5 Presentation of academic papers


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Presenting data; structuring long documents; using styles; adding tables of contents

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  • 5 Presentation of academic papers

    1. 1. Presentation of written work Presenting data; structuring long documents; using styles; adding tables of contents
    2. 2. Presenting data <ul><li>Main principle: clarity for the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Bell, J Doing your research project (3 rd ed) Buckingham: Open University Press, 1999 chapter 12 </li></ul><ul><li>List, category, rank, scale, quantity, grid, verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with how to present different forms of data </li></ul>
    3. 3. Graphs <ul><li>For sophisticated data analysis, use a package such as SPSS </li></ul><ul><li>MS Word creates graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the best way to display data so that it is clear for the reader </li></ul>
    4. 4. Long documents <ul><li>Organisation of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Sections with headings </li></ul><ul><li>Use a template (make your own and use again and again) </li></ul><ul><li>Find out how to get the computer to do some of the work for you! </li></ul><ul><li>www.ucs.ed.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>http://webdb.ucs.ed.ac.uk/eucscourses/courselist/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ucs.ed.ac.uk/usd/iss/ol/comms/netskills.html </li></ul>
    5. 5. Structure of long documents <ul><li>Choice of headings </li></ul><ul><li>Numbering sections </li></ul><ul><li>Either indented first line OR block paragraphs with line space between </li></ul><ul><li>Use paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>Help the reader – indicate the structure </li></ul>
    6. 6. Long documents – headings and margins <ul><li>Include page numbers (in the “footer” – VIEW > HEADER & FOOTER) </li></ul><ul><li>Follow guidelines in handbook for line spacing and margins </li></ul><ul><li>Help the reader – indicate the structure </li></ul>
    7. 7. Organising ideas <ul><li>Paragraphs should have one main idea </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure paragraphs are linked </li></ul><ul><li>Explain to the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Use headings when creating drafts; discard some later </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t tell stories! </li></ul>
    8. 8. Introduction – last for writer, first for reader <ul><li>Limit the information – think about the reader (who do you expect to read this?) </li></ul><ul><li>Study introductions in journal articles: how much information? How much background? How much about organisation? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Academic style <ul><li>Collect useful phrases from your reading </li></ul><ul><li>Tenses: (Swales 1990: 153) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present tense for generalisations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Past tense for references to specific research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present perfect for areas of enquiry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoiding first person </li></ul>Swales, JM Genre Analysis: English in academic and research settings CUP: 1990
    10. 10. Citations <ul><li>Consider the importance of the name of the researcher or the idea presented </li></ul><ul><li>Should the citation be integral or non-integral? </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid footnotes </li></ul><ul><li>Integral </li></ul><ul><li>Rennie (2006) discussed the value of collaborative study-groups </li></ul><ul><li>Non-integral </li></ul><ul><li>Previous research has shown benefits in collaborative study-groups (Rennie, 2006) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Using styles in MS Word <ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heading 1: most important (e.g. title of chapter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heading 2: next level / sub-heading (e.g. 1.1) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heading 3: next level of sub-heading (e.g. 1.1.1) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>No more than two fonts (sans-serif for headings; serif for main text ) </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul>
    12. 12. Table of contents <ul><li>First use styles for headings </li></ul><ul><li>Place cursor on empty line at beginning of document </li></ul><ul><li>INSERT > INDEX AND TABLES </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>INSERT > REFERENCE > INDEX AND TABLES (MS office XP) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Tasks <ul><li>Compile a sample bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Present sample data </li></ul><ul><li>Compare presentation of assignments / papers </li></ul><ul><li>Organise and structure samples with headings </li></ul><ul><li>Add styles to headings in MS Word </li></ul><ul><li>Collect documentation about word processing (EUCS) and web design (Netskills) </li></ul>