Ecology 
Sarah Jones 
hdw.eweb4.com
Environment 
The environment of an 
organism is its 
surroundings, both living 
and non-living.
Ecosystems 
An ecosystem is a part of 
the environment containing 
living organisms interacting 
with each other and the 
...
Ecology 
Ecology is the study of relationships living 
organisms have with each other and their 
environment.
Ecosystems
Aquatic 
Ecosystems
Saltwater - open seas, estuaries and saltwater lakes. 
Approximately 65% of the Earth's surface is covered 
by oceans. Tid...
Terrestrial 
Ecosystems
Terrestrial environments vary as a result of 
topography, climate, availability of water, and 
human activity. 
Examples: ...
Population 
A group of living organisms of the same kind 
living in the same place at the same time.
Community 
Organisms living together in a particular place.
Habitat 
The habitat of an organism is the place where it lives. 
These can vary in size e.g. desert, under tree bark, 
wi...
Ecosystems will fail if they do not remain in 
balance. 
No community can carry more organisms than 
its food, water and s...
Abiotic Factors of Ecosystems
Light 
Wind 
Rainfall 
Temperature (daily and seasonal) 
Topography (altitude and depth) 
Tides, currents and waves 
Water...
Biotic Factors of Ecosystems
Availability of food 
Number of competitors 
Availability of mates 
Number of predators 
Disease causing organisms 
Limiti...
Food Chains and Food Webs
Organisms have roles in ecosystems: 
Producers - organisms that make their own food 
using the energy of sunlight - plants...
Consumers - obtain their food by consuming other 
creatures - if they consume a producer then they are 
primary consumers ...
If they consume carnivores they are tertiary consumers or 
carnivores. Some species eat both producers and other 
consumer...
Decomposers 
Bacteria and fungi that 
break down dead organic 
material. Decomposers 
have an important role in 
ecosystem...
Food chains are simple ways of representing 
feeding relationships among organisms. 
Grass > insect > spider > bird 
Food ...
Energy
Photosynthesis 
Photosynthesis is the process by which plant cells 
capture energy from sunlight and use it to combine 
ca...
All living things ultimately depend on this process - 
photosynthesis. 
Organisms that consume the plants gain nutrients 
...
Respiration 
Respiration is the process by 
which cells obtain energy. 
Organic molecules (particularly 
sugars) are broke...
Biomass and Energy Pyramids
Relationships
Predation 
This is a feeding relationship 
in which one animal 
(predator) obtains its food by 
killing another animal (pr...
Allelopathy 
The production by a plant of specific chemicals that can 
be detrimental or beneficial to another plant. 
The...
Parasitism 
A parasite obtains its food from a host. Although the host 
is harmed in some way, it does not necessarily die...
Symbiosis 
A type of interaction between organisms where two 
different species live together in a close association. 
The...
Mutualism 
If two organisms are more 
closely associated so that 
both benefit. 
Commensalism 
A relationship that benefit...
Competition
Competition is the struggle between organisms for the 
same resource. 
A particular ecosystem can support only a certain 
...
Short term - competition reduces the chance of 
survival and restricts the abundance of all of the 
competitors.
Long term - one of the competitors will usually be 
more successful and drive out or reduce the numbers 
of other competit...
Adaptations
Adaptation - a feature of an organism that makes it 
well suited to its environment and lifestyle.
Structural Adaptions 
A physical characteristic relating to the structure of an 
organisms body.
Physiological Adaptation 
Related to the way the organism functions e.g. 
Poisonous frogs
Behavioural Adaptation 
How an organism responds to its environment e.g. 
Bird migration
Human Impact
Land Clearing
Introduced Species
Pollution
Extinction of Species
How Ecosystems Respond to Change 
• Wildfires are a relatively common event in 
Australia. Many Australian plants have the...
• Over time as Australia became warmer and 
drier - both plants and animals evolved with 
adaptations to enable them to su...
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
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Ecology

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Ecology

  1. 1. Ecology Sarah Jones hdw.eweb4.com
  2. 2. Environment The environment of an organism is its surroundings, both living and non-living.
  3. 3. Ecosystems An ecosystem is a part of the environment containing living organisms interacting with each other and the non-living parts of the environment.
  4. 4. Ecology Ecology is the study of relationships living organisms have with each other and their environment.
  5. 5. Ecosystems
  6. 6. Aquatic Ecosystems
  7. 7. Saltwater - open seas, estuaries and saltwater lakes. Approximately 65% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceans. Tides, currents, waves and wind continuously move the water in the surface layers. Freshwater - includes still water such as lakes and ponds, swamps, and moving water such as springs creeks and rivers.
  8. 8. Terrestrial Ecosystems
  9. 9. Terrestrial environments vary as a result of topography, climate, availability of water, and human activity. Examples: rainforest, open forests, mountain tops, deserts, grasslands, farms and cities.
  10. 10. Population A group of living organisms of the same kind living in the same place at the same time.
  11. 11. Community Organisms living together in a particular place.
  12. 12. Habitat The habitat of an organism is the place where it lives. These can vary in size e.g. desert, under tree bark, within the digestive system of another organism.
  13. 13. Ecosystems will fail if they do not remain in balance. No community can carry more organisms than its food, water and shelter can accommodate. Food and territory are often balanced by natural phenomena such as fire, disease, and the number of predators.
  14. 14. Abiotic Factors of Ecosystems
  15. 15. Light Wind Rainfall Temperature (daily and seasonal) Topography (altitude and depth) Tides, currents and waves Water (salinity, pH and availability) Substrate (surface on which an organism grows or is attached) Space and shelter Oxygen
  16. 16. Biotic Factors of Ecosystems
  17. 17. Availability of food Number of competitors Availability of mates Number of predators Disease causing organisms Limiting factors - anything that makes it difficult for a species to live and grow, or reproduce in its environment.
  18. 18. Food Chains and Food Webs
  19. 19. Organisms have roles in ecosystems: Producers - organisms that make their own food using the energy of sunlight - plants.
  20. 20. Consumers - obtain their food by consuming other creatures - if they consume a producer then they are primary consumers or herbivores - if they consume herbivores they are secondary consumers or carnivores.
  21. 21. If they consume carnivores they are tertiary consumers or carnivores. Some species eat both producers and other consumers and they are called omnivores. Some creatures eat dead producers or consumers and are called detritivores.
  22. 22. Decomposers Bacteria and fungi that break down dead organic material. Decomposers have an important role in ecosystems - they absorb nutrients from dead organisms or waste materials and return organic matter to the soil.
  23. 23. Food chains are simple ways of representing feeding relationships among organisms. Grass > insect > spider > bird Food webs show the feeding relationship of all organisms in a particular location (food web = many food chains intertwined together).
  24. 24. Energy
  25. 25. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which plant cells capture energy from sunlight and use it to combine carbon dioxide and water to make sugars and oxygen. Six molecules of water plus six molecules of carbon dioxide produce one molecule of sugar plus six molecules of oxygen.
  26. 26. All living things ultimately depend on this process - photosynthesis. Organisms that consume the plants gain nutrients and energy, animals that eat the plant-eaters gain energy from them, therefore the energy is passed on.
  27. 27. Respiration Respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy. Organic molecules (particularly sugars) are broken down to produce carbon dioxide and water, and energy is released.
  28. 28. Biomass and Energy Pyramids
  29. 29. Relationships
  30. 30. Predation This is a feeding relationship in which one animal (predator) obtains its food by killing another animal (prey). This relationship increases the predators chance of survival and reproduction at the expense of the preys.
  31. 31. Allelopathy The production by a plant of specific chemicals that can be detrimental or beneficial to another plant. These chemicals influence the growth and development of neighboring plants by repelling predators and parasites, or poisoning competitors. E.g. Camphor produced in leaves of the camphor laurel tree accumulates in the soil, preventing germination or growth of seedlings around each established group.
  32. 32. Parasitism A parasite obtains its food from a host. Although the host is harmed in some way, it does not necessarily die. Most free-living organisms have parasites. Many bacteria, viruses and fungi which cause diseases are parasites. Other relationships involve ticks, fleas and tapeworms.
  33. 33. Symbiosis A type of interaction between organisms where two different species live together in a close association. The association benefits at least one of them, and the other is not disadvantaged. The two types of symbiosis are commensalism and mutualism.
  34. 34. Mutualism If two organisms are more closely associated so that both benefit. Commensalism A relationship that benefits one species and does not harm the other. The organisms are not dependent on this type of relationship: they could survive without each other.
  35. 35. Competition
  36. 36. Competition is the struggle between organisms for the same resource. A particular ecosystem can support only a certain number of each type of species. Competition may be between members of the same species, or between members of different species.
  37. 37. Short term - competition reduces the chance of survival and restricts the abundance of all of the competitors.
  38. 38. Long term - one of the competitors will usually be more successful and drive out or reduce the numbers of other competitors.
  39. 39. Adaptations
  40. 40. Adaptation - a feature of an organism that makes it well suited to its environment and lifestyle.
  41. 41. Structural Adaptions A physical characteristic relating to the structure of an organisms body.
  42. 42. Physiological Adaptation Related to the way the organism functions e.g. Poisonous frogs
  43. 43. Behavioural Adaptation How an organism responds to its environment e.g. Bird migration
  44. 44. Human Impact
  45. 45. Land Clearing
  46. 46. Introduced Species
  47. 47. Pollution
  48. 48. Extinction of Species
  49. 49. How Ecosystems Respond to Change • Wildfires are a relatively common event in Australia. Many Australian plants have the ability to survive regular burning. • Banksias – this plants ripe seeds can stay on the tree for years waiting for a fire to release them. asgap.org.au
  50. 50. • Over time as Australia became warmer and drier - both plants and animals evolved with adaptations to enable them to survive this increasing aridity. • Australia’s vegetation is dominated by two groups of flowering plants which have successfully evolved to colonise a wide variety of habitats – acacias (wattles) and eucalypts.

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