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International Challenges for Technology Enhanced Learning

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Presentation at Orphée Rendezvous, France, February 1st 2017

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International Challenges for Technology Enhanced Learning

  1. 1. International Challenges for Technology Enhanced Learning and how to address them in Europe Mike Sharples, Institute of Educational Technology
  2. 2. Challenge 1 “There must be an ‘industrial revolution’ in education, in which educational science and the ingenuity of educational technology combine to modernize the grossly inefficient and clumsy procedures of conventional education.” Sidney Pressey (1933). Psychology and the New Education Sidney Pressey 2 Pressey’s Self-testing machine Image copyright OSU photo archives
  3. 3. Challenge 1 Efficient education 3
  4. 4. Example: Active learning ● Problem solving exercises ● Personal response systems ● Studio and workshop sessions plus ● Lab classes ● Formative assessment 4
  5. 5. Example: Productive failure ●Students who explored first then watched a lecture performed significantly better than lecture-first ●Learning by productive failure has been implemented in over 26 Singapore schools Learning by exploring complex problems 5 Students explore a problem, producing a range of answers Teacher explains the correct answer using students’ solutions as examples Productive failure Teacher presents the topic and shows how to solve problems Students try to solve problems related to the topic Lecture-first teaching www.manukapur.com/research/productive-failure/ Schneider, B., & Blikstein, P. (2016). Flipping the Flipped Classroom: A Study of the Effectiveness of Video Lectures Versus Constructivist Exploration Using Tangible User Interfaces. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 9(1), 5-17.
  6. 6. Example: Spaced learning 6 http://www.innovationunit.org/sites/default/files/Spaced_Learning-downloadable_1.pdf Kelley, P., & Whatson, T. (2013). Making long-term memories in minutes: a spaced learning pattern from memory research in education. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 589. Based on behavioural and laboratory studies of how Long Term Memories are encoded (DNA synthesis in the synapses of the brain) Three short learning episodes spaced by 10 minutes of physical activity (e.g. clay modelling) A controlled study found similar learning outcomes from one hour of spaced learning compared to a four-month course of classroom teaching Studies are now being repeated in 15 schools Teacher-led presentation Students recall key concepts 10 minute active break 10 minute active break Students apply knowledge
  7. 7. Challenge 2 “…providing the 100,000,000 university places now needed by young people in emerging economies desperate for higher education. … The demand for education will continue to rise; we cannot afford to scale up at the current per student cost, in any sector, in any country.” Diana Laurillard, What is the problem for which MOOCs are the solution? Blog post, May 14, 2014. https://ioelondonblog.wordpress.com/2014/05/14/what- is-the-problem-for-which-moocs-are-the-solution/ 7
  8. 8. Challenge 2 Cost-effective and open education 8
  9. 9. Effective: Online and blended learning US DoE 2009 meta-study of comparisons of online and face to face teaching in higher education On average, students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face instruction Bigger effect in studies that blended online and face-to-face Blended conditions often included additional learning time and instructional elements not received by students in control conditions Distinguish hype from reality B. Means et al. (2009) Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies. US Department of Education
  10. 10. Blended learning Blending campus and online Blending free and accredited/paid-for Blending across locations and settings Embracing multiple cultures and languages Combining new methods of teaching, learning and assessment Distinguish hype from reality
  11. 11. Costs of classroom vs online education Total costs for 20 hours First Run Subsequent Classroom €47000 €10000 MOOC €35000 €12000 (Informed estimates) 11 Total cost per student for 20 hours First Run Subsequent Classroom (200 students) €235 €50 MOOC (5000 students) €7 €2.5 Total cost per student for 20 hours with tuition First Run Subsequent Classroom (200 students) €250 €65 SPOC (500 students) €80 €35
  12. 12. “Significant innovations [in TEL] are developed and embedded over periods of years rather than months. Sustainable change is not a simple matter of product development, testing and roll-out” Scanlon, E. et al. (2013). Beyond prototypes: Enabling innovation in technology enhanced learning. Open University, Milton Keynes. 12 Challenge 3
  13. 13. Challenge 3 Sustained innovation 13
  14. 14. Improved Educational Practices Objectives and strategies for institutional change Learning Analytics Agile development Sustained innovation Double loop organisational learning Learning design
  15. 15. Learning design Improved Educational Practices Objectives and strategies for institutional change Theories of effective education Theory- informed innovation Learning Analytics Design-based research Agile development Educational evaluation and insight Sustained innovation Double loop organisational learning
  16. 16. Challenge 4 ● To remain globally competitive and develop engaged citizens, our schools should weave 21st century competencies and expertise throughout the learning experience. ● Beyond these essential core academic competencies, there is a growing body of research on the importance of non-cognitive competencies as they relate to academic success. ● Non-cognitive competencies include successful navigation through tasks such as forming relationships and solving everyday problems. They also include development of self- awareness, control of impulsivity, executive function, working cooperatively, and caring about oneself and others. 16 US Office of Educational Technology, (2016). Future Ready Learning: Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education
  17. 17. Challenge 4 Develop education for the future 17
  18. 18. New landscape for education Hybrid and blended learning Connecting formal and informal education Open social networked learning Adaptive learning technologies Learning analytics Global marketplace
  19. 19. The future will be very different to the past 19 https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/meet-the-pilot-smart- earpiece-language-translator-headphones-travel#/
  20. 20. How to address these challenges in Europe? 20
  21. 21. Efficient education 21 ●Replicate promising TEL studies from around the world Productive failure? Spaced learning? Mastery learning? Dynamic formative assessment? ●Build a European TEL evidence base for educators and policy makers Based on common standards for analysing learning
  22. 22. Cost-effective and open education 22 ● Now more than ever we need open global education, bringing people around the world into conversations for learning ● Open education platform for blended learning (Open edX?) ● Modern European gateway to multilingual educational resources Modelled on ClassCentral?
  23. 23. Sustained innovation 23 ● Sustained programme of funding for European TEL research ● Building on excellence (from ProLearn, Kaleidoscope, Stellar, Orphée networks) ● Network of partner schools and colleges to test innovations ● Focus on interaction of new technology with innovative pedagogy ● Collaborative endeavour of educational technologists, computer scientists, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists
  24. 24. Education for the future 24 ● Engage with TEL as a multi-billion Euro industry ● Develop lifelong learning support Connect learning in informal and formal settings ● European investment in educational future for a digital world (guided by best evidence)

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