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  1. 1. Indian Removal
  2. 2. The Indians <ul><li>The “Five Civilized Tribes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chickasaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choctaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cherokee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was a crime in the Cherokee Nation to sell land to the Americans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Events Leading to the Act <ul><li>Georgians felt that they had a right to the land the Cherokee were occupying. </li></ul><ul><li>Some tribes violently resisted encroachment </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee Constitution nullified Georgia’s laws. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cherokee Nation adopted its Constitution in order to become a state. However, they ran into a problem: The constitution did not allow a state to be created within another without the approval of the latter. Thus, Georgia called for the removal of Indians within its lands. This lead to a later court case. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Indian Policy <ul><li>Jefferson and Washington (assimilation) </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson (removal) </li></ul><ul><li>East of Mississippi to West of Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>First half of the 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson felt he was saving Native American culture </li></ul>
  5. 5. Indian Removal Act of 1830 <ul><li>Signed into law by Andrew Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly supported in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Inevitable removal of Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Most European Americans supported the act </li></ul>
  6. 6. Court Cases after the Act <ul><li>Cherokee Tribe takes Georgia legislature to the Supreme Court ( Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia , 1831) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathy for Native American position, but the Cherokee Nation was denied the right to be recognized as a foreign nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worcester vs. Georgia (1832): John Marshall ruled that the states had no right to extend its authority over the Cherokee in its borders </li></ul>
  7. 7. Important Treaties <ul><li>Treaty of Fort Jackson (1814) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended for the Creek Nation in the South </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek (1830) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First treaty with Native Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the largest land acquisitions in time of peace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treaty of New Echota (1836) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty with the Cherokee </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Trail of Tears <ul><li>1830s </li></ul><ul><li>17,000 Choctaw (1831) </li></ul><ul><li>2,500-6,000 died along the way </li></ul><ul><li>15,000 Cherokee were marched West by the US army (1838-1839) </li></ul><ul><li>4,000 died along the way </li></ul>
  9. 10. Military Conflict <ul><li>Black Hawk War of 1832 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Seminole War, also known as the Florida War (1835-1842) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most expensive war with Indians </li></ul></ul>