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Developing Resilient Orchards - ACARN Keynote Lee Kalcsits

Increased volatility in temperatures are creating less predictable snow packs, hotter summers, and changes to seasonal patterns that will affect orchard productivity and quality. High yields and reduced losses to disorders will be required to maintain profitability and to increase the sustainability of production under these changing environments. Irrigated regions of the Western North America rely on a steady supply of water from melting snowpack in nearby mountain regions. In these areas, decreased summer water flows will require the development of water conservation practices that do not negatively impact productivity or quality. Earlier bud break and later frosts will change dormancy and chilling patterns and change frost risk for most apple production regions in the country. Lastly, higher summer temperatures and earlier fruit maturity will increase the risk of sun-related damage. All of these impacts will require changes to management practices that conserve resources while still maintaining quality and productivity. Here, we highlight several strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change and conserve water resources. These include the use of protective netting to optimize the light environment to reduce heat related losses while also conserving water through reduced evapotranspiration and reduced evaporative cooling. Other strategies include irrigation management to reduce postharvest losses due to heat and nutrient imbalances in susceptible cultivars. Lastly, we highlight the need for more research to develop cultivars that can better withstand changing environmental pressures. These combined strategies will better guide mitigation and adaptation strategies that will help maintain apple production in the future.

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Developing Resilient Orchards - ACARN Keynote Lee Kalcsits

  1. 1. Lee Kalcsits, Assistant Professor Department of Horticulture Washington State University Developing Resilient Orchards B.C. AGRICULTURAL CLIMATE ADAPTATION RESEARCH NETWORK Provincial Workshop; Kelowna, BC, Canada December 2, 2019
  2. 2. Acknowledgements Acknowledgements USDA Resilient Orchards Washington Tree Fruit Industry and WSU collaborators Entire Kalcsits’ Lab Group and specific contributions from Dr. Giverson Mupambi, Dr. Jessica Waite, Dr. Sumyya Waliullah, Michelle Reid Kirti Rajogopalan, Hossein Noorazar, Vince Jones, Matt Jones Stefano Musacchi, Sara Serra, Tory Schmidt, Desmond Layne
  3. 3. Acknowledgements Growing Fruit in a Desert Credit: Plath Ranch - TJ Mullinax/Good Fruit Grower Resilient Orchards
  4. 4. Acknowledgements Growing Fruit in a Desert Climate Resilient Orchards Advantages Disadvantages • Low disease pressure • Low insect pressure • Hot days and cool nights mean • high quality fruit • High light environment • Control over water delivery • Excess heat and light pressure • Increased water use • Reliance on water to grow fruit Challenges and Opportunities
  5. 5. AcknowledgementsResilient Orchards Perennial Tree Fruit Cycle Spring Summer Fall Winter
  6. 6. Acknowledgements Chilling in tree fruit - Introduction Shim et al. 2014. Horticulture Research Resilient Orchards
  7. 7. Acknowledgements Chilling in tree fruit - Physiology Resilient Orchards
  8. 8. Acknowledgements Chilling in tree fruit – Physiology II Resilient Orchards
  9. 9. Acknowledgements Impacts of changes to winter temperatures Resilient Orchards Chilling initiation Chilling accumulation Flowering and budbreak
  10. 10. Shifting First Frost Date
  11. 11. Shifting Chilling Accumulation
  12. 12. Shifting Flowering and Budbreak
  13. 13. Apples in Southern Washington State 50 Chill Portions75 Chill Portions
  14. 14. Pears in Southern Washington State 50 Chill Portions75 Chill Portions
  15. 15. Cherries in Southern Washington State 50 Chill Portions75 Chill Portions
  16. 16. Acknowledgements Shifting Flowering and Growth Resilient Orchards Historic Bloom TimePredicted Bloom Time
  17. 17. Acknowledgements Shifting Pest Pressure Resilient Orchards Historical 2040s 2060s • Approximate shift of 8 days every 20 years. • Similarly, all other stages are shifted. 2080s ADULT FLIGHT OF OVERWINTERING GENERATION March,11 May, 10 V.Jones and M. Jones
  18. 18. Acknowledgements Shifting Pest Pressure Resilient Orchards • % years when more than 75% of 3rd generation eggs hatch into larvae • By 2040s all of Washington can expect a strong 3rd generation. Historical 2040s INCREASED RISK OF A THIRD GENERATION V.Jones and M. Jones
  19. 19. Acknowledgements Shifting Pest Pressure Resilient Orchards • % years when more than 75% of 4rd generation eggs hatch into larvae 2040sHistorical 2060s 2080s AND A 4th GENERATION TO DEAL WITH V.Jones and M. Jones
  20. 20. (Racsko and Schrader, 2012) (Racsko and Schrader, 2012) Resilient Orchards Apple Sunburn during Summer
  21. 21. Heat Resilient Orchards 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 1-Apr 1-May 1-Jun 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep Dailymaximumtemperature(°F) Date WSU TFREC- Wenatchee 2012 season 2013 season 2014 season 2015 season 2016 season • High temperatures (June-August), average maximum temperature of 88-90°F • Fruit Surface Temperatures are about 20 °F more than the air
  22. 22. Resilient Orchards Changes in Sunburn Risk Days per year above 95°F 5 50 100 200 PNW = 5 -> 22 NE = 2 -> 30 MW = 3 -> 46 SA = 7 -> 52 AUS = 11 -> 54 S. Europe = 0 -> 27
  23. 23. Resilient Orchards Apple Sunburn Management • The largest contributor to fruit losses in Washington State • Approximately 10%
  24. 24. Acknowledgements Light USDA Resilient Orchards • Light saturation for maximal photosynthesis in apple ≈ 700-800 µmol m-2 s-1 (Campbell et al., 1992; Husen and Dequan, 2002; Tartachnyk and Blanke, 2004)
  25. 25. Acknowledgements Canopy USDA Resilient Orchards Leaves can only use 1000 – 1200 μmoles m-2 s-1 ~1800 μmoles m-2 s-1
  26. 26. Acknowledgements Netting to Optimize Light and Fruit Surface Temperature USDA Resilient Orchards Dr. Giverson Mupambi Dr. Stefano Musacchi, Dr. Sara Serra, and Dr. Desmond Layne (WSU), and Tory Schmidt (Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission)
  27. 27. Resilient Orchards Decreased Light Intensity* Increased Light Scattering Light Quality Decreased water use No EC Less irrigation requirements Decreased soil temperature* Increased Fruit Size Decrease in color if shade % is too high* Decreased sunburn Increased light-use efficiency* Increased photosynthesis* Increased canopy in-fill* Environment Fruit Quality Tree Growth Advantages of Netting (Mupambi et al. 2018a; Mupambi et al. 2018b; Mupambi et al. 2019)
  28. 28. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Light(umolm-2s-1) 8/6/18 to 8/10/18 (Smoke Haze) 7/23/18 to 7/27/18 (Clear) Resilient Orchards Challenges to Adoption Economics Smoke at the wrong time Labor to install and retraction and deployment What is the price point where it makes sense? Retrofit? Netting system? Added benefits?
  29. 29. Resilient Orchards What about the rest of the cultivars or low light environments? Dr. Sumyya Waliullah and Dr. Jessica Waite 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 1-Apr 1-May 1-Jun 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep Dailymaximumtemperature(°F) Date WSU TFREC- Wenatchee 2012 season 2013 season 2014 season 2015 season 2016 season Evaporative cooling
  30. 30. Differences in Fruit Surface Temperatures Resilient Orchards HoneycrispGranny Smith Light Intensity Light Intensity Air Temperature Air Temperature Credit: Brenda Castaneda and Hector Camargo-Alvarez
  31. 31. Acknowledgements USDA Resilient Orchards 32% 22% 19% 12% 15% PRIMED 17% 7% 18% 23% 35% UNTREATED 36% 27% 22% 13% 2% PRIMED 21% 11% 22% 24% 22% UNTREATED 32% 22% 19% 12% 15% PRIMED SB0 SB1 SB2 SB3 SB4 12% SB0 SB1 SB2 SB3 SB4 Honeycrisp Granny Smith
  32. 32. Acknowledgements Water Use vs. Precipitation (2018) USDA Resilient Orchards 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Water(inches) TotPrecin EToin Precipitation Evapotranspiration Total: 2.5” Total: 41.2”
  33. 33. Acknowledgements Irrigation Water and Drought Risk USDA Resilient Orchards Credit: Washington Ag Network
  34. 34. Acknowledgements Irrigation Water and Drought Risk USDA Resilient Orchards
  35. 35. Acknowledgements Changes to Snowpack USDA Resilient Orchards Environmental Protection Agency (2017) 2015 Drought
  36. 36. Acknowledgements 2019 Snowpack USDA Resilient Orchards
  37. 37. Acknowledgements We can over irrigate USDA Resilient Orchards -27.5 -27 -26.5 -26 -25.5 -25 -24.5 -24 -23.5 -23 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 δ13C Fruit Size (g)
  38. 38. Integrated Nutrient Management Sunburn and Bitter Pit in Washington State Resilient Orchards Calcium sprays and crop load are current tools to reduce bitter pit Irrigation has been tested as a tool over three years 5-15% decrease in bitter pit incidence Potential $30-$60 million/year impact Rapidly being adopted throughout the state 8 ± 1.3% 11 ± 4.9% 27 ± 4.4% 41 ± 5.3% 4 ± 2.2% 9 ± 4.5% Fully Irrigated 38 ± 12.3% 24 ± 1.63% 18 ± 9.5% 18 ± 2.6% 2 ± 1.7% 0% Deficit Irrigation Michelle Reid (MS. Student) Irrigation Management to Improve Honeycrisp Fruit Quality
  39. 39. Acknowledgements Summary Resilient Orchards Shifting chilling and phenology Earlier seasons mean earlier maturity at times when fruit is highly susceptible to high temperatures Earlier seasons increase the number of generations for pests like coddling moth that make management much more difficult Elevated sunburn risk Netting as an alternative to evaporative cooling Reduced fruit losses to sunburn and mechanical damage Cultivars selected for high temperature environments Increased volatility in water availability Increasing reliance on irrigation for apple production in traditionally non- irrigated regions Irrigation strategies that improve fruit quality/reduce losses while conserving water Identifying economic benefits of conservation practices will increase rates of adoption by the industry,