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Referencing in the MHRA Style

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Referencing in the MHRA Style

  1. 1. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Referencing in the MHRA style Modern Humanities Research Association (mhra.org.uk) by Carine Harston
  2. 2. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis In this session: What is referencing? Why is it important? What should I reference? How do I reference? Practicalities Looking closer (types of references, formats, changes in format, etc.)
  3. 3. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis What is referencing? Referencing is the academic practice of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used to write your coursework.
  4. 4. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Why is it important? Academic: demonstrates that you have used a wide variety of relevant sources lends credence to your arguments expresses respect to your sources Practical: improves readability of your work constitutes a record of sources used Legal: helps avoid plagiarism
  5. 5. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Why is it important? (cont.) ‘Plagiarism can be defined as using another person’s work or ideas without appropriate acknowledgement and submitting it for assessment, as though it was one’s own work, for instance through copying or paraphrasing’. (Swansea University’s Code of Practice for dealing with cases of unfair practice 2012/13)
  6. 6. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis What should I reference? anything you refer to in your work, whether in quotation marks or not. direct quote Lees and Overing recognise that medieval sources comprise largely a patriarchal record, but believe ‘patriarchy may be persuaded to divulge many a secret if we teach ourselves to interrogate it differently’.1 paraphrase Lees and Overing argue that we might be able to remedy the paucity of evidence about medieval women’s lives if we bring different assumptions to the process of source examination.1 summarise Lees and Overing challenge current scholarly approach to the medieval cultural record.1 mention The views of Lees and Overing1 were later supported by Steinberg.2
  7. 7. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis How do I reference? Use a College approved referencing style! Author-date e.g. APA: “We cannot comprehend women as a category without considering the historical imbrication of class and gender”(Lees & Overing, 2009) Footnote e.g. MHRA: “We cannot comprehend women as a category without considering the historical imbrication of class and gender”5 5. Clare A. Lees and Gillian R. Overing, Double Agents: Women and Clerical Culture in Anglo-Saxon England (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2009), p.15.
  8. 8. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis How do I reference? (cont.) citations = (superscript numbers) in-text = footnotes = end-text = reference list = 1 1. 2. Bibliography While Steinberg considers the cultural sources ‘limited and fragmentary’, Lees and Overing assure us that ‘women’s absence from the record can actually point to their presence’. Lees, Clare A. and Gillian R. Overing, Double Agents: Women and Clerical Culture in Anglo-Saxon England, 2nd edn (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2009) Steinberg, Theodore L., Reading the Middle Ages: An Introduction to Medieval Literature (Jefferson N.C.: McFarland, 2003) __________________________________ Theodore L. Steinberg, Reading the Middle Ages: An Introduction to Medieval Literature (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2003), p. 124. Clare A. Lees and Gillian R. Overing, Double Agents: Women and Clerical Culture In Anglo-Saxon England, 2nd edn (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2009), pp. 218-219. 2
  9. 9. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis How do I reference? (cont.)
  10. 10. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Practicalities
  11. 11. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Practicalities (cont.)
  12. 12. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The devil in the detail not just what but also how: order formatting punctuation Clare A. Lees and Gillian R. Overing, Double Agents: Women and Clerical Culture in Anglo- Saxon England, 2nd edn (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2009), pp. 20 - 34.
  13. 13. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The curious life cycle of references footnote (later reference) Lees and Overing, pp. 50-67. bibliography Lees, Clare A., and Gillian R. Overing, Double Agents: Women and Clerical Culture in Anglo-Saxon England, 2nd edn (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2009) footnote (first reference) Clare A. Lees and Gillian R. Overing, Double Agents: Women and Clerical Culture in Anglo-Saxon England, 2nd edn (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2009), pp. 20-34.
  14. 14. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Different types of publications... ...different references! • books • articles • book reviews • films, plays, broadcasts, recordings • web pages, social media • manuscripts, private correspondence • theses & dissertations • sacred texts • etc., etc., etc. •authored •edited •chapters / sections •journal •newspaper •printed •online
  15. 15. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Edited book Title first ed. by Medieval Conduct, ed. by Kathleen Ashley and Robert L. A. Clark (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), p. 10.
  16. 16. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Chapter/section/article in an edited book ‘Chapter title’, in Title of Book pp. (page range) Anna Dronzek, ‘Gendered Theories of Education in Fifteenth-Century Conduct Books’, in Medieval Conduct, ed. by Kathleen Ashley and Robert L. A. Clark (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), pp. 135-159 (p. 142).
  17. 17. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Journal article ‘Article title’, Journal Title, vol No.issue No (year) no publisher page range no pp. T. F. Koestler, ‘Medieval Literature Made Easy’, The English Journal, 20.1 (1931), 30-42 (p. 35).
  18. 18. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Book Review in a journal ‘Review title’, review of Title of Reviewed Work, by Author of Reviewed Work John Bradley, ‘The Friends Project’, review of Medieval Dublin I & II: Proceedings of the annual symposia, by Sean Duffy, The Canadian Journal of Irish Studies, 27.2 (2001), 133-134.
  19. 19. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Newspaper article ‘Article title’, Newspaper Title, Dd Month yyyy, no brackets section (where relevant) Richard Ford, ‘Highest Rise in Violent Crime in Seven Years’, The Times, 18 March 1997, section Home News, p.8.
  20. 20. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Film Title first, dir. by (distributor, date) The Name of the Rose, dir. by Jean-Jacques Annaud (Columbia Pictures, 1986).
  21. 21. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Web page (date published or last updated) < URL > [accessed dd Month yyyy] (para. X of Y) Tom James, Overview: The Middle Ages,1154-1485 (2011), <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/ov erview_middleages_01.shtml> [accessed 20 June 2015] (para. 3 of 75).
  22. 22. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Manuscript town where held, archive/library/institution, collection name, manuscript number. Records (primarily originals) concerning England, France and Flanders, Henry III–Henry IV (1216–1413), including the declaration of King Richard II of England (1377–99) for quelling the insurrection led by Wat Tyler, 1381 (f. 137). 15. A petition of Bernard de Trenqualeon, to Edward II; for redress against the French king. (Fr. on vell.) 1324. 12. London, British Library, Cotton MS Caligula, D III, fol. 15.
  23. 23. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Electronic content - ebook Platform name ebook. Clare A. Lees and Gillian R. Overing, Double Agents: Women And Clerical Culture in Anglo-Saxon England, 2nd edn (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2009), pp. 20-34. Ebrary ebook.
  24. 24. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Electronic content – e-journal article < DOI > or < stable URL > [accessed dd Month yyyy] <http://www.jstor.org/stable/803066> [accessed 8 June 2015] T. F. Koestler, ‘Medieval Literature Made Easy’, The English Journal, 20.1 (1931), 30-42 (p. 35)
  25. 25. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The second mention shortest intelligible form (usually author(s) and page numbers) if necessary – add title in a shortened form
  26. 26. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The second mention Authored book Clare A. Lees and Gillian R. Overing, Double Agents: Women and Clerical Culture in Anglo-Saxon England, 2nd edn (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2009), pp. 20-34. Lees and Overing, pp. 50-67. Lees and Overing, Double Agents, pp. 50-67.
  27. 27. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The second mention Edited book Medieval conduct, ed. by Kathleen Ashley and Robert L. A. Clark, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), p. 10. Medieval conduct, p. 21.
  28. 28. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The second mention Chapter/section/article in an edited book Anna Dronzek, ‘Gendered Theories of Education in Fifteenth- Century Conduct Books’, in Medieval Conduct, ed. by Kathleen Ashley and Robert L. A. Clark (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), pp. 135-159 (p. 142). Dronzek, p. 147.
  29. 29. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The second mention Journal article T. F. Koestler, ‘Medieval Literature Made Easy’, The English Journal, 20.1 (1931), 30-42 (p. 35). Koestler, p. 39.
  30. 30. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The second mention Book review in a journal John Bradley, ‘The Friends Project’, review of Medieval Dublin I & II: Proceedings of the annual symposia, by Sean Duffy, The Canadian Journal of Irish Studies, 27.2 (2001), 133-134 (p. 133). Bradley, p. 134.
  31. 31. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The second mention Newspaper article Richard Ford, ‘Highest Rise in Violent Crime in Seven Years’, The Times, 18 March 1997, section Home News, p.8. Ford, p. 8.
  32. 32. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The second mention Film The Name of the Rose, dir. by Jean-Jacques Annaud (Columbia Pictures, 1986). The Name of the Rose.
  33. 33. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The second mention Web page Tom James, Overview: The Middle Ages,1154-1485 (2011), <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/overview_mi ddleages_01.shtml> [accessed 20 June 2015] (para. 3 of 75). James, (para. 12 of 75).
  34. 34. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The second mention Manuscript London, British Library, Cotton MS Caligula, D III, fol. 15. Cotton MS Caligula, D III, fols. 16-17.
  35. 35. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis The Bibliography starts on a new page alphabetical by Authors’ Surname double spaced hanging indents (Ctrl+Tab) Ager, Richard, The Art of Information and Communications Technology for Teachers (London: David Fulton, 2000) Apter, Michael John, The New Technology of Education (London: Macmillan, 1968) Reksten, Linda E., Using Technology to Increase Student Learning (Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, 2000)
  36. 36. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis References in the Bibliography First Author’s Surname, Forename/s, (Second Author - unchanged!) no specific page mentions no final full stops listed only once Clare A. Lees and Gillian R. Overing, Double Agents: Women and Clerical Culture in Anglo-Saxon England, 2nd edn (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2009), pp. 20 - 34 . Lees, Clare A.
  37. 37. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis References in the Bibliography (cont.) Name/s of Editor/s (first one inverted) ed., / eds, Medieval Conduct, ed. by Kathleen Ashley and Robert L. A. Clark (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), p. 10. Ashley, Kathleen and Robert L. A. Clark, eds, Medieval Conduct (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001)
  38. 38. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Two further concepts James, cited in Nalbantian,3 makes the point that… _____________________________ 3. William James, Principles of Psychology, (New York: Dover Publications, 1950), p.239, cited in Susan Nalbantian, Memory in Literature: From Rousseau to Neuroscience (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p.22. 1. background reading 2. secondary quoting
  39. 39. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis For help... ... see your Subject Librarians! Arts and Humanities Library Subject Team: Dr. Ian Glen Bernie Williams Siân Neilson Carine Harston artslib@swansea.ac.uk
  40. 40. www.swansea.ac.uk/lis Fancy a go? Go to: LibGuides > Arts & Humanities > Modern Languages and Translation Studies guide > Referencing tab > Referencing in the MHRA Style box (on the right) > MHRA exercises tab > Have a go link (click to download a copy)

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