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Better Page Object Handling with Loadable Component Pattern


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These slides was used during my talk in Selenium Conference 2016

Published in: Technology

Better Page Object Handling with Loadable Component Pattern

  1. 1. Be#er Page Object Handling with Loadable Component Pa#ern Sargis Sargsyan
  2. 2. ‹ ›2 Loadable Component 4 Introduction 1 Page Object Pattern 2 Wait in Selenium 3 Slow Loadable Component 5 Common Failures 6 Q&A 7 Main Topics
  3. 3. ‹ ›3 Demos • Demos are in Java! • Everything we discuss is applicable strongly- typed languages (e.g. C#) • Most things are applicable to dynamically- typed languages (e.g. Ruby, Python, Perl)
  4. 4. ‹ ›4 Demos will use also • Maven • TestNG • Selenium
  5. 5. Page Object Pattern `
  6. 6. ‹ ›6 What is Page Object Pattern • Page Objects Framework is a design pattern which has become popular in test automation for making easy test maintenance and reducing code duplication. This design pattern, to interact or work with a web page, we have an object-oriented class for that web. Then the tests calls the methods of this page class by creating a page object whenever they need to interact or work with that web page. 7 q 1Z a
  7. 7. ‹ ›7 What is Page Object Pattern • For example web application or website that has multiple web pages and each page offers different services and functionalities. • There are different pages like • Home page, • Login page, • Registration page. • Each page offers a specific set of services. Services offered by Login page Login by entering user name and password We can get page title A class to represent Login page is like
  8. 8. ‹ ›8 What is Page Object Pattern • In page objects framework: • Each page in the web application/website we consider as an object. • Each webpage in the web application is represented by a Class • Each service/functionality offered by a webpage is represented by a method in the respective page class We will be having our tests calling these methods by creating objects of page classes
  9. 9. ‹ ›9 Why we should use Page Objects Pattern 1 Promotes reuse and refuses duplication 2 Makes tests more readable and robust 3 Makes tests less brittle 4 Improves maintainability, Particularly when there is frequent changes 5 If UI change, tests don’t need to be change, only the code within the page object need to be changed. 6 Handle of each page using its instance
  10. 10. ‹ ›10 How does it structured? • Each page is defined as it’s own class. • Actions (including navigation) are represented as functions for a class. • Each function can return a new Page object (navigating between pages), • Tests only talk to the page objects. • Page objects only talk to the Base Object. • Base Object talks to only driver. • Elements on the page are stored as variables for the page object
  11. 11. ‹ ›11 Selenium Model Test Case 1 Test Case 2 Test Case … ReportSelenium Web app Web PageWeb PageWeb PageWeb PageBrowsers
  12. 12. ‹ ›12 Page Object Model Page Objects Test Case 1 Test Case 2 Test Case … Report Selenium Web app Web PageWeb PageWeb PageWeb PageBrowsers
  13. 13. ‹ ›13 Page Object Model & Base Page Page Objects Test Case 1 Test Case 2 Test Case … Report Base Page Selenium Web app Web PageWeb PageWeb PageWeb PageBrowsers
  14. 14. ‹ ›14 Architecture Framework/ PageObjectsL Browser/Web Application Ħ Selenium Tests X Selenium Web Driver Ä
  15. 15. ‹ ›15 How it looks like
  16. 16. ‹ ›16 Base Object Page
  17. 17. ‹ ›17 Base Object Page
  18. 18. ‹ ›18 Selenium Setup
  19. 19. ‹ ›19 Base Test
  20. 20. ‹ ›20 Test
  21. 21. Wait in Selenium p
  22. 22. ‹ ›22 Why to wait? • When automating an application you must wait for a transaction to complete before proceeding to your next action. • Sleeps should never be a version for an alternative to waits. Sleeps will ALWAYS wait the exact amount of time even if the application is ready to continue the test.
  23. 23. ‹ ›23 Wait as long as necessary • We should wait as long as necessary which saves you precious time on your execution. • Selenium Offers 3 wait types: • Implicit Waits • Explicit Waits • Fluent Waits [
  24. 24. ‹ ›24 Implicit Waits • Implicit waits apply globally to every find element call. • undocumented and practically undefined behavior • Runs in the remote part of selenium (the part controlling the browser). • Only works on find element(s) methods. • Returns either element found or (after timeout) not found. • If checking for absence of element must always wait until timeout. • Cannot be customized other than global timeout. • Best practice is to not use implicit waits if possible.
  25. 25. ‹ ›25 Explicit Waits • Documented and defined behavior • Explicit waits ping the application every 500ms checking for the condition of the wait to be true • Runs in the local part of selenium (in the language of your code) • Works on any condition you can think of • Returns either success or timeout error • Can define absence of element as success condition • Can customize delay between retries and exceptions to ignore
  26. 26. ‹ ›26 Explicit Waits
  27. 27. ‹ ›27 Fluent Waits • Fluent waits require that you define the wait between checks of the application for an object/condition as well as the overall timeout of the transaction. Additionally you must tell fluent waits not to throw an exception when they don’t find an object as best practice.
  28. 28. Loadable Component p
  29. 29. ‹ ›29 What is the LoadableComponent? • The LoadableComponent is a base class that aims to make writing PageObjects less painful. It does this by providing a standard way of ensuring that pages are loaded and providing hooks to make debugging the failure of a page to load easier. You can use it to help reduce the amount of boilerplate code in your tests, which in turn make maintaining your tests less tiresome. • There is currently an implementation in Java that ships as part of Selenium 2, but the approach used is simple enough to be implemented in any language.
  30. 30. ‹ ›30 What is it? • LoadableComponent is a base class in Selenium, which means that you can simply define your Page Objects as an extension of the LoadableComponent class. So, for example, we can simply define a LoginPage object as follows:
  31. 31. ‹ ›31 How to use • The Loadable Component Pattern also allows you to model your page objects as a tree of nested components. • Allows better way to manage navigations between pages • Uses the “load” method that is used to navigate to the page and the “isLoaded” method which is used to determine if we are on the right page.
  32. 32. ‹ ›32 LoadableComponent class
  33. 33. ‹ ›33 load() and inLoaded() methods
  34. 34. ‹ ›34 PageLoadHelper Class
  35. 35. ‹ ›35 isLoaded() with PageLoadHelper
  36. 36. ‹ ›36 Extend LoadableComponent in Base Object class
  37. 37. ‹ ›37 Custom Loadable Component Implementation
  38. 38. Slow Loadable Component `
  39. 39. ‹ ›39 What is the SlowLoadableComponent? • The SlowLoadableComponent is a sub class of LoadableComponent. • get() for SlowLoadableComponent will ensure that the component is currently loaded.Ensure that the component is currently loaded. • isError() method will check for well known error cases, which would mean that loading has finished, but an error condition was seen. • waitFor() method will wait to run the next time. After a call to load(), the isLoaded() method will continue to fail until the component has fully loaded.
  40. 40. ‹ ›40 SlowLoadableComponent class
  41. 41. ‹ ›41 SlowLoadableComponent Implementation
  42. 42. Common Failures l
  43. 43. ‹ ›43 Recorded Brittle Test
  44. 44. ‹ ›44 Not Building a Framework
  45. 45. ‹ ›45 Use unique selectors
  46. 46. ‹ ›46 Do not use Retry y
  47. 47. ‹ ›47 Do not try to Automate Hard Things
  48. 48. ‹ ›48 Run test in Continuous Integration 1 Have a plan and stick to it 2 Run test as part of build 3 Run test locally 4 Report results 5 Break builds
  49. 49. ✉ ! EMAIL TWITTER LINKEDIN mrsargsyan sargissargsyan Contacts ą Thank You!