Learning Design Studio, Hong Kong University http://ilap- sdls.cite.hku.hk/ld_alpaca/in dex.php?lang=en
  33. 33. Activity Pedagogy Steps What is good learning? Receive Discuss 1.1 DI Discussion 1.2 VI Video 1.3 AR Article 1.4 AR Article High level course design Receive Reflect Discuss Create 1.5 DI Discussion 1.6 AR Article 1.7 DI Discussion 1.8 DI Discussion Diving straight in Receive Practice Discuss Reflect 1.9 VI Video 1.10 AS Assignment 1.11 RV Review 1.12 RE Reflection What have we learnt so far about learning? Receive Investigate Discuss 1.13 AR Article 1.14 AR Article 1.15 VI Video 1.16 DI Discussion How to Create a Great FutureLearn Course Week 1 Pedagogy from Learning Design Studio, Hong Kong University http://ilap- sdls.cite.hku.hk/ld_alpaca/in dex.php?lang=en
  34. 34. Why are FutureLearn steps 20 minutes?
  35. 35. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuron#/media/File:Complete_neuron_cell_diagram_en.svg
  36. 36. Synapses link neurons Learning is associated with strengthening synaptic connections Lasting chemical connections can be formed in minutes, for networks of neurons Neural learning works best when short sessions of stimulation are spaced with periods of other activity, to let the synaptic connections grow Spaced learning
  37. 37. 20 minute teacher-led presentation 20 minutes students recall key concepts 10 minute active break 10 minute active break 20 minutes students apply knowledge GCSE biology course Three 20-minute learning episodes spaced by 10 minutes of physical activity (e.g. clay modelling) A controlled study found similar learning outcomes from one hour of spaced learning compared to a four-month course of classroom teaching Trials in UK schools of short spaces, plus longer 24 hour spaces Kelley, P., & Whatson, T. (2013). Making long-term memories in minutes: a spaced learning pattern from memory research in education. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 589.
  38. 38. Why do we ask our learners big questions?
  39. 39. 39 Active learning: Flipped classroom In their own time, students learn from videos and texts Then students work together to solve problems and explore misunderstandings Image: http://www.washington.edu/teaching/files/2012/11/FlippedClassroomUWcolors-1-1024x242.jpg Each student is in control: stop/start, speed, make notes Students solve problems together and learn from each other, guided by the teacher Active learning
  40. 40. 40 Active learning: Explore first Students start by exploring a new topic and attempting to solve problems together Students then engage with a video presentation, or a teacher-led lesson based on their answers Schneider, B., & Blikstein, P. (2016). Flipping the Flipped Classroom: A Study of the Effectiveness of Video Lectures Versus Constructivist Exploration Using Tangible User Interfaces. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 9(1), 5-17.
  41. 41. What’s missing?
  42. 42. Learning analytics Analysis of learning Learning design Learning activity Linking learning design and learning analytics
  43. 43. Learning by construction Co-creating and sharing artefacts
  44. 44. Professional development Team learning Company cohorts Mentoring Competency learning Case-based learning Reflective portfolio https://www.cipd.co.uk/learn/cpd/cycle
  45. 45. Reputation management Supporting advancers to gain long-term expertise and reputation https://www.ispotnature.org/view/user/19634
  46. 46. What next for pedagogy? Personalised and social learning at massive scale How to combine the learning benefits of social and personal learning Lifelong professional development Connecting learning in workplaces and online Distributed accreditation Blockchain technologies for education Formative analytics Big data analytics to support learning Neuroscience and learning High and low focused thinking, spaced learning, neural plasticity and game-based learning, intelligent tutoring, stealth assessment, citizen inquiry, seamless http://blockchain.open.ac.uk/

×