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Ecology Status of the Philippines

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  1. 1. Ecology ( Natural Science) Dr. Carmina Villariba-Tolentino ETEEAP
  2. 2. Ecology <ul><li>Study of the relationship of plants and animals to their physical and biological environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The physical environment includes light and heat or solar radiation, moisture, wind, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients in soil, water, and atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>The biological environment includes organisms of the same kind as well as other plants and animals. </li></ul>
  3. 5. Ecosystem <ul><li>A more useful way of looking at the terrestrial and aquatic landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>a word coined in 1935 by the British plant ecologist Sir Arthur George Tansley to stress the concept of each locale or habitat as an integrated whole. </li></ul><ul><li>A system is a collection of interdependent parts that function as a unit and involve inputs and outputs. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Major parts of Ecosystem <ul><li>producers (green plants), </li></ul><ul><li>the consumers (herbivores and carnivores), </li></ul><ul><li>the decomposers (fungi and bacteria), </li></ul><ul><li>and the nonliving, or abiotic, component, consisting of dead organic matter and nutrients in the soil and water. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Inputs of ecosystem <ul><li>solar energy, </li></ul><ul><li>water, </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen, </li></ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide, </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen, and </li></ul><ul><li>other elements and compounds. </li></ul>
  6. 9. Outputs of Ecosystem
  7. 10. Food web <ul><li>A series of steps that involve eating and being eaten </li></ul><ul><li>Each step in the transfer of energy involves several trophic, or feeding, levels: </li></ul><ul><li>plants, </li></ul><ul><li>herbivores (plant eaters), </li></ul><ul><li>two or three levels of carnivores (meat eaters), and decomposers. </li></ul>
  8. 13. Decomposers of food web <ul><li>Plant and animal matter not used in the grazing food chain, such as fallen leaves, twigs, roots, tree trunks, and the dead bodies of animals, </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria, fungi, and animals that feed on dead material. </li></ul>
  9. 14. Niche <ul><li>The community provides the habitat—the place where particular plants or animals live. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the habitat, organisms occupy different niches. </li></ul><ul><li>A niche is the functional role of a species in a community—that is, its occupation, or how it earns its living. </li></ul><ul><li>The more a community is stratified, the more finely the habitat is divided into additional niches. </li></ul>
  10. 15. Population Growth Rate <ul><li>Populations have a birth rate (the number of young produced per unit of population per unit of time), </li></ul><ul><li>a death rate (the number of deaths per unit of time), and </li></ul><ul><li>a growth rate. </li></ul><ul><li>The major agent of population growth is births, and the major agent of population loss is deaths. </li></ul>
  11. 16. Philippine Population
  12. 18. 1- Philippines 2 – China 3 – Indonesia 4- India
  13. 19. 1 – Philippines 2 – Malaysia 3 – Thailand 4 - Vietnam
  14. 20. Community Interaction <ul><li>C ompetition, both within a species and among species; </li></ul><ul><li>predation, including parasitism; and </li></ul><ul><li>coevolution, or adaptation. </li></ul>
  15. 21. overshoot dieback Carrying capacity
  16. 22. Species Interaction <ul><li>Predation </li></ul><ul><li>A predator feeds directly upon another living organism, whether or not it kills the prey to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite/parasitism </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms that feed on a host organism or steal resources from it without killing it; one species benefits and the other is harmed. </li></ul>
  17. 25. Species Interaction <ul><li>Pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Disease causing organisms and might also be considered predator organism </li></ul>
  18. 26. Competition <ul><li>It is when same species or different species fight to stay alive by fighting for usable forms, space, energy, specific sites for life activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Intraspecific competition – competition among members of the same species. </li></ul><ul><li>Interspecific competition – competition between different species. </li></ul><ul><li>Territoriality – an intense form of intraspecific competition in which organisms define an area of surrounding their homesite or nesting site and defend it against same members of species. </li></ul>
  19. 27. Territorial Animals
  20. 29. Community Properties <ul><li>Productivity (primary) </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of biomass production, an indication of the rate of solar energy conservation to chemical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest, coral reefs and estuaries have abundant supplies of energy while </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts lack water that limits photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra has low temperature limits plant growth </li></ul>
  21. 30. Abundance <ul><li>Is an expression of total number of organisms in a biological community </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Is a measure of the number of different species, ecological niches, and genetic variation present. </li></ul><ul><li>The abundance of a particular species is inversely proportional to the total diversity of a community. </li></ul>
  22. 31. <ul><li>Communities with a very large number of species often have only few members of any given species in a particular area. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity decreases but abundance within species increases. </li></ul>
  23. 32. Succession <ul><li>This is reflected in the gradual changes of the vegetational community over time, known as succession. </li></ul><ul><li>It begins with the colonization of a disturbed area, such as </li></ul><ul><li>an abandoned crop field or </li></ul><ul><li>a newly exposed lava flow, </li></ul><ul><li>by species able to reach and to tolerate the environmental conditions present. </li></ul>
  24. 33. Pace of succession depends <ul><li>on the competitive abilities of the species involved; </li></ul><ul><li>tolerance to the environmental conditions brought about by changes in vegetation; </li></ul><ul><li>the interaction with animals, particularly the grazing herbivores; </li></ul><ul><li>and fire. </li></ul>
  25. 34. Climax <ul><li>where further changes take place very slowly, </li></ul><ul><li>and the site is dominated by long-lived, highly competitive species. </li></ul><ul><li>It is where eventually the ecosystem arrives at a point. </li></ul>
  26. 35. Factors contributing to Succession
  27. 37. Flooding
  28. 38. Earthquake
  29. 39. Tsunami
  30. 40. Deforestation
  31. 41. Road Widening
  32. 42. Forest damaged by acid rain
  33. 43. Agricultural expansion
  34. 44. Sheep grazing
  35. 45. Global Warming <ul><li>It is an increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere, oceans, and landmasses of Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The planet has warmed (and cooled) many times during the 4.65 billion years of its history. </li></ul><ul><li>At present Earth appears to be facing a rapid warming, which most scientists believe results, at least in part, from human activities. </li></ul>
  36. 46. <ul><li>The chief cause of this warming is thought to be the burning of fossil fuels; </li></ul><ul><li>such as coal, oil, and natural gas, </li></ul><ul><li>which releases into the atmosphere carbon dioxide and other substances known as greenhouse gases. </li></ul>
  37. 47. Ozone Layer Destruction Leads to Greenhouse Effect
  38. 48. Shrinking of Greenland Ice sheet
  39. 49. Inconvenient Truth <ul><li>A documentary film, which offers a passionate and inspirational look at one man's fervent crusade to halt global warming's deadly progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Former Vice President Al Gore, re-set the course of his life to focus on a last-ditch, all-out effort to help save the planet from irrevocable change </li></ul>
  40. 50. Assignment <ul><li>Write a critical analysis of the documentary film “Inconvenient Truth” </li></ul><ul><li>State the highlights of the film </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze its strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Give your own conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Not less than 100 words, hand written, in a short bond paper. </li></ul>