The Human Face of Science Trends, Challenges, and Delight of Communicating Science in Today’s Highly Complex Cultures 7.12...
<ul><ul><li>Everyday life in the 21 th  c.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is based on and strongly influenced by  </li></ul><...
<ul><ul><li>Why Communicating Science? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today’s highly complex and networked societies require well-...
The ATLAS detector at the LHC.  Photo courtesy of CERN. Communicating the Concept of Science:  Endeavours, Problems, and D...
<ul><li>Communicating the Concept of Science:  </li></ul><ul><li>Endeavours, Problems, and Dangers </li></ul><ul><li>Scien...
Communicating the Concept of Science:  Endeavours, Problems, and Dangers Communicating science  faces the danger being lia...
Communicating the Concept of Science:  Endeavours, Problems, and Dangers <ul><li>There are interests coming from socio-pol...
Going Back to the Roots:  Anthropology and Communicating Science Curiosity,  amazement,  fascination,  the joy of discover...
<ul><li>Going Back to the Roots:  </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology and Communicating Science </li></ul><ul><li>Important top...
Going Back to the Roots:  Anthropology and Communicating Science Cryobrines on Mars? DLR Mars Express, 2010 People love to...
<ul><li>Going Back to the Roots:  </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology and Communicating Science </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific do...
Going Back to the Roots:  Anthropology and Communicating Science
Going Back to the Roots:  Anthropology and Communicating Science <ul><li>Economic pressure to sell scientific documentarie...
<ul><li>Going Back to the Roots:  </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology and Communicating Science </li></ul><ul><li>Therein is th...
Going Back to the Roots:  Anthropology and Communicating Science People want to be charmed.  It is a specific of our brain...
<ul><li>Going Back to the Roots:  </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology and Communicating Science </li></ul><ul><li>The fascinati...
Going Back to the Roots:  Anthropology and Communicating Science Jules Verne (19 th  c.)
<ul><li>The Human Face of Science and Scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Telling stories about great and severe moments of scien...
The Ethical Frame of Communicating Science <ul><li>Sociological and communication studies ( Schäfer 2007 ) give evidence t...
Tetsuo Sato, Japan: Illustration of the ecliptic and the zodiacal belt. String Figure Magazine  6 (2), 2001:  11-15 Felix ...
Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds: Pros and Cons
Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds: Pros and Cons Frozen reality: explosion of a balloon Time-lapse of the vanishi...
Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds: Pros and Cons People can be attracted by making abstract science fleshliness t...
Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds: Pros and Cons <ul><li>People can be attracted by making abstract science flesh...
The Quake-Catcher Network &quot;Bringing Seismology to Homes and Schools.&quot; Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds...
Despite of the advantages of modern mass media, in particular web-based, there remains the power of “first-hand” experienc...
Adult Education Centre & Observatory, Gilching, Bavaria, Germany The Challenge of Communicating Science: Inspiring People ...
<ul><li>Communicating science including amateurs:  The dedication, exhaustive knowledge, and long-term work of amateurs (b...
Thank you very much for listening! “ If you want to build a ship, don't drum up the men to gather wood, divide the work an...
An  actual example The bacteria GFAJ-1 survives with the help of arsenic.  Felisa Wolfe-Simon et al.  A Bacterium That Can...
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Michael A. Rappenglück - The human face of science trends, challenges, and delight of communicating science in today’s highly complex cultures - Bucharest

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  • As shown, web-based media have their pros for communicating science, but they also have their cons: The overflow and rapid dynamic change of information with scientific content, pushed and accelerated especially by the internet, makes it difficult to find out essential nexuses and core statements. It requires a person already trained in speech comprehension (preferably in different languages), categorizing, methods of search, abstract thinking, knowing of the criteria for systematic scientific evaluation, and first-hand experiences in the real world. Otherwise a loss of quality by pure chaotic quantity may appear. Thus communicating science needs digest, selection of the necessary media and information channels, concentration, balancing of competing views, and the evaluation of the material. Developed Projects Astronomy MilkyWay@Home — uses data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to deduce the structure of the Milky Way galaxy. SETI@home — Search for ExtraTerrestial Intelligence Biology Docking@Home — models protein-ligand docking. Folding@home — performs computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics (MD). Malaria@Home [1] — performs stochastic modeling of the clinical epidemiology and natural history of malaria. POEM@Home — models protein folding using Anfinsen&apos;s dogma. Rosetta@home — tests the assembly of specific proteins, using appropriate fragments of better-known proteins. SIMAP — compiles a database of protein similarities using the FASTA algorithm, and protein domains using InterPro. Earth Sciences Climateprediction.net — attempts to reduce the uncertainty ranges of climate models. Quake-Catcher Network — uses accelerometers in, or attached to, internet-connected computers to detect earthquakes. Mathematics ABC@Home — attempts to solve the ABC conjecture problem. PrimeGrid — various prime number related projects, including a collaborative effort with Seventeen or Bust. SZTAKI Desktop Grid — searches for generalized binary number systems. Medicine Malaria Control — performs stochastic modelling of the clinical epidemiology and natural history of malaria. Physics AQUA@home — uses Quantum Monte Carlo to predict the performance of superconducting adiabatic quantum computers. Einstein@Home — uses data from LIGO and GEO 600 to search for gravitational waves. QMC@Home — uses Quantum Monte Carlo to predict molecular geometry. Developed Projects Multi-Applications Projects Ibercivis — studies nuclear fusion, materials science, neurodegenerative diseases caused by amyloid accumulation, the effect of light on nanomaterials, fluid mechanics, macromolecular docking, and the function of proteins in memory and learning. World Community Grid - studies a variety of problems in biology, medicine and the environment. Clean Energy Project — tries to find the best organic compounds for solar cells and energy storage devices.Phase 1 has been completed.Phase 2 has started. FightAIDS@Home — identifies candidate drugs that have the right shape and chemical characteristics to block HIV protease. Help Conquer Cancer — improves the results of protein X-ray crystallography in order to increase understanding of cancer and its treatment. Help Cure Muscular Dystrophy — investigates protein-protein interactions for more than 2,200 proteins whose structures are known, with a particular focus on those proteins that play a role in neuromuscular diseases.Currently on Phase 2. Help Fight Childhood Cancer — finds drugs that can disable three particular proteins associated with neuroblastoma. Human Proteome Folding Project — studies proteome folding in conjunction with Rosetta@home.Currently on Phase 2. Influenza Antiviral Drug Search — finds drugs that can stop the spread of influenza strains that have become drug resistant as well as new strains. Phase 1 has been completed and Phase 2 will start soon. Nutritious Rice for the World — tries to predict the protein structure of rice in order to help rice breeders create more abundant, resilient and nutritious harvests.Finished in April 2010
  • Michael A. Rappenglück - The human face of science trends, challenges, and delight of communicating science in today’s highly complex cultures - Bucharest

    1. 1. The Human Face of Science Trends, Challenges, and Delight of Communicating Science in Today’s Highly Complex Cultures 7.12.2010, Dr Michael A. Rappenglück MA Adult Education Centre & Observatory Gilching and INFIS
    2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Everyday life in the 21 th c. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is based on and strongly influenced by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modern science, technology, economy, and mass media, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which all are closely intertwined. </li></ul></ul>Shanghai by night.
    3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Why Communicating Science? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today’s highly complex and networked societies require well-informed and well-trained people, who in general are well-acquainted with science methodology and results as a constituent part of all-round education. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover expert knowledge is important to deepen and extend scientific progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s societies base their prosperity in a large part on the development of applied science interlinked with certain technologies. A good insight into the practice of science qualifies people being able to keep up with the very dynamic changes within the societies, to participate in wealth, and to train awareness, scepticism, criticism, and reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>It is antagonizing “ flat thinking” . </li></ul><ul><li>From these facts it is clear that there exists a practical need for communicating science to the public and to experts asking for knowledge outside their respective disciplines. </li></ul>
    4. 4. The ATLAS detector at the LHC. Photo courtesy of CERN. Communicating the Concept of Science: Endeavours, Problems, and Dangers <ul><li>The conception of science offers a methodological approach to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>objectifiable, testable, and coherent knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>which provides people with reliable explanations and predictions. </li></ul><ul><li>Working scientifically trains </li></ul><ul><li>observation skills, awareness, </li></ul><ul><li>thoroughness, correctness, </li></ul><ul><li>modelling, and abstract thinking. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Communicating the Concept of Science: </li></ul><ul><li>Endeavours, Problems, and Dangers </li></ul><ul><li>Science becomes very important in helping humans to manage and stabilize life. </li></ul><ul><li>Science, following the idea of philosophy, supports people in being sceptic about ideological stated truth and encourages them to criticise asserted data and manipulating powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Science has an emancipatory function, freeing man of dependences given by culture and nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating science to the public gives a unique possibility to facilitate these ideas of enlightenment. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Communicating the Concept of Science: Endeavours, Problems, and Dangers Communicating science faces the danger being liable to the pressure of political, economic, and even “scientific” lobbies. Communicating science with the aim to do justice to competing scientific claims faces serious problems .
    7. 7. Communicating the Concept of Science: Endeavours, Problems, and Dangers <ul><li>There are interests coming from socio-political and economic, psychological, and even religious conceptions or certain personal preferences, which influence scientists, scientific perceptions, and scientific projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Science is not immune from the idea of authority of persons, groups, peer-reviewed professional journals, rankings or scientific views. </li></ul><ul><li>There are on-going discussions how to demarcate and to evaluate pseudo-sciences, amateur science, bad science, and even popular science. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media, which economically are forced to simplify the complexity of scientific approaches and results, influence the “credibility” of scientists and scientific findings concerning public and also expert opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>Beside a general understanding of science and at least a specific training in one science, science journalists need to be well-educated in sociology and history of science, open-minded, communicative, having a strong personality and being a person of integrity to encounter ideological and economic restraints. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Going Back to the Roots: Anthropology and Communicating Science Curiosity, amazement, fascination, the joy of discovery, the pleasure of aesthetics, the passion to solve riddles, the appeal of mysteries, the coping with anxiety, and the final questions for the why and wherefore of the life and the world motivate people since ancient times to interpret the world by myths and to explain it by science. There are anthropological based reasons, which affect the mode of communicating science. Lengai Volcano by Martin Rietze / Auguste Rodin's The Thinker (1880-1881).
    9. 9. <ul><li>Going Back to the Roots: </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology and Communicating Science </li></ul><ul><li>Important topics: </li></ul><ul><li>The origin, evolution, and future of the universe, of life, and in particular man </li></ul><ul><li>Possible places for life, notably intelligent species, in the cosmos </li></ul><ul><li>The structures of space and time </li></ul><ul><li>The power of nature, coming alive especially in catastrophes caused by super volcanoes, impacts, cyclones, tsunamis etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological questions of biospheres </li></ul><ul><li>The deciphering of the genetic code and the implications of that capability for medical purposes and for designing creatures, in particular man himself </li></ul><ul><li>Brain research, also attached to the idea of neuronal technology (neuroprosthetics, brain–machine interface) </li></ul><ul><li>The interface between living beings and machines </li></ul><ul><li>Humanoid, especially android robots </li></ul><ul><li>S cience at the limits of life, for example near death research </li></ul>
    10. 10. Going Back to the Roots: Anthropology and Communicating Science Cryobrines on Mars? DLR Mars Express, 2010 People love to “travel” to strange places on Earth and in outer space, offered by science and powerful instruments. They are fascinated by bizarre features of nature compared with the standard of “normal” human life and everyday perceptions.
    11. 11. <ul><li>Going Back to the Roots: </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology and Communicating Science </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific documentaries can make use of the anthropological, especially psychological, needs and desires of people, for communicating, discussing, and rooting scientific content in human mind. </li></ul><ul><li>The demand for methodological thoroughness, clarity, exactness, testing, and repeatability, which is the core of any scientific research, must be clearly recognizable despite captivating the senses. </li></ul><ul><li>With increasing frequency the borderline between a scientific documentary, appealing reason and sensation, and an entertainment show with interspersed scientific snippets is clearly passed. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Going Back to the Roots: Anthropology and Communicating Science
    13. 13. Going Back to the Roots: Anthropology and Communicating Science <ul><li>Economic pressure to sell scientific documentaries, scientific edutainment and science shows as well as the public request to have easily digested morsels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion of meaning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversimplifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedy sequences of sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid changes of cuts in visual and audio material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick shifts in perspectives, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropping of references or scales. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass media and time pressure: Difficulty to spend enough time for thorough investigations, for diligent interviews, and for being accompanied or even embedded in scientific research. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher and mass media: Problem of a proper representation of their work and of giving away the conception of science to be butchered for the public </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Going Back to the Roots: </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology and Communicating Science </li></ul><ul><li>Therein is the business of the science journalists: </li></ul><ul><li>They should balance the claims, perception, and desires of both, the scientist and the public, to enable and to ensure the highest possible degree of reciprocal understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>They need to be trained to put themselves in scientists and peoples shoes. Communicating science should be understood as a particular kind of “transfer”, which requires being familiar with scientific culture and ordinary life. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation of scientific languages into ordinary language, specified for different age groups (e.g. university for children, adult education), for educated classes, for ethnic groups, for handicapped people, and for specialist outside their disciplines. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Going Back to the Roots: Anthropology and Communicating Science People want to be charmed. It is a specific of our brain and our existence to create virtual worlds, which stimulate our fantasy and empower our creativity. It carries us off from the burden of ordinary life. It also enables us to see the world from different angles, which allows new solutions of old problems. Rooted in archaic psychological and anthropological patterns, which are handed down from prehistoric time by myths, fairy-tales, and magical rituals, the today’s enthusiasm for virtual worlds from Science Fictions to Second Life is quite understandable
    16. 16. <ul><li>Going Back to the Roots: </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology and Communicating Science </li></ul><ul><li>The fascination of science and the delight of doing science, if transferred into a kind of magical package, seem to meet an archaic human need. </li></ul><ul><li>Science fiction, mystery fiction, anthropological science fiction, cyberpunk fiction, matter as media communicating science, if the real scientific content is fair-sized. Otherwise this indirect account of sciences depraves to the genre of pure fantasy. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a natural curiosity, amazement, fascination, and delight of people for discovering the unknown and solving riddles. Man likes to search and to find out. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating science is motivating to research into a problem and to stick to it even if there are severe disappointments and despite of failing. </li></ul><ul><li>It needs to offer generic procedures leading to knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover communicating science is an important task to offer enigmas and to show how scientists try to get clues to the puzzles. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Going Back to the Roots: Anthropology and Communicating Science Jules Verne (19 th c.)
    18. 18. <ul><li>The Human Face of Science and Scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Telling stories about great and severe moments of science, the successes and failings, the resentments and favours, the strokes of fate and fortunes bring inapproachable science back to ordinary human life and provide valuable insights into the process of science. </li></ul><ul><li>The human touch and social constituent of science, which history of science and sociology of science reveal is very important to be emphasized. </li></ul><ul><li>Coherent worldviews, which help them to find their places in nature and culture, by organizing the diversity of phenomena in understandable spheres of lifeworld. In place of religions sciences have become more and more important guides for the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Display and discussion of scientific topics in certain cases also means to establish a meeting place between humanities, sciences, philosophy, and religions, which allows an on-going discussion and an exchange of ideas, perspectives, and systems of values. </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Ethical Frame of Communicating Science <ul><li>Sociological and communication studies ( Schäfer 2007 ) give evidence that questions of ethical evaluation push significantly the relevance and frequency of scientific contributions in the mass media, shifting “pure” scientific news to an economic, political, sociological, religious framing. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating science faces the ethical discussion, if there exists any relation to human life or the survival of the biosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Human genetics, stem cell research, bioengineering, geoengineering or climate research. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Tetsuo Sato, Japan: Illustration of the ecliptic and the zodiacal belt. String Figure Magazine 6 (2), 2001: 11-15 Felix Paturi, Rodenbach, Germany: Andromeda Galaxy. String Figure Magazine 1 (3), 1996: 17-20). Yukio Shishido, Kyoto, Japan: Binary Stars String Figure Magazine 5 (1), 2000: 14-16. Stellar Bingo, Moon (Phades), Sun Bingo developed by Bingo, Lake Afton Public Observatory. “ Astronomy Cards&quot; and &quot;Moon Phases Cards” by Bingo Monopoly: Astronomy Edition Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds: Pros and Cons
    21. 21. Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds: Pros and Cons
    22. 22. Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds: Pros and Cons Frozen reality: explosion of a balloon Time-lapse of the vanishing lake Aral. Slow motion film of a water drop dripping into water.
    23. 23. Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds: Pros and Cons People can be attracted by making abstract science fleshliness that is “tangible”, by appealing and captivate all senses and imagination.
    24. 24. Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds: Pros and Cons <ul><li>People can be attracted by making abstract science fleshliness that is “tangible”, by appealing and captivate all senses and imagination. </li></ul><ul><li>Fascinating people, from kids to older persons, makes them very receptive for scientific information thereby submitted. </li></ul><ul><li>It is however necessary to give adequate accessory information about the scientific research, models, and competing views behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific documentaries always have enough time to achieve the best presentation of experiments and to ensure that these are successful. Scientists however know quite well that these often don’t function the way they want. </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary to bring out the many difficulties, time-consuming efforts, rearranging and rethinking, which are art of the scientist’s daily routine. </li></ul>Blue Snowball Planetary Nebula ( NGC 7662 ) in 20”Newtonian (Observatory, Gilching) and seen by the Hubble Space Telescope (in (false colour) . Hook and loop fastener seen by the electron-scan microscope. Detail of a nylon stocking seen by the electron-scan microscope.
    25. 25. The Quake-Catcher Network &quot;Bringing Seismology to Homes and Schools.&quot; Science Made “Tangible” and Virtual Worlds: Pros and Cons Doing protein folding by the computer game Foldit. http://fold.it/portal/
    26. 26. Despite of the advantages of modern mass media, in particular web-based, there remains the power of “first-hand” experiences with science joining people in the process of research. The Challenge of Communicating Science: Inspiring People for Science
    27. 27. Adult Education Centre & Observatory, Gilching, Bavaria, Germany The Challenge of Communicating Science: Inspiring People for Science
    28. 28. <ul><li>Communicating science including amateurs: The dedication, exhaustive knowledge, and long-term work of amateurs (biologists, geologists, archaeologists or astronomers etc.) is important, too. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate science: It is inspiring people for science and transmitting scientific knowledge. </li></ul>Politicians and scientists admire and discuss the replica of the 2200 years old Antikythera planetarium machine on occasion of the exhibition and International Conference of SEAC on Archaeo- and Ethnoastronomy the Adult Education Centre, Gilching, 2010. Amateur geologists and speleologists sup-porting impact research in Bavaria (snapshot from TV series “Galileo special”, 2007). The Challenge of Communicating Science: Inspiring People for Science
    29. 29. Thank you very much for listening! “ If you want to build a ship, don't drum up the men to gather wood, divide the work and give orders. Instead, teach them to yearn for the vast and endless sea.” Antoine de Saint Exupéry Adult Education Centre & Observatory, Gilching, Bavaria, Germany
    30. 30. An actual example The bacteria GFAJ-1 survives with the help of arsenic. Felisa Wolfe-Simon et al. A Bacterium That Can Grow by Using Arsenic Instead of Phosphorus, Science, 2 December 2010. These news at once made it to be the headlines on everyday newspapers.

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