Introduction Of Pharmacology

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Introduction Of Pharmacology

  1. 1. Section I General principle of Pharmacology
  2. 2. Where can you get information about general principle of Pharmacology? <ul><li>Text books: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Katzung, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For those who want to know more: Goodman and Gilman’s “ The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By email: [email_address] </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 1 introduction
  4. 4. What is a Drug? <ul><li>Any animal, vegetable or mineral substance used in the composition of medicines </li></ul><ul><li>according to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a substance recognized in an official pharmacopoeia or formulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a substance other than food intended to affect the structure or function of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a substance intended for use as a component of a medicine but not a device or a component, part, or accessory of a device </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Differences between drug and poison <ul><li>All the substances are poisons! </li></ul><ul><li>There are no distinct borderline between them. </li></ul><ul><li>Any drug will be toxic once they are overdosed. </li></ul><ul><li>toxic dose; lethal dose </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Pharmacology? <ul><li>the study of how drugs affect a biological system </li></ul>Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics What the body does to drug What the drug does to body Pharmacology
  7. 8. Pharmacokinetics <ul><li>Pharmacokinetics is the description of the time course of a drug in the body, encompassing absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. </li></ul><ul><li>In simplest terms, it can be described as what the body does to the drug. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Pharmacodynamics <ul><li>Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs, in certain period. </li></ul><ul><li>In brief, it can be described as what the drug does to the body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responses to drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity and adverse effects of drugs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Drug development and approval In vitro studies Preclinical testing Animal testing Clinical trials Average years 1 to 5 years 2 to 10 years 1 year IND NDA Post-marketing surveillance (Phase 4) Phase 1 – normal volunteers: safety, pharmacokinetics Phase 2 – selected patients: therapeutic efficacy, dose range Phase 3 – large populations of selected patients: therapeutic efficacy, safety in double blind studies Long-term toxicity studies

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