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SUBJECT
Renewable Energy and Green
Technology
TOPIC
Bio-Fuels
by
Dr. Sanjay Singh Chouhan
Assistant Professor
College of Agriculture, JNKVV,
Powarkheda, Hoshangabad
1
Biofuels
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 2
Biofuels
• Bio-fuel is another product from biomass. In 1930 and during the Second World War,
many countries converted waste agricultural products to alcohol for use in automobiles, as
10-15 per cent blends with gasoline or as entire fuel.
• “Biofuels” are transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel that are made from biomass
materials.
• These fuels are usually blended with petroleum fuels namely with gasoline and diesel fuel,
but they can also be used on their own.
• Ethanol and biodiesel are also cleaner burning fuels, producing fewer air pollutants.
• It has drawn significant attention due to increasing environmental concern and diminishing
petroleum reserves.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
3
Bio-diesel:
Bio-diesel fuel can be made from renewable vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled cooking
oils by trans-esterification process. It is the fastest growing alternative fuel in the world.
Ethanol or Bio-alcohol:
Ethanol is a alcohol fuel made from the sugars found in grains such as corn, sorghum, and
wheat, as well as potato skins, rice, sugarcane, sugar beets and yard clippings by
fermentation.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
4
Importance of Biofuels
Combat Energy Crisis
Reduce Greenhouse Effect
Fuel Environmentally Friendly Cars
Break Foreign Oil Dependence
Characteristics of bio-fuels
Kinematic viscosity
• Viscosity represents flow characteristics and the tendency of fluids to deform with stress.
• Viscosity affects injector lubrication and fuel atomization.
• Fuels with low viscosity may not provide sufficient lubrication for the precision fit of fuel
injection pumps, resulting in leakage or increased wear.
• Fuel atomization is also affected by fuel viscosity.
• Fuels with high viscosity tend to form larger droplets on injection which can cause poor
combustion, increased exhaust smoke and emissions.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
6
Density
• Density is the weight per unit volume.
• Oils that are denser contain more energy. For example, petrol and diesel fuels give
comparable energy by weight, but diesel is denser and hence gives more energy per liter.
• Biodiesel is generally denser than diesel fuel with sample values ranging between 877
kg/m3 to 884 kg/m3 compared with diesel at 835 kg/m3.
• Thus, density of the final product depends mostly on the feedstock used.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
7
Calorific Value, Heat of combustion
Heating Value or Heat of Combustion, is the amount of heating energy released by the
combustion of a unit value of fuels. One of the most important determinants of heating
value is moisture content.
Melt point or Pour point
Melt or pour point refers to the temperature at which the oil in solid form starts to melt or
pour. In case where the temperatures fall below the melt point, the entire fuel system
including all fuel lines and fuel tank will need to be heated.
Cloud point
The temperature at which an oil starts to solidify is known as the cloud point. While
operating an engine at temperatures below an oil‟s cloud point, heating will be necessary in
order to avoid waxing of the fuel.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
8
Flash point (FP)
• The flash point temperature of diesel fuel is the minimum temperature at which the fuel
will ignite (flash) on application of an ignition source.
• Flash point varies inversely with the fuel‟s volatility. Minimum flash point temperatures
are required for proper safety and handling of diesel fuel.
• The flash point determines the flammability of the material. Neat biodiesel has a flash
point (150°C) well above the flash point of petroleum based diesel fuel (±70°C).
Acid value
The total acid number is an indication of the presence of free fatty acids formed due to oil
degradation and combustion. It can also result from improper manufacturing, through
remaining catalyst or excessive neutralization
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
9
Stability
• Biodiesel ages more quickly than petroleum diesel fuel due to the chemical structure of
fatty acids and methyl esters present in biodiesel.
• Typically there are fourteen types of fatty acid methyl ester in the biodiesel.
• The individual proportion of presence of these esters in the fuel effects the final
properties of biodiesel.
• Biodiesel and its blends should not be stored in a storage tank or vehicle tank more than 6
months.
• Depending upon the storage temperature and other conditions suggest the use of
appropriate antioxidants.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
10
Carbon Residue
• This indicates the tendency of fuel to form carbon deposits in an engine.
• An important indicator of the quality of biodiesel is the carbon residue, which corresponds
to the content of glycerides, free fatty acids, soaps, polymers and remaining catalyst.
Ash Percentage
• Ash is a measure of the amount of metals contained in the fuel.
• High concentrations of these materials can cause injector tip plugging, combustion
deposits and injection system wear.
• The ash content is important for the heating value, as heating value decreases with
increasing ash content.
• Ash content for bio-fuels is typically lower than for most coals, and sulphur content is
much lower than for many fossil fuels.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
11
Sulfur percentage
• The percentage by weight, of sulfur in the fuel sulfur content is limited by law to very small
percentages for diesel fuel used in on-road applications.
• First use vegetable oil and animal fat based biodiesel has less than 15 ppm sulphur.
• Many researchers claim that pure biodiesel is essentially sulphur free and therefore
biodiesel is an ultra-low sulphur fuel.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
12
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 13
Bio-Diesel
• Biodiesel is a form of diesel fuel derived from plants or animals and
consisting of long-chain fatty acid esters. It is typically made by chemically
reacting lipids such as animal fat, soybean oil, or some other vegetable oil
with an alcohol, producing a methyl, ethyl or propyl ester.
• Unlike the vegetable and waste oil, it used to fuel converted diesel engines,
biodiesel is a drop-in biofuel, meaning it is compatible with existing diesel
engines and distribution infrastructure.
• Biodiesel can be used alone or blended with petro-diesel in any proportions.
Biodiesel blends can also be used as heating oil.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 14
15
JNKVV-CollegeofAgriculture,Powarkheda
Advantages of biodiesel
1. Produced from sustainable / renewable biological sources
2. Eco-friendly and oxygenated fuel.
3. Sulphur free, less CO, HC, particulate matter and aromatic compounds
emissions.
4. Income to rural community.
5. Fuel properties similar to the conventional fuel.
6. Used in existing unmodified diesel engines.
7. Reduce expenditure on oil imports.
8. Non toxic, biodegradable and safety to handle
Transesterification
• Biodiesel is commonly produced by the transesterification of the vegetable oil or
animal fat feedstock.
• The process involves reacting vegetable oils or animal fats catalytically with a short-
chain aliphatic alcohols (typically methanol or ethanol).
• There are several methods for carrying out this transesterification reaction including
the common batch process, supercritical processes, ultrasonic methods, and even
microwave methods.
• A by-product of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol.
• For every 1 tonne of biodiesel that is manufactured, 100 kg of glycerol are produced.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 16
Biodiesel Production Jatropha
Curcas Seeds
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
17
Production methods
Batch process:
1. Preparation: care must be taken to monitor the amount of water and free fatty acids in
the incoming biolipid (oil or fat). If the free fatty acid level or water level is too high it
may cause problems with soap formation and the separation of the glycerin by-product
downstream.
2. Catalyst is dissolved in the alcohol using a standard agitator or mixer.
3. The alcohol/catalyst mix is then charged into a closed reaction vessel and the biolipid
(vegetable or animal oil or fat) is added. The system from here on is totally closed to the
atmosphere to prevent the loss of alcohol.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
18
4. The reaction mix is kept just above the boiling point of the alcohol (around 70 °C) to
speed up the reaction. Recommended reaction time varies from 1 to 8 hours; under
normal conditions the reaction rate will double with every 10 °C increase in reaction
temperature. Excess alcohol is normally used to ensure total conversion of the fat or oil
to its esters.
5. The glycerin phase is much denser than biodiesel phase and the two can be gravity
separated with glycerin simply drawn off the bottom of the settling vessel. In some
cases, a centrifuge is used to separate the two materials faster.
6. Once the glycerin and biodiesel phases have been separated, the excess alcohol in each
phase is removed with a flash evaporation process or by distillation. Care must be taken
to ensure no water accumulates in the recovered alcohol stream.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
19
7. The by-product (i.e., glycerin) contains unused catalyst and soaps, that are neutralized
with an acid and sent to storage as crude glycerin.
8. Once separated from the glycerin, the biodiesel is sometimes purified by washing gently
with warm water to remove residual catalyst or soaps, dried, and sent to storage.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
20
Advantages of biodiesel
1. Biodiesel fuel is a renewable energy source, unlike petroleum-based diesel.
2. Biodiesel is less polluting than petroleum diesel.
3. The lack of sulfur in 100% biodiesel extends the life of catalytic converters.
4. Biodiesel can be blended with other energy resources and oil.
5. Biodiesel fuel can be used in existing oil heating systems and diesel engines without any
alterations to those systems or engines.
6. Biodiesel can be distributed through existing diesel fuel pumps, which is another advantage
over other alternative fuels.
7. Sulfur, which acts as a lubricating agent, must be removed from conventional petroleum-
based diesel fuel. The lubricating property of biodiesel fuel can lengthen the lifetime of
engines. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 21
Disadvantages of biodiesel
1. At present, biodiesel fuel is more expensive than petroleum diesel fuel.
2. Biofuels are a solvent and therefore can harm rubber hoses in some engines.
3. As a solvent, biodiesel cleans dirt from engines. This dirt can then get
collected in fuel filters, clogging them. As a result, filters have to be changed
after the first several hours of biodiesel use.
4. Biodiesel fuel distribution infrastructure needs improvement to make
biodiesel more widely available.
5. In cold weather, pure biodiesel can thicken or gel, making it hard to pump.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 22
Bio-Alcohol (Ethanol)
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 23
Ethanol
• Non-petroleum liquid fuels find use when petroleum fuels are scarce or costly.
• The scientists have been in search of new fuels to replace conventional fuels that are used in
IC engines.
• Among all the fuels, alcohols, which can be produced from sugarcane waste and many other
agricultural products, are considered the most promising fuels for the future.
• There are two types of alcohols: Methanol (CH3OH) and Ethanol (C2H5OH).
• Ethanol has attracted a lot of attention as a transport fuel because it is relatively cheap non-
petroleum-based fuel.
• Also, the emissions are much less from the combustion of ethanol than for fossile fuels.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 24
• In India, ethanol is a strong candidate since they posses the agricultural resources
for its production.
• It is a more attractive fuel for India because the productive capacity from
sugarcane crops is high, of the order of 1345 l/ha.
• Earlier, this fuel was not used in automobiles due to low energy density, high
production cost and corrosion.
• The current shortage of gasoline has made it necessary to substitute ethanol as
fuel in SI engines.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 25
Production of Ethanol
Three different feed stocks are available for ethanol
production such as:
1. Sugar feed stock i.e., sugarcane and sugar beet.
2. Starch feed stock i.e., cereal grains and potato.
3. Cellulose feed stock i.e., forest products and
agricultural residues.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 26
27
Ethanol From Starchy Feed Stock (Grains)
Ethanol production from cereal grains such as barley,
wheat and corn is a much easier process than from
cellulose material. The process includes several steps, as
listed below:
a) Milling of grains
b) Hydrolysis of starch to sugar units
c) Fermentation by yeast
d) Distillation
e) Removal of water from ethanol
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 28
Ethanol Production From Corn
Process Steps:
• After grinding the raw material, it is mixed with water and enzymes to break down the
starch to sugar units.
• The free sugar can be used by yeast or bacteria and converted to ethanol and carbon
dioxide.
• As the concentration of ethanol increases to about 15%, fermentation is reduced,
since high alcohol concentration kills the yeast or bacteria.
• It is then necessary to separate the ethanol from the other material in the
fermentation tanks by distillation.
• Distillation increases the ethanol concentration up to about 95%.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 29
Cont….
• In order to remove the rest of the water from the ethanol solution, it must be
dried by different drying agents to a concentration of 99.5% ethanol or
absolute ethanol.
• Extractive distillation with benzene also yields anhydrous ethanol.
• It is possible to produce 1 litre of absolute ethanol from about 3 kg of wheat.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 30
Ethanol
from
Sugarcane
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 31
Production of
Ethanol from
Sugarcane
JNKVV-CollegeofAgriculture,Powarkheda
32
Production of Ethanol from Sugarcane
• Ethanol production from sugarcane is one of the easiest and most efficient processes since
sugarcane contains about 15% sucrose.
• The glycosidic bond in the disaccharide can be broken down into two sugar units, which are free
and readily available for fermentation.
• The cane is cut and the juice is extracted by maceration and after clarification, the juice is
concentrated by boiling.
• The concentrated juice is fermented with yeast to produce raw ethanol.
• A series of distillation steps including a final extractive distillation with benzene are used to
obtain anhydrous ethanol.
• The normal yield of ethanol is about 8.73 litres of alcohol per tonne of cane.
• The potential of ethanol production in India is about 475 litres per year.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda
33
Advantages of Bio-ethanol
• The overwhelming advantage of bio-ethanol for the environment is its
potential to be carbon neutral on a lifecycle basis – meaning the
carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted during its use is offset by the absorption
from the atmosphere during its growth.
• With emissions of CO2 and nitrous oxide taken into account, some
studies suggest that lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions can be
reduced by 90% with bio-ethanol compared to petrol.
• Large amounts of bagasse (the remaining wood fibres after the juice is
extracted) used for heat energy.
• Bio-ethanol also has the advantage of lower taxation. The
government has reduced fuel duty on bio-ethanol, which offsets the
higher production costs.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 34
DISADVANTAGES OF BIOETHANOL
• Biodiversity – A large amount of arable land is required to grow crops. This
could see some natural habitats destroyed including rainforests.
• The food V fuel debate – There is concern that due to the lucrative prices of
bio-ethanol some farmers may sacrifice food crops for biofuel production
which will increase food prices around the world.
• Carbon emissions – There is debate over the neutrality of bio-ethanol when all
elements are taken into consideration including the cost of changing the land
use of an area, transportation and the burning of the crop.
• There are also concerns over the fuel systems used. Too many older cars are
currently unequipped to handle even 10% ethanol while there is concern that
using 100% ethanol decreases fuel economy by around 15-30% compared with
100% petroleum.
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 35
Thanks for listening…..
JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 36

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Biofuels

  • 1. SUBJECT Renewable Energy and Green Technology TOPIC Bio-Fuels by Dr. Sanjay Singh Chouhan Assistant Professor College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Powarkheda, Hoshangabad 1
  • 2. Biofuels JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 2
  • 3. Biofuels • Bio-fuel is another product from biomass. In 1930 and during the Second World War, many countries converted waste agricultural products to alcohol for use in automobiles, as 10-15 per cent blends with gasoline or as entire fuel. • “Biofuels” are transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel that are made from biomass materials. • These fuels are usually blended with petroleum fuels namely with gasoline and diesel fuel, but they can also be used on their own. • Ethanol and biodiesel are also cleaner burning fuels, producing fewer air pollutants. • It has drawn significant attention due to increasing environmental concern and diminishing petroleum reserves. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 3
  • 4. Bio-diesel: Bio-diesel fuel can be made from renewable vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled cooking oils by trans-esterification process. It is the fastest growing alternative fuel in the world. Ethanol or Bio-alcohol: Ethanol is a alcohol fuel made from the sugars found in grains such as corn, sorghum, and wheat, as well as potato skins, rice, sugarcane, sugar beets and yard clippings by fermentation. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 4
  • 5. Importance of Biofuels Combat Energy Crisis Reduce Greenhouse Effect Fuel Environmentally Friendly Cars Break Foreign Oil Dependence
  • 6. Characteristics of bio-fuels Kinematic viscosity • Viscosity represents flow characteristics and the tendency of fluids to deform with stress. • Viscosity affects injector lubrication and fuel atomization. • Fuels with low viscosity may not provide sufficient lubrication for the precision fit of fuel injection pumps, resulting in leakage or increased wear. • Fuel atomization is also affected by fuel viscosity. • Fuels with high viscosity tend to form larger droplets on injection which can cause poor combustion, increased exhaust smoke and emissions. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 6
  • 7. Density • Density is the weight per unit volume. • Oils that are denser contain more energy. For example, petrol and diesel fuels give comparable energy by weight, but diesel is denser and hence gives more energy per liter. • Biodiesel is generally denser than diesel fuel with sample values ranging between 877 kg/m3 to 884 kg/m3 compared with diesel at 835 kg/m3. • Thus, density of the final product depends mostly on the feedstock used. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 7
  • 8. Calorific Value, Heat of combustion Heating Value or Heat of Combustion, is the amount of heating energy released by the combustion of a unit value of fuels. One of the most important determinants of heating value is moisture content. Melt point or Pour point Melt or pour point refers to the temperature at which the oil in solid form starts to melt or pour. In case where the temperatures fall below the melt point, the entire fuel system including all fuel lines and fuel tank will need to be heated. Cloud point The temperature at which an oil starts to solidify is known as the cloud point. While operating an engine at temperatures below an oil‟s cloud point, heating will be necessary in order to avoid waxing of the fuel. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 8
  • 9. Flash point (FP) • The flash point temperature of diesel fuel is the minimum temperature at which the fuel will ignite (flash) on application of an ignition source. • Flash point varies inversely with the fuel‟s volatility. Minimum flash point temperatures are required for proper safety and handling of diesel fuel. • The flash point determines the flammability of the material. Neat biodiesel has a flash point (150°C) well above the flash point of petroleum based diesel fuel (±70°C). Acid value The total acid number is an indication of the presence of free fatty acids formed due to oil degradation and combustion. It can also result from improper manufacturing, through remaining catalyst or excessive neutralization JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 9
  • 10. Stability • Biodiesel ages more quickly than petroleum diesel fuel due to the chemical structure of fatty acids and methyl esters present in biodiesel. • Typically there are fourteen types of fatty acid methyl ester in the biodiesel. • The individual proportion of presence of these esters in the fuel effects the final properties of biodiesel. • Biodiesel and its blends should not be stored in a storage tank or vehicle tank more than 6 months. • Depending upon the storage temperature and other conditions suggest the use of appropriate antioxidants. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 10
  • 11. Carbon Residue • This indicates the tendency of fuel to form carbon deposits in an engine. • An important indicator of the quality of biodiesel is the carbon residue, which corresponds to the content of glycerides, free fatty acids, soaps, polymers and remaining catalyst. Ash Percentage • Ash is a measure of the amount of metals contained in the fuel. • High concentrations of these materials can cause injector tip plugging, combustion deposits and injection system wear. • The ash content is important for the heating value, as heating value decreases with increasing ash content. • Ash content for bio-fuels is typically lower than for most coals, and sulphur content is much lower than for many fossil fuels. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 11
  • 12. Sulfur percentage • The percentage by weight, of sulfur in the fuel sulfur content is limited by law to very small percentages for diesel fuel used in on-road applications. • First use vegetable oil and animal fat based biodiesel has less than 15 ppm sulphur. • Many researchers claim that pure biodiesel is essentially sulphur free and therefore biodiesel is an ultra-low sulphur fuel. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 12
  • 13. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 13
  • 14. Bio-Diesel • Biodiesel is a form of diesel fuel derived from plants or animals and consisting of long-chain fatty acid esters. It is typically made by chemically reacting lipids such as animal fat, soybean oil, or some other vegetable oil with an alcohol, producing a methyl, ethyl or propyl ester. • Unlike the vegetable and waste oil, it used to fuel converted diesel engines, biodiesel is a drop-in biofuel, meaning it is compatible with existing diesel engines and distribution infrastructure. • Biodiesel can be used alone or blended with petro-diesel in any proportions. Biodiesel blends can also be used as heating oil. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 14
  • 15. 15 JNKVV-CollegeofAgriculture,Powarkheda Advantages of biodiesel 1. Produced from sustainable / renewable biological sources 2. Eco-friendly and oxygenated fuel. 3. Sulphur free, less CO, HC, particulate matter and aromatic compounds emissions. 4. Income to rural community. 5. Fuel properties similar to the conventional fuel. 6. Used in existing unmodified diesel engines. 7. Reduce expenditure on oil imports. 8. Non toxic, biodegradable and safety to handle
  • 16. Transesterification • Biodiesel is commonly produced by the transesterification of the vegetable oil or animal fat feedstock. • The process involves reacting vegetable oils or animal fats catalytically with a short- chain aliphatic alcohols (typically methanol or ethanol). • There are several methods for carrying out this transesterification reaction including the common batch process, supercritical processes, ultrasonic methods, and even microwave methods. • A by-product of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol. • For every 1 tonne of biodiesel that is manufactured, 100 kg of glycerol are produced. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 16
  • 17. Biodiesel Production Jatropha Curcas Seeds JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 17
  • 18. Production methods Batch process: 1. Preparation: care must be taken to monitor the amount of water and free fatty acids in the incoming biolipid (oil or fat). If the free fatty acid level or water level is too high it may cause problems with soap formation and the separation of the glycerin by-product downstream. 2. Catalyst is dissolved in the alcohol using a standard agitator or mixer. 3. The alcohol/catalyst mix is then charged into a closed reaction vessel and the biolipid (vegetable or animal oil or fat) is added. The system from here on is totally closed to the atmosphere to prevent the loss of alcohol. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 18
  • 19. 4. The reaction mix is kept just above the boiling point of the alcohol (around 70 °C) to speed up the reaction. Recommended reaction time varies from 1 to 8 hours; under normal conditions the reaction rate will double with every 10 °C increase in reaction temperature. Excess alcohol is normally used to ensure total conversion of the fat or oil to its esters. 5. The glycerin phase is much denser than biodiesel phase and the two can be gravity separated with glycerin simply drawn off the bottom of the settling vessel. In some cases, a centrifuge is used to separate the two materials faster. 6. Once the glycerin and biodiesel phases have been separated, the excess alcohol in each phase is removed with a flash evaporation process or by distillation. Care must be taken to ensure no water accumulates in the recovered alcohol stream. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 19
  • 20. 7. The by-product (i.e., glycerin) contains unused catalyst and soaps, that are neutralized with an acid and sent to storage as crude glycerin. 8. Once separated from the glycerin, the biodiesel is sometimes purified by washing gently with warm water to remove residual catalyst or soaps, dried, and sent to storage. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 20
  • 21. Advantages of biodiesel 1. Biodiesel fuel is a renewable energy source, unlike petroleum-based diesel. 2. Biodiesel is less polluting than petroleum diesel. 3. The lack of sulfur in 100% biodiesel extends the life of catalytic converters. 4. Biodiesel can be blended with other energy resources and oil. 5. Biodiesel fuel can be used in existing oil heating systems and diesel engines without any alterations to those systems or engines. 6. Biodiesel can be distributed through existing diesel fuel pumps, which is another advantage over other alternative fuels. 7. Sulfur, which acts as a lubricating agent, must be removed from conventional petroleum- based diesel fuel. The lubricating property of biodiesel fuel can lengthen the lifetime of engines. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 21
  • 22. Disadvantages of biodiesel 1. At present, biodiesel fuel is more expensive than petroleum diesel fuel. 2. Biofuels are a solvent and therefore can harm rubber hoses in some engines. 3. As a solvent, biodiesel cleans dirt from engines. This dirt can then get collected in fuel filters, clogging them. As a result, filters have to be changed after the first several hours of biodiesel use. 4. Biodiesel fuel distribution infrastructure needs improvement to make biodiesel more widely available. 5. In cold weather, pure biodiesel can thicken or gel, making it hard to pump. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 22
  • 23. Bio-Alcohol (Ethanol) JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 23
  • 24. Ethanol • Non-petroleum liquid fuels find use when petroleum fuels are scarce or costly. • The scientists have been in search of new fuels to replace conventional fuels that are used in IC engines. • Among all the fuels, alcohols, which can be produced from sugarcane waste and many other agricultural products, are considered the most promising fuels for the future. • There are two types of alcohols: Methanol (CH3OH) and Ethanol (C2H5OH). • Ethanol has attracted a lot of attention as a transport fuel because it is relatively cheap non- petroleum-based fuel. • Also, the emissions are much less from the combustion of ethanol than for fossile fuels. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 24
  • 25. • In India, ethanol is a strong candidate since they posses the agricultural resources for its production. • It is a more attractive fuel for India because the productive capacity from sugarcane crops is high, of the order of 1345 l/ha. • Earlier, this fuel was not used in automobiles due to low energy density, high production cost and corrosion. • The current shortage of gasoline has made it necessary to substitute ethanol as fuel in SI engines. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 25
  • 26. Production of Ethanol Three different feed stocks are available for ethanol production such as: 1. Sugar feed stock i.e., sugarcane and sugar beet. 2. Starch feed stock i.e., cereal grains and potato. 3. Cellulose feed stock i.e., forest products and agricultural residues. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 26
  • 27. 27 Ethanol From Starchy Feed Stock (Grains) Ethanol production from cereal grains such as barley, wheat and corn is a much easier process than from cellulose material. The process includes several steps, as listed below: a) Milling of grains b) Hydrolysis of starch to sugar units c) Fermentation by yeast d) Distillation e) Removal of water from ethanol
  • 28. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 28 Ethanol Production From Corn
  • 29. Process Steps: • After grinding the raw material, it is mixed with water and enzymes to break down the starch to sugar units. • The free sugar can be used by yeast or bacteria and converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide. • As the concentration of ethanol increases to about 15%, fermentation is reduced, since high alcohol concentration kills the yeast or bacteria. • It is then necessary to separate the ethanol from the other material in the fermentation tanks by distillation. • Distillation increases the ethanol concentration up to about 95%. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 29
  • 30. Cont…. • In order to remove the rest of the water from the ethanol solution, it must be dried by different drying agents to a concentration of 99.5% ethanol or absolute ethanol. • Extractive distillation with benzene also yields anhydrous ethanol. • It is possible to produce 1 litre of absolute ethanol from about 3 kg of wheat. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 30
  • 31. Ethanol from Sugarcane JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 31
  • 33. Production of Ethanol from Sugarcane • Ethanol production from sugarcane is one of the easiest and most efficient processes since sugarcane contains about 15% sucrose. • The glycosidic bond in the disaccharide can be broken down into two sugar units, which are free and readily available for fermentation. • The cane is cut and the juice is extracted by maceration and after clarification, the juice is concentrated by boiling. • The concentrated juice is fermented with yeast to produce raw ethanol. • A series of distillation steps including a final extractive distillation with benzene are used to obtain anhydrous ethanol. • The normal yield of ethanol is about 8.73 litres of alcohol per tonne of cane. • The potential of ethanol production in India is about 475 litres per year. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 33
  • 34. Advantages of Bio-ethanol • The overwhelming advantage of bio-ethanol for the environment is its potential to be carbon neutral on a lifecycle basis – meaning the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted during its use is offset by the absorption from the atmosphere during its growth. • With emissions of CO2 and nitrous oxide taken into account, some studies suggest that lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced by 90% with bio-ethanol compared to petrol. • Large amounts of bagasse (the remaining wood fibres after the juice is extracted) used for heat energy. • Bio-ethanol also has the advantage of lower taxation. The government has reduced fuel duty on bio-ethanol, which offsets the higher production costs. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 34
  • 35. DISADVANTAGES OF BIOETHANOL • Biodiversity – A large amount of arable land is required to grow crops. This could see some natural habitats destroyed including rainforests. • The food V fuel debate – There is concern that due to the lucrative prices of bio-ethanol some farmers may sacrifice food crops for biofuel production which will increase food prices around the world. • Carbon emissions – There is debate over the neutrality of bio-ethanol when all elements are taken into consideration including the cost of changing the land use of an area, transportation and the burning of the crop. • There are also concerns over the fuel systems used. Too many older cars are currently unequipped to handle even 10% ethanol while there is concern that using 100% ethanol decreases fuel economy by around 15-30% compared with 100% petroleum. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 35
  • 36. Thanks for listening….. JNKVV- College of Agriculture, Powarkheda 36