Scientific writing


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Scientific Writing should be fun. It is not for only science students but also for all the person who are associated with education or literature or any type of writing. For students also it is useful for paper writing. Dr. Daxaben N. Mehta

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Scientific writing

  1. 1. Scientific Writing Dr.Daxaben N. Mehta Principal, Smt.Sadguna C.U.Shah HomeScience and C. U. Shah Arts & Commerce Mahila College, Wadhwancity, District: Surendranagar Dt.: 27 /02 /2012
  2. 2. General Guidelines Types of Scientific Publication Outline Language Structure & Preparation of a Paper Title - Author Abstract Key words
  3. 3. General Guidelines Introduction Materials & Methods Results – Tables & Figures Discussion Conclusion References Acknowledgements
  4. 4. Different types of Scientific Publications Oral presentations Written presentations Books and book chapters Review papers Journal articles Science magazines Newspaper articles
  5. 5. Different types of Scientific Publications Extension leaflets and posters Conference posters Annual reports, quarterly reports and project reports Conference abstracts Conference/Workshop proceedings Letter to journals and book reviews
  6. 6. USING AN OUTLINE description of an outline value of the outline developing the outline
  7. 7. description of an outline A logical, general description A schematic summary An organizational pattern A visual and conceptual design of your writing
  8. 8. value of the outline Aids in the process of writing Helps you organize your ideas Provides a snapshot of each section of the paper will flow Presents your material in a logical form Shows the relationships among ideas in your writing Constructs an ordered overview of your writing Defines boundaries and groups
  9. 9. developing the outline Before you begin: Determine the purpose of your paper Determine the audience you are writing for Develop the thesis of your paper
  10. 10. Language Language Simple accurate Precise Brevity Grammar Active voice
  11. 11. Structure and preparation of a scientific paper The when, where, and what you might want to publish… Most research journals state that papers submitted for consideration must “make a significant and original contribution to knowledge”
  12. 12. When you may have professional imperatives that are pushing you to publish before your contribution to science is truly “significant” Ideally a research article should contain a coherent single body of work answering one or two major questions on a major theme and giving one or two further avenues of research
  13. 13. Where Consideration of ‘where’ determines the required format for the article and also its distribution and the expected recognition that should come from acceptance of the paper by the editors. International journals are generally considered the most thorough and scrupulous of all publication
  14. 14. What Typically presents experimental work— usually a minimum of two experiments, or field work conducted over two or more three seasons. Explains the motivation for conducting the work. Explains the design and conduct of the work. Presents the result of the workProposes an interpretation and meaning of the results Considers the significance of the results and of the interpretation proposed
  15. 15. The structure of a research paper The major sections required in a paper are often abbreviated in the acronym “IMRaD” meaning; Introduction, Methodology (Materials and Methods), Results, and Discussion. Other sections are clearly necessary (a title, abstract, references, etc.)
  16. 16. Title A title should be the fewest possible words that accurately describe the content of the paper. Omit all waste words such as "A study of ...", "Investigations of ...", "Observations on ...", etc. Indexing and abstracting services depend on the accuracy of the title, An improperly titled paper may never reach the audience for which it was intended, so be specific.
  17. 17. Title Only the first word in the title (except for proper nouns) has a capital letter. Titles are used in cataloguing and abstracting, in electronic/internet databases, and will be in the reference list of other research publications
  18. 18. Types of titles Indicative: Effectiveness of AV aids on teaching leaning process Informative: AV aids helps in teaching learning process Question: Do AV aids affect teaching learning process? Main title/Subtitle (Hanging): AV aids: effects on teaching learning process
  19. 19. Authors You will need to include the names and addresses of those who conducted the research and contributed to the writing of the paper . The major contributor to the research work and the writing of the research paper is named as first (“Senior”) author, with other authors following in decreasing order of their level of contribution to the work
  20. 20. Abstract This is a short (generally 200-250 words in one paragraph) summary of the objectives of the work, the methodology used, the main results, and the major conclusions. An abstract is definitive (NOT descriptive), i.e., it gives the hard facts in the form of statements concerning what is contained in the research paper
  21. 21. Abstract Abstracts are included in catalogues and electronic/ Internet databases and are of major use in enabling others to quickly and easily decide if they wish to read the full paper. Your abstract should follow the IMRaD structure
  22. 22. Keywords Keywords are a list of important words (or short phrases) used in the main text and or abstract but NOT already present in the title. Keywords are included with the title and the abstract in the indexing of the published article in electronic databases. Choose your key words carefully to complement those in the title to attract the largest number and broadest range of potential readers.
  23. 23. Introduction – “Why”. The ‘Introduction’ section of a research paper presents the nature and range of the problem investigated a review of relevant and pertinent literature results and conclusions of previous work an explanation (rationale) of why the work being described was needed
  24. 24. Introduction A key section of the introduction is the listing of your objective(s). These will often lead logically to a suggested hypothesis If you have more than one objective, present these in a logical order. This order will then be repeated elsewhere in the paper, making it easier for the reader to follow and understand
  25. 25. Introduction The ‘Introduction’ sets out Questions ‘A’ ‘B’ ‘C’ The ‘Materials and methods’ describes how to Answer ‘A’ ‘B’ ‘C’ The ‘Results’ reports answers to ‘A’ ‘B’ ‘C’ The ‘Discussion’ interprets the answers to ‘A’ ‘B’ ‘C’
  26. 26. Methodology “Where, When, and How” Describing the design (plus duration, location, and climate) and conduct of the experiment in sufficient detail that another researcher could repeat the work if necessary— including the statistical design used and the analysis performed. Model sampling procedure, method of data collection, type of analysis etc
  27. 27. Materials & Methods If you are reporting standard, recognized techniques they need not describe the procedures in detail. The name of the technique, plus a reference, if the technique or procedure has been described in a recognized journal is sufficient You should include all details of experimental design and statistical analysis
  28. 28. Materials & Methods includes all necessary details excludes all unnecessary detailsand therefore contains only what you need to present Should include all details so that someone else can repeat
  29. 29. Results These results are directly related to the objectives outlined in the Introduction Describes what was found, giving summaries of data obtained, as text, tables, figures, or graphs The ‘Results’ section is often the shortest section of a research publication, but also the most important Do not present raw, unanalyzed data
  30. 30. Results Statistical significance is reported in the ‘Results’ section The results should clearly describe what was found, including statistical tests, differences, and probabilities
  31. 31. Table A table or a figure enables readers to see the (summarized data) for themselves, but the results remain the subject of the text (and not the tables or figures) Do not put too many items in a table, because it will become crammed and hard to interpret. Useful for presenting analyzed summary data (e.g.means ± standard errors), level of significance
  32. 32. Table column headings row headings (or stub headings) A table has a field, the “boxes” of information in the body of the table A table often has footnotes tables should be able to “standalone”, be self-explanatory
  33. 33. Figures Pie charts show proportions of a single variable. Histograms compare quantities, such as yields, for different classes of variable. Line graphs show trends and relationships or other dynamic comparisons of continuous variables Scatter diagram
  34. 34. Figures Unlike with tables, the numbers and titles of figures are placed BELOW the figure If axes are used they should have brief informative titles (legends) and include any units of measurement Remember, results may be presented as either tables or figures, NEVER as both
  35. 35. Discussion Contains an interpretation of the results. The discussion talks about the relationship of the results to the questions posed in the introduction, and explains how these results contribute to answering the “Why” of the research Can also include limitations Indicate future research if evident
  36. 36. Discussion This is also the section for pointing out how your results compare with the findings of others, and explaining any differences from previously published research You may also end this section by identifying further problems and the next steps and additional research needed— limitations and areas for further research
  37. 37. Conclusion If you are reporting on a long and complex piece of research, and if you have complicated results, you may well want to include a separate ‘Conclusion’ section. Before preparing a separate ‘Conclusion’ section, check on the style and format instructions to authors of the journal to which you are planning to submit your paper
  38. 38. Citations and references The reference list contains full details of all articles specifically referred to in the text. These are called the text citations. Text citations generally give the name(s) (generally the “surname” or main name) of the author(s) of the article and its year of publication. This system of text citation is often referred to as the “Harvard” or Name-Year system.
  39. 39. References References may be used either in explaining and justifying the need for the work, the conduct of the work, or the implications of the work. The purpose of the reference list is to enable other researchers to trace and obtain any previously published research used to describe and support the new work being presented.
  40. 40. Citing A Journal Article Author(s) Date (generally year) Title of work being cited (with only the first word and proper nouns having a capital letter) Name of the Journal, Volume & issue number
  41. 41. Citing A Book Author(s) or editor(s) Date of publication (year) Title of book (often in italics) Edition of book if not the first edition City of publication + publisher Total number of pages or start page number – last page number of section being cited
  42. 42. Acknowledgments institutes or individuals who helped in the work, provided funding, etc Technicians – Significantly involved Supervisors - contributed to the work institutions or companies – equipment Colleagues Statisticians Remember to include donors
  43. 43. Thesis Main difference is the style and layout Monograph Use university guidelines Extended literature review Main body split into sections/chapters A chapter on methodology Discussion - Compare results with previous publications Discuss
  44. 44. Review articles Reporting from several sources – a common form in university training, journals and conferences Review of literature – longer form Should be comprehensive and critical Collect both +ve and –ve information Compare and contrast Give a balanced perspective
  45. 45. Popular science article Audience is public Title – short exciting and informative Layout Determined by the style of the magazine Do not make it too long Look at articles previously published Language Simple, layman language If using scientific/technical terms, please