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Ecology ppt


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Ecology PPT for Biology 2

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Ecology ppt

  1. 1. Ecology<br />
  2. 2. What is Ecology?<br />Ecology is the study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.<br />Biosphere contains the combined portions of the planet in which life exists, including land, water, and air or atmosphere.<br />
  3. 3. Levels of Organization<br />Species is a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed.<br />Population are groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.<br />
  4. 4. Levels of Organization <br />Communities are assemblages of the different populations that live together ina defined area.<br />Ecosystem is a collection of all the organisms that live together in a particular place as well as their nonliving or physical environment.<br />
  5. 5. Levels of Organization <br />Biomeis a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities.<br />
  6. 6. Energy Flow<br /> Sunlight is the main source of energy for life on Earth.<br />Some types of organisms rely on the energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds.<br />Autotrophs (producers) use energy from the environment to fuel assembly of simple compounds into complex organic molecules. <br />
  7. 7. Energy FlowAutotrophs<br />The best know autotrophs are those that harness the power of the sun through photosynthesis. They use this energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and glucose.<br />The second type of autotrophs use chemical energy to make carbohydrates. This is performed by several types of bacteria. <br />
  8. 8. Energy FlowConsumers<br />Heterotrophs (consumers) rely on other organisms for their energy and food.<br />Herbivores obtain energy by eating plants.<br />Carnivores eat animals.<br />
  9. 9. Energy Flow Consumers<br />Omnivores eat both plants and animals.<br />Detritivores feed on the remains of plants, animals and other dead matter.<br />Decomposers breaks down organic matter.<br />
  10. 10. Feeding Relationships<br />Energy flow through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).<br />Food Chains are a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten.<br />
  11. 11. Feeding Relationships<br />Food webs show the complex interactions within an ecosystem.<br />Each step in a food chain or web is called a trophic level. Producers make up the first step, consumers make up the higher levels.<br />
  12. 12. Ecological Pyramids<br />An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the relationship amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food web or food chain.<br />Energy Pyramid only 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level.<br />
  13. 13. Pyramids Continued<br />Biomass pyramids show the total amount of living tissue available at each trophic level. This shows the amount of tissue available for the next trophic level.<br />Numbers pyramid shows the number of species at each trophic level.<br />Because each trophic level harvests only about one tenth of the energy from the level below, it can support only about one 10th the amount of living tissue. <br />
  14. 14. Cycles of Matter<br />Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.<br />These cycles are the water cycle, Nutrient Cycle, Carbon Cycle, nitrogen cycle and phosphorus cycle.<br />