instructional matertials


Published on


Published in: Education, Technology
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

instructional matertials

  1. 1. 1 CHAPTER 1 Problem and Its Background INTRODUCTION At the beginning of last century, children were taught in a rigidly formal and stereotyped way. Education was then conceived as a process of transmission of factual knowledge only. The teacher adopted an authoritarian attitude. The facts learnt by children were tested from time to time but such tests were neither concerned with conceptual understanding nor effective performance. The main emphasis was on testing memory. A long time intervened between the child's response and the teacher's reinforcement. The teacher very often used the lecture method which was not much effective for meaningful learning. The teacher did not use other visual material to supplement his oral teaching. The teacher of today does not consider the child as a vessel waiting to be filled up with facts nor as a pliable plastic material, which can be transformed into any shape enabling him to project his ideas on it. The modern teacher to Good (2003) considers each child as akin to a plant and helps the child to grow according to its abilities and aptitudes. He helps the child to learn. He realizes that "to teach is to nourish or cultivate the growing child or to give him intellectual exercise or to train him in the horizontal sense of directing or guiding his growth". The modern teacher sees education as a process of interaction between the child and his environment. Children learn by doing and learn how to learn in groups and also individually. Increase in population and explosion of knowledge are affecting the pattern of human life and also inflicting its full impact on education and this is possible by the use of instructional materials which can be considered as
  2. 2. 2 the development of educational technology. However, there’s some discrepancies occur especially the accomplishments of students whether the main factor of learning is the self or merely due to this instructional materials. This study will be testing this prevalence whether the instructional materials used private schools affects the educative elements of the high school students. Hollman (2007) said “Children who learn science by the discovery approach will discover for themselves the true structure of the discipline in complete harmony with modern philosophy of science education” The new trends toward biotechnology again are increasing and the students at the secondary level are at the threshold of selecting biology based careers for themselves. The objectives of Biological Science are; to introduce students to a body of knowledge investigating living things and studying work of Scientists, to develop in students the habit and ability of independent study. The teaching learning resource material on secondary school biology consists of textbook, pupil's manual and teacher's guide for secondary school students. There is no denying the fact that knowledge is a universal commodity but the matter of its presentation is an individualized effort. The teaching of biology is very important because the knowledge of biology helps in improving the quality of life, biology covers all aspects of life: so if goes without saying that biology should be taught in order to succeed in life. Knowledge of biology helps in solving many social problems relating to health, poverty, food shortage and crop production and environmental conservation. The objectives of this study is to determine the different modern instructional materials used by the respondent’s school and teacher and the significance and level of its effect to the students’ academic performance in terms of their grade in first grading and second grading, motivation, interest, to find out whether the knowledge of the teachers in utilizing the instructional materials affects its effectiveness and to make workable
  3. 3. 3 suggestions/recommendations to enhance the learning process during teaching of biology. To achieve the objects of the study the following null hypotheses were tested: There is no significance relationship between the modern instructional materials used by the teachers in VHA and Roosevelt College in teaching biology to the academic performance of the students and there is no significant difference between knowledge of teacher in using the instructional materials to its effectiveness. The study is significant because its findings will identify the importance of instructional technology in teaching biology at secondary school level. On the basis of findings, researcher will provide workable suggestions/ recommendations, because effective learning in biology is a major concern for secondary school teachers. In fact, the most successful teachers involve their students in learning through various methods. Such teachers are fully expert in using instructional technology according to requirement of situation. The major problem for the biology teacher and the relevant teacher educator is to identify the instructional skills really required to be developed among the biology teachers for effective student’s learning in biology. The findings of the study will help the working teachers to improve their use of instructional technology for better student learning.
  4. 4. 4 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Educationists are of the opinion that the educational problems relating to quantity and quality could be tackled by the proper utilization of instructional technology which is composed of modern instructional materials. Instructional technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the teaching learning process. Instructional technology makes instruction more effective, understandable and meaningful. All types of resources are used to make the learning easy. Traditional teacher-centered approach in the classroom has been shifted from teaching to learning. It is called student centered or resource-based approach, the student being the resource. Bilbao (2006) pointed out that learning through hearing alone proves to be the least effective means of learning. One learns eleven percent by hearing as against eighty-three percent by seeing. As far as retention of hearing is concerned, learning through hearing again stands at the lowest ebb because after three days, we recall only ten percent of what we learn through hearing as against fifty percent of what we learn through both hearing and seeing; and ninety percent of what we acquire by applying three of our senses i.e. seeing, hearing and doing. The major objectives of the study were: to find the relative correlation of modern instructional technology in teaching biology at secondary level to students of Valley High Academy (VHA) and Roosevelt College, to see the difference of treatment effects between the knowledge of the teachers in utilizing such instructional materials to its effectiveness. The researcher selected two private schools in Rodriguez Rizal and they were randomly secured from total available group by sloven formula. The equivalence of the groups was determined by equating the student responses during discussions and their grade during the two periods: first grading and second grading. Four chapters of biology were taught every grading period based on the curriculum to these
  5. 5. 5 respondent schools by different teachers almost of the same qualification and experience and were intended to measure the outcomes of learning through using different level of modern instructional materials. Grades each grading periods were checked, analyzed and interpreted in the light of objectives of the study. The study is significant because it tried to identify the correlation of modern instructional technology to the academic performance of secondary level in teaching biology. The analysis revealed that the application of instructional technology or modern instructional materials as supplementary strategy in teaching biology was more effective because the use of instructional materials increased interest and enhanced motivation levels. Modern Instructional materials as supplementary strategy were also found to be equally effective for lower sections and higher sections. On the basis of findings, researcher provided workable suggestions/recommendations for enhancing the effective learning of students of biology at secondary level.
  6. 6. 6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Ausubel's theory is concerned with how individuals learn large amounts of meaningful material from verbal/textual presentations in a school setting (in contrast to theories developed in the context of laboratory experiments). According to Ausubel, learning is based upon the kinds of super ordinate, representational, and combinatorial processes that occur during the reception of information. A primary process in learning is subsumption in which new material is related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure on a substantive, non-verbatim basis. Cognitive structures represent the residue of all learning experiences; forgetting occurs because certain details get integrated and lose their individual identity. A major instructional mechanism proposed by Ausubel is the use of advance organizers: "These organizers are introduced in advance of learning itself, and are also presented at a higher level of abstraction, generality, and inclusiveness; and since the substantive content of a given organizer or series of organizers is selected on the basis of its suitability for explaining, integrating, and interrelating the material they precede, this strategy simultaneously satisfies the substantive as well as the programming criteria for enhancing the organization strength of cognitive structure." (1963 , p. 81). Ausubel emphasizes that advance organizers are different from overviews and summaries which simply emphasize key ideas and are presented at the same level of abstraction and generality as the rest of the material. Organizers act as a subsuming bridge between new learning material and existing related ideas. In addition, Lev Vygotsky Socio-Cultural Theory states that students learning could be more effective if it is provided with support or scaffold. Information processing theory supplies the scaffold theory which is also a cognitive theoretical framework that focuses on how
  7. 7. 7 knowledge enters and is stored and retrieved from our memory. Cognitive psychologist believed processes influences the nature of what is learned. They considered learning as largely an internal process, not an external behavior change. They looked into how we receive, perceive, store and retrieve information. Sangui (2002) pointed out some assumption in the instructional aid for effective and efficient teaching process. This study also adheres to the constructivist theory that says; providing materials is more effective for the opportunities of the students to test ideas; allows time for students to construct relationship among concepts and the use of higher level embedded assessment (enactive representation). Above theories are helpful to provide more clarification about the concern and rationale of the study. For better knowledge and clarity, the researchers focused on the modern instructional materials used in teaching biology in relation to the student’s academic p- performance. Moreover, this study may filled the gap displayed to identify some causal link between the teacher instructional materials’ used and its effects to the teaching and learning process.
  8. 8. 8 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Figure 1- The Conceptual Model of the Use of Modern Instructional Materials in Teaching Biology in Relation to the Students’ Academic Performance of Valley High Academy in Rodriguez Rizal School year 2010-2011. *Teachers Demographic Profile *Related Theories of the Study (Constructivist Theory, Social Processing Theory and Socio Cultural Theory) - Determinance of the Modern Instructional Materials Used. *Questionnaire’s Evaluation * Main Concern of the theories * Evaluation of Modern Instructional Materials Used. * Statistical treatment used. *Response of the Respondents *Correlation of the Modern Instructional Materials used to the students’ academic performance. FEEDBACK
  9. 9. 9 There are very large numbers of studies on the factors that affect student’s achievement. And each of which used different subjects and factors then arrived at different conclusions. It is not possible to arrive at a list of universally valid generalization concerning the factors that in different circumstances seem to have an effect on science achievement (Lewis 2002). This study tries to elucidate the relationship of the modern instructional materials used by the selected private schools in Rodriguez Rizal to the students’ academic performance and will try to draw some suggestions to improve or strengthen the teaching and learning process of the aforesaid schools. The conceptual framework of the study is depicted in the form of paradigm of IPO style. The frames show the relationship and the actual pattern that is used in the study. The first frame shows the input of the study consisting the teacher’s demographic profile, theories related to the study and the Modern Instructional Materials Used. The second frame shows the process of the study; the evaluation of the questionnaires, main concern of the theories stated in frame 1 and the evaluation of the Modern Instructional Materials used to the Students’ Academic Performance in relation to the Instructional Materials used. The third and the last frame present the output of the study which contains the determined academic performance achievement of the students. The feedback pointing back shows the strength to the use of the whole process. The next page is the paradigm showing the conceptual model of the relationship of modern instructional materials to the academic performance of the selected sophomore students of Valley High Academy school year 2010-2011.
  10. 10. 10 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Instructional technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the teaching learning process. Most said instructional materials make instruction more effective, understandable and meaningful and these types of resources are used to make the learning easy. This study will try to elucidate whether this prevalence coincides with different modern instructional materials used in Valley High Academy and Roosevelt College in Rodriguez Rizal in relation to the students’ academic performance. Specifically, the study intends to answer the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the teacher in terms of: 1.1 Gender 1.2 Civil Status 1.3 Age 1.4 Highest Educational Attainment 2. What are the modern instructional materials used by Valley High Academy Teachers in teaching Biology? 3. What are the modern instructional materials used by Roosevelt College Teachers in teaching Biology? 4. Is there any significant relationship between the modern instructional materials used by the teachers in VHA to the students in terms of: 4.1 Motivation 4.2 Interest 4.3 Grades 4.3.1 First Grading Period
  11. 11. 11 4.3.2 Second Grading Period 5. Is there any significant relationship between the modern instructional materials used by the teachers in Roosevelt to the students in terms of: 5.1 Motivation 5.2 Interest 5.3 Grades 5.3.1 First Grading Period 5.3.2 Second Grading Period 6. To what degree does the modern instructional materials used in teaching biology in VHA affects in terms of: 6.1 Motivation 6.2 Interest 6.3 Grades 6.3.1 First Grading Period 6.3.2 Second Grading Period 7. To what degree does the modern instructional materials used in teaching biology in Roosevelt College affects in terms of: 7.1 Motivation 7.2 Interest 7.3 Grades 7.3.1 First Grading Period 7.3.2 Second Grading Period
  12. 12. 12 8. Is there any significant relationship between the knowledge of the teachers in using the modern instructional materials to its effectiveness? STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES Based on the specific problem stated, the null hypothesis is hereby given: 1. There is no significant relationship between the modern instructional materials used to the students’ academic performance of Valley High Academy. 2. There is no significant relationship between the modern instructional materials used to the students’ academic performance of Roosevelt College, High School Department. 3. There is no significant relationship between the effectiveness of modern instructional materials to the knowledge of teachers in using it. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The problem on the improvement of Science Education especially Biology could be the immediate recipient of the result. The students, teachers, future researchers, parents, administrators, curriculum planner and the secondary school could benefit more on the findings of this study. Students- The results of this investigating study will be a great help to the students in learning and acquiring knowledge or skills in biology since this study focuses to the modern materials to be used to concretize the abstract ideas stated in the books and finally change the behaviors that the aforesaid subject is intended to be measured.
  13. 13. 13 Teachers- This study would certainly benefit the teachers in teaching the aforesaid subject since they could be more aware of the role of instructional materials in making the teaching process more effective and efficient. Parents- The findings could serve as an eye-opener for them to realize their significant roles as parents as well as a deeper understanding to the efforts given by the teachers and schools in making their children become functionally literate in the field of Biology and indeed are a dignified participant in the nation building. Schools Administrators- The result of the study will provide them the whole picture of the advantage of instructional materials hence, it will serves as a basis in formulating policies for better quality of teaching Biology. This could also be useful in identifying the kind of instructional materials needed for more effective and efficient biology class. Curriculum Planner- The findings of the study would be a basis for them to identify the most appropriate teaching strategy and objectives based on the topic and the instructional materials used. Government- serves as an eye-opener to be very sensitive to the needs of Schools to have sufficient instructional materials for avoiding putting the quality of education in the Philippines to catastrophe. Future Researchers- The result will give in formations which would be relevant to the future researchers who would pursue a study similar to this.
  14. 14. 14 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY This research investigation was conducted to determine the relationship of modern instructional materials used in teaching Biology in relation to the students’ academic performance of Valley High Academy and Roosevelt College in Rodriguez Rizal, school year 2010-2011. The respondents of the study were the biology teachers of the said two private schools. The result and conclusion of the study are delimited to the group of students tested in VHA and Roosevelt College. It is also further delimited to the modern instructional materials used in teaching Biology. The respondents of the study were randomly selected from the sophomore students during the school year 2010-2011. The use of questionnaire checklist using the 5-point likert scale for teachers in Biology is the main data gathering instrument. Moreover, this studies only limited in Biology, the field of specialization of the researchers. DEFINITION OF TERMS The following terms are defined operationally and conceptually for the purpose of clarification and understanding. Modern- pertaining to the present time, or time not long past; late; not ancient or remote in past time; of recent period; as, modern days, ages, or time; modern authors. Instructional Materials- are kind of tools or equipments that can help effectively to the instructors in theory teaching classroom or in practical. Instructional materials are one deteriorated punctured standard in scaffolding elements.
  15. 15. 15 Biology- is a science that deals with the study of living things. Second year secondary students are the one taking this subject. Relation- A logical or natural association between two or more things; relevance of one to another; connection Academic Performance- refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. Academic performance is the ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate your knowledge verbally or down on paper. Teaching- is a process of imparting knowledge. Learning- is the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skill. Sophomore- a person or student in the second year of carrying out an endeavor Effective- Having an intended or expected effect, productive of or capable of producing a result. Efficient- is a functioning or producing effectively and with the least waste of effort; competent. Variables- are an attribute of a physical or an abstract system which may change its value while it is under observation. Dependent Variable- is the observed variable in an experiment or study whose changes are determined by the presence or degree of one or more independent variables. Independent Variable- A manipulated variable in an experiment or study whose presence or degree determines the change in the dependent variable. Rodriguez Rizal- (formerly Montalban) is a first class municipality in the province of Rizal, Philippines. It is the northernmost town in the province and comes after San Mateo,
  16. 16. 16 Quezon City coming from Metro Manila. The town is located on the slopes of the Sierra Madre mountain range and features many resorts; it is also the largest town in Rizal province with 312.70 km².
  17. 17. 17 CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies This chapter includes both local and foreign related studies and books used by the researchers as a basis of the study. FOREIGN LITERATURE Engels (2006) stressed on his book that the science education that is appropriate for this age of science and technology, however, is no longer the fact oriented science course for it is increasingly recognized that scientific progress now tends to be judged in the context of human values. Unfortunately, at secondary level, biology is taught as a fixed body of data that constitutes, 'the curriculum'. The syllabus is written around this body of material, the examinations cover it, and expectations are that this particular selection of data is representative of the science of biology. Biology teaching should ensure the all round development of the school child's personality. Teachers link health education with ethical training, for example, by stressing the social and moral side of health rules and concern for personal health and the health of others. Intellectual development should also be harmonized with aesthetic education and works of art can be used to illustrate certain general propositions of biological theory. The beneficial effects of nature and the natural sciences on the development of thinking, speech, attention, memory and imagination are clearly and comprehensively reflected in the general teaching theory and practice of biology. A great deal depends on the teacher's skill in presenting scenes from nature during his lessons, using living specimen and talking about them in an interesting way. Nature walks and direct contacts by pupils with nature are highly important, since they help the teacher to demonstrate the cognitive, affective, aesthetic and economic value of nature. The ideas of such thinkers as Humbolt, Rousseau, Herzen, Ushinsky and many other
  18. 18. 18 scholars who set great store by the educational value of nature, have not lost their importance today. These great teachers worked to extend the scientific and systematic study of biology. They developed active methods of bringing children into contact with nature, observations, nature walks, the description and comparison of things seen, etc. Engels stressed that the dialectics of nature is the simplest and most accessible form of dialectics (UNESCO, 2006). Moore (2006) stated that a biology course should provide a student with: ■ An understanding of his or her own place in the scheme of nature, he or she is a living organism and has much in common with all living organisms; “ An understanding of the human body, its structure and function”; ■ An understanding of the diversity of life and of the interrelations of all creatures; ■ An understanding of what human presently know regarding the basic biological problems of evolution, development, and inheritance; ■ An understanding of the biological basis of many of the problems and procedures in medicine, public health, agriculture and conservation; ■ An appreciation of the beauty, drama, and tragedy of the living world; ■ An understanding of the historical development of some of the concepts of biology to show that these are dependent on the contemporary techniques, technology, and nature of society; ■ An understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry (that science is an open ended intellectual activity in that what is presently known or believed is subject to change without notice; that is, scientist strives to be honest, exact, and part of a community devoted to the pursuit of truth; that scientific methods are increasingly exact and the procedures themselves are increasingly self correcting). The basis for choice of teaching styles is to a large extent determined by the nature of the program and its objectives. The development of rational faculties for critical thinking, a
  19. 19. 19 sense of enquiry and receptive attitude for acquiring not only biological knowledge but also an understanding of the larger issues of life can be realized only if the teaching method leads to the transfer of knowledge from school to life situations, to the development of decision making skills and to the development of values. These behaviors cannot be nurtured through the conventional chalk and talk method; neither can they be effective through traditional laboratory experiments. What is required is the use of more interactive strategies that can facilitate participatory learning and independent enquiry (UNESCO, 1987-2006). A variety of activity-oriented methods has been recognized to be effective, including group discussions, gaming, simulations, role playing, experimental workshops, field studies and action research. One of the recommendations of the European Communities Biologists Association workshop at Salzburg stated that the central core for biology teaching must emphasize more attitudes and skills than knowledge of facts. Nevertheless there has to be a selection of minimum of knowledge which is necessary to solve problems of biological relevance in the private and social range. In the major review of science education in the United States of America, McConnell (2000) was even more forthright who remarked that a curriculum of conclusions is no longer appropriate; it is essential to investigate and understand some of the major problems facing humanity utilizing knowledge in a social context. To solve problems involves not only conceptual skills and logical reasoning but also consideration of personal and social values and projections for action. The skills and techniques of imparting useful biological knowledge are also evolving and the classroom lecture and the textbook as the sole sources of knowledge will be supplemented, and perhaps, replaced by newer educational techniques grounded by learning research. Biology is developing more rapidly today than in any period of the past. Knowledge of the fundamental aspects of life processes is accumulating at an unprecedented rate. A unique feature of biology is its regionalism. To fail to
  20. 20. 20 capitalize on a comprehension of the specific environment in which the student will live is to fail to make biology applicable to him. It is unfortunate that the facts of biology frequently usurp its concepts and principles in the classrooms. Biology course should reflect that science is based on observation and experiment, the accumulation of facts and the development of explanations for these facts. Every lesson and every experiment should inculcate this information (Meyer. 2006). Teaching of biology by enquiry lays an emphasis on problem - solving. In general, the enquiry strategy of teaching was to achieve at least three interrelated objectives. The first was to provide students with an experience in the ways research scientists work. The second was to expose students to investigative nature of biology as the main means by which biological knowledge is obtained. The third was to foster the development of an enquiring mind and the scientific attitudes that go with it. In essence, teaching biology by enquiry was to develop in students the intellectual skills of asking questions, thinking things out for themselves, carrying out investigations and seeking answers to questions. Much of the development of such intellectual processes was done through practical work in the laboratories and biology came to be taught as an experimental science. In using enquiry methodology, there must be some supplementing techniques, which increase the learning process in teaching biology. For this purpose, instructional technology is helpful in achieving the objectives of biology, which is the use of all kind of modern media, methods and materials for maximizing the learning experiences. Instructional technology consisting of various media of mass communication are suitable to child learning process, methods and modern testing and evaluation techniques (Barker, 2002). The fundamental aim of education is the development of individual pupil. To accomplish this aim, the teacher must utilize specialized teaching procedure and apply properly the accepted principles of teaching. Education, what are its goals and objectives, involves learning. Learning
  21. 21. 21 is modification of behavior as a result of past experience or prior activity. Behavioral modification arising out of learning may be cognitive, affective, sensory-motor or an amalgam of all these in different proportions. Human learning may occur at different levels of complexity. In teaching biology the primary focus is not on knowledge but on the skills of analysis, assimilation, evaluation and decision-making about the application of science to society. These skills and others such as asking questions, objectivity, interpretation vs. observation and unbiased reasoning, however, are all essential components of "scientific thinking". Learning becomes effective when students are actively involved in teaching-learning process. The history of teaching learning reveals that in the past, technique was stressed. Technique is the method of performance in any art. Good (2005) defines technique as a process, manipulation, or procedure required in any art, study, activity, or production. The technique of teaching refers, therefore, to act or the quality of acts executed by the teacher in presenting the subject-matter to the pupils. It may also include the skill of the teacher in accomplishing the task of teaching. It is essentially a technical skill, or an artistic execution. Technique in teaching is a factor which promotes learning through teaching with the aid of devices; hence, it may be defined as the skill of the teacher in manipulating the devices so that the psychological process of learner may be stimulated to effective reactions, particularly in dealing with subject-matter that is to be learned. Technique is the teacher's way of combining and emphasizing the elements of the classroom situation. The psychological processes of learner act as the starting point and the basic for determining the selection of both the devices and the technique of teaching. Successful classroom instruction depends upon the technique of teaching; through it, the learning activity of the pupils is guided. It is teaching technique that provides this guidance for the pupils, therefore, the instructional period should be a learning period for the pupils. The general principles of
  22. 22. 22 learning should have specific application in every actual teaching situation. Technique of teaching should center upon the primary laws of learning. The technique of teaching should be adapted to the technique of learning, which the pupils use in their work. Since the outcomes of teaching and learning are both in pupil achievement, the technique of teaching as well as that of learning depends upon the learning outcomes being sought by the pupil at any time. This gives the teacher his opportunity to determine the method of teaching that should be used (Chand, 1990). Learning techniques are specialized e.g. knowledge is best gained through the technique called the question and answer; skills and habits can be developed by drill and practice and attitudes may be developed through technique called appreciation. The guiding principles involve methods of teaching. The methods of teaching refer to the regular ways or orderly procedures employed by the teacher in guiding the pupils in order to accomplish the aims of the learning situations. By methods in general is meant the process of reaching a definite end by a series of related acts which tend to secure that end. As applied to class-room teaching, method ¡s a series of related and progressive acts performed by the teacher and the pupils to accomplish the general and specific aims of the lesson. Method has to do with the way a teacher communicates the subject to the student. Method involves regular steps to guide the menial processes of the learner in mastering the subject matter being presented to him. It implies arrangement (Chand, 1990). Psychological studies reveal to us that the mental processes involved sense perception, memory, imagination, judgment, and reasoning. The processes are involved in every learning situation, but they are not employed with the same degree of intensity in learning different types of subject matter. Techniques of teaching and methods of teaching have different meanings and values, but both are integrated in any teaching and learning situation. The method of teaching covers the psychological processes involved in learning and the technique of teaching covers the
  23. 23. 23 use of devices and the application of principles in teaching in order to effect the proper development of the individual pupil (Chand, 1990). The term technique is also applied in the selection of devices and method, to be used as well as to the way in which they are used. Method relates to the learning performance rather than to the teaching performance and method of teaching involves steps to guide the mental process. Method of teaching is the arrangement of the ways or procedures through which learning is achieved while technique of teaching is the skill employed by the teacher in carrying on the procedure or act of teaching. Method is the procedure; technique is the manner of performing the various steps of the procedure. In general, method involves teacher and pupil’s activity, while technique limits itself to the actual performance of the teacher. Method is the key to teaching and learning and how to use this key is technique. FOREIGN STUDIES In many studies like the study of Lotga (2002) in United States, an experimental found that retention of information three days after a meeting or other event is six times greater when information is presented by visual and oral means than when the information is presented by the spoken word alone, approximately 83% of human learning occurs visually, and the remaining 17% through the other senses - 11% through hearing, 3.5% through smell, 1% through taste, and 1.5% through touch. - The studies suggest that three days after an event, people retain 10% of what they heard from an oral presentation, 35% from a visual presentation, and 65% from a visual and oral presentation. (Presenting Effective Presentations with Visual Aids May 2002 OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor.)
  24. 24. 24 Bartram (1999) arranged for college students to learn how to get from a starting point to a destination using a minimum number of buses. The researcher presented the bus route information via maps or lists and asked the students to provide as quickly as possible the correct list of bus numbers in the correct order. Bartram measured the time it took to correctly complete each bus route task. The study found that the students learned the bus route information more quickly when they used a map than when they used lists. Bartram believed that the students performed a spatial task, and the maps were superior to lists because the map presentation of information is consistent with people's preferred internal representation of spatial information. In an exploratory study, Bell and Johnson (1999) allowed four people to select pictures or text for communicating instructions for loading a battery into a camera. Qualitative results showed a strong preference for pictures rather than text. The researchers believed that the information to be communicated was spatial, and that the results supported the hypothesis that spatial information should be presented pictorially. Mayer and Anderson's (2002) contiguity principle asserts that multimedia instruction is more effective when words and pictures are presented contiguously in time or space. Studies involving multimedia instruction have shown that learners perform better on problem solving and recall tasks when related text or narration are close to an illustration or animation sequence rather than when they are far away. In a series of studies reported by Mayer and his colleagues (Moreno & Mayer, 2004; Mayer, 2005) students read a text passage or listened to a narration describing a cause and effect system (e.g., how a bicycle tire pump works) and either studied a diagram or an animated sequence illustrating the process that was described verbally. In each study, students receiving text contiguously in space (text physically close to the diagram or animation) or time (narration chronologically close to the animated sequence) performed better
  25. 25. 25 on recall and problem solving tasks than students under less contiguous conditions. The current research was designed to determine whether the contiguity principle applies to leaning from geographic maps. Comparing rollover and hyperlink features to a separate narrative allows us to study this variable experimentally. It was hypothesized that learners who study a map with animated features would more successfully encode both map feature and map structure information than learners who studied a static map. (Effects of Fact Location and Animation on Learning from Online Maps, Jul 31, 2001 by Steven M. Crooks, Michael P Verdi, David White Texas Tech University.) Dianne (1999) studies pointed out the following data: Computers have become an important element in a student's experience at university. In 1998 a questionnaire was sent to the Biology departments of Australian Universities, with 50% response rate (54 departments). Ninety per cent of biological departments at Australian universities surveyed have computer facilities available to biology students for biology-related tasks. The type of personal computers used in biological departments at Australian universities is largely desktop machines, either Macintosh or PC, and currently there is no clear preference for either platform. Students at over half of the departments have access to computers running under each platform. The availability of differing platforms is often not determined by educational principles, but rather reflects costs, ease of networking, and prior usage of a particular platform by academics, as well as the availability of suitable Computer-Aided Learning (CAL) packages. It is expected that educational issues will take a higher priority in future. Of the departments that responded those teach biology at the first year level, two thirds use computers in their first year program. The nature of teaching and the likely needs of CAL differ from first year to later years. First year teaching typically involves large classes, teaching focuses on the conveyance of facts, and there
  26. 26. 26 is a potential for greater similarity of teaching programs from one institution to another. CAL is a useful addition to traditional means of education, particularly suited to large classes so that the time of academics can be released for remedial or advanced teaching. CAL is also well suited to developing a factual understanding. From a financial perspective, it is more likely for CAL to be cost-effective (on a per capita basis) in first year teaching due to the large numbers of students undertaking introductory biology courses. Teaching in subsequent years is often more focused, more institution dependent, and involves smaller classes. The use of computers in such years may shift to the communication of complex issues - such as modeling. The use of CAL in more senior years is less likely to be as cost-effective as in junior years, and current use in senior years is patchier. Computers are used in many aspects of teaching by biological departments. They may be used to present biological information and concepts, to simulate complex situations, develop generic skills, to graph and manipulate data, and to assess students. Even within these broad functions, there may still be a wide diversity in the ways New Technologies are used. For example, CAL packages that are of the `tutorial style' may be used to extend talented or more motivated students, or they may provide remedial help, or for revision. When computers are used for testing students they can provide automated and immediate feedback to a student about their progress, or for assessment purposes. The use of computers to assess student performance has been adopted by some departments to reduce costs of marking. The use of computers has the benefit of providing feedback at a speed impossible if marked by staff. This allows many biology departments to provide the large number of students with guidance as to whether they have grasped the material at hand and where they need extra effort. There are clear advantages of using computers across a wide range of teaching activities, and planning for the future should be alert to the diversity in this area. Of those departments that use CAL for teaching undergraduate
  27. 27. 27 biology, 90% use it for less than 10% of the contact time, almost half of these using CAL for less than 2% of contact time. The remaining departments (under 10%) use computers for 10-30% of contact time. No department uses computers for a larger proportion of contact time than this. Only 15% of respondents were satisfied with the level of use of computers for teaching in their department. All of those dissatisfied with the use of computers believed that too little CAL was being used in their teaching program. The main impediments to making greater use of New Technologies in teaching were a lack of money, time, and persons with enthusiasm and knowledge in the field. The lack of money is a reflection of the costs of computer hardware and software, and the funds for staffing the development of CAL programs or simulations. Lack of time was not listed specifically in the questionnaire, but 13 of the respondents mentioned it as a factor restricting use of computers in teaching. This suggests that for many the enthusiasm and desire to be involved in the use and development of CAL for teaching is there but, due to the many demands on an academic's time, this cannot be achieved to a satisfactory degree. From the data the researcher concluded that computers are already in widespread use in biology departments for teaching. They are welcomed by staff and students as a supplement to traditional teaching devices. There is a general view that they are under-used. The enthusiasm with which they are used and greeted can assure us that the near future will probably see all students using computers at some stage in their biological education. Computers are used in many different ways. The survey has revealed the variety of hardware, differences in access to computers, the immense diversity of ways in which computers may be used, and the fact that each institution may seek to communicate different subject matter. It has revealed a motivation largely based on the educational needs of the students and not on commercial criteria. The reasons for fostering the use of computers in teaching may have had little to do with the desired
  28. 28. 28 educational outcome, but more with management of staff, space, and budgeting. These benefits are not to be seen as incompatible with educational objectives, but rather as providing supplementary incentive to develop the use of CAL. In addition to promoting an understanding of biology, the use of computers in biology departments enhance a student's generic, transferable, skills such as familiarity with computer operating systems, word processing, the use of spreadsheets and databases, as well as introducing and reinforcing biological content and concepts through biological CAL packages and simulations, and informing the students about their progress through the class material. LOCAL LITERATURE From the book of Bilbao et. al (2006), technologies as link to new knowledge, resources and high order thinking skills have entered classrooms and schools worldwide. Personal computers, CD-ROMS, on line services, the World Wide Web and other innovative technologies have enriched curricula and altered the types of teaching available in the classroom. Schools’ access to the technology is increasing steadily everyday and most of these newer technologies are now even used in the traditional classrooms. With the diversity of learners, breakthroughs in technology and multiple teacher perspectives, an innovative teaching is one of the answers to the global demands for quality education. Technology for teaching- the use of technology in the classroom has never been understood than now. However, survey data suggest that technology remains poorly integrated into schools, despite massive acquisition of hardware. Some observations indicate that the most frequent use of computers if for drill-and-skill practice that supplement existing curricula and instructional practices. Some thirsty years or more ago, the dominant model of teaching was directed instruction or lecture in which student’s memorized facts. Because of its limitations,
  29. 29. 29 educationist began exploring the use of technology that support models of teaching that emphasize learning with understanding and more active involvement. Thus a decision to use technology to go beyond facts-based, memorization-oriented curricula to curricula in which learning with understanding are emphasized was embraced. Technology Programs for teaching- There are various technology programs that can be used to assist teachers to be innovative in teaching. These will include a short list of programs you wish to try. Stand alone program- some programs are available as “stand alone” software, videodisc or CD ROM media, others are available in the internet. There are others which you check from procedures which are simulations and microworld types which range on topics and issues like AIDS, substance abuse and many others. Programs available on the internet- there are several programs which are available on the internet from where the school can choose a site. Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) teaches students to think of web information as evidence and evaluate it critically with regard to authorship, credibility and relevance. The GLOBE program involves in gathering data about local environment and creating a database open to the GLOBE community, other programs conduct ”electronic field trip”. This communication technology allows learners to travel and visit places for global explorations. Students prepare themselves to a “virtual electronic field trip” through a live interactive broadcast over a video because they occur in real time. Information databases- many forms of print-based materials are now available in electronic form. The entire set of National Geographic Magazine is now in CD-ROM, Encarta and Grollier provide access to vast information. These resources take advantage of hypermedia, the ability to jump in nonlinear fashion to related information, whether that information is text, graphic, video or sound.
  30. 30. 30 LOCAL STUDIES Dean study about the effectiveness of Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in teaching science (2005), he confirmed that the use of computer assisted instruction in teaching is effective not only in increasing academic achievements of the students but also more effective as an approach in teaching Science and Technology compare to the use of conventional or traditional teaching method. He made used the stratified random sampling and simplified random technique of one hundred fourth year students as subjects. Fifty of them comprised the experimental group and the other fifty comprised the control group. The two groups were matched along age, gender and their average grade in third year. Both groups were made to take the Division Achievement Test in science as pretest. The results yielded a mean of 13.44 for the experimental group and 13.12 for the control group which chows that the groups were of the same level in terms of their knowledge and skills in science. Lorna T. Sison (2006) studies about the difference in the students’ Performance in Biology between those with and without CAI the same as what Dean worked. Here are the findings of Sison. There was no significant difference between the two groups of students in Biology based on the pre-test scores. Meanwhile, based on the post test scores, it revealed that the performance of students in Biology with CAI was an “average” level, while those in the group without CAI remained at a “low” level. Thus, it further concluded that students who were being taught using the lecture-method as being supplemented with CAI have a better and higher performance as compared to those students who were held under the purely traditional instruction method. Sison asserted a recommendations that school administrators should put their greatest effort in upgrading the teachers’ qualifications and teaching competencies of their teacher in Biology by requiring them pursue science specialization in the Master’s teacher
  31. 31. 31 education program, and to encourage them to attend seminars/trainings on the current trends in teaching science subjects particularly in the use and applications of information technology.
  32. 32. 32 Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology This chapter presents the population frame and sampling technique, the respondents or description of subject, the instruments of the study, validation and administration of questionnaire, other sources of data and information gathered and statistical treatment of the data employed in the study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE This study employed the use of normative survey and descriptive approach of research to obtain information concerning the secondary students’ academic performance in Biology with respect to the modern instructional materials used and describes the relationship between the two variables. In gathering data, purposive sampling technique was utilized to obtain a desired number of respondents. Using the sloven formula 25 percent from the total population of VHA sophomore students and 25 percent also from Roosevelt College sophomore students were included. In addition all the Biology teachers from the aforesaid private schools were included. Interviews and conferences with several teachers’ respondents were resorted to in order to strengthen and confirm the data otherwise unclear. From these interviews, the yielded data became more vivid and perceivable. The first and second grading period grade of the students were analyzed and interpreted based on the modern instructional material used by the teachers from the two different private secondary schools in Rodriguez Rizal.
  33. 33. 33 LOCALE OF THE STUDY The Roosevelt Memorial High School Montalban, Rizal was established in 1962 through the initiative of the Board of Trustees and Civic Leaders of this beautiful and historic town. The establishment of this school was prompted by the fast economic growth and the increase pn population of this municipality. However, it was not easy for the corporation to open up a branch as it suffered financial imbalance in 1961. Putting up the needed cash out lay might sink the corporation to further indebtedness and this might delay RMHS Montalban. Yet, the Roosevelt spirit lived on as some school administrator pulled sources- money, time and effort. Today, the High School Department is in the new site at Manggahan, Rodriguez Rizal, a barangay away from its former site at Balite. The new site opened last 5, 2000 but its blessing and inauguration was held last June 20, 2000. Valley High Academy Preparatory School was established in 1993 which was located at Zuniga St. Manggahan, Rodriguez Rizal. 1194 was the establishment of the Grade School Department. It was during 1196 when VHA was relocated to its present address st J.P Rizal, Manggahan, Rodriguez, Rizal. It was during 1998 when the High School Department was opened. SUBJECTS OF THE STUDY The subjects of this study were the Biology teachers of the Valley High Academy and Roosevelt College including the biology students of the aforesaid private schools which were selected through a random sampling technique.
  34. 34. 34 SOURCES OF DATA AND INSTRUMENTATION Questionnaire- Checklist questionnaire will be made for the teacher. It contains the list of Modern Instructional Materials and the degree of effectiveness to the students in terms of motivation and interest; it is in a form of likert scale. Document Used- Schools form 138 B or the report card was also used to get the average grade of the students in Biology from first to second grading period. RESEARCH PROCEDURE The main instrument used in this study was a questionnaire checklist for the Biology Teacher. This instrument was prepared and developed under the guidance of the thesis adviser. Likewise, several teachers were requested to comment on it. Construction of the instrument- In view of the unavailability of a standardized instrument suited to the purpose of the present study. The questionnaire was developed based on the literature on the subject matter. The final form evolved in three major parts. The first part consisted of personal identifying data gathering checklist. This section of the instrument yielded the desired variables of sex, age, gender, and highest educational attainment. The second part elicited data on the modern instructional materials used, it was a checklist and level how frequent the teacher used the instructional materials from “very much, “much”, “moderate”, little”, and “very little”. The third part explicit the level of interest and motivation of the students towards the instruction using the modern instructional materials frequently used by teachers. It was also a 5-point likert scale from very much, “much”, “moderate,” “little,” and “very little”. Validation of the instrument- The initial draft of the instrument was presented to the adviser by the researcher for comment and appraisal. The format was improved for easy administration and instructions were simplified to avoid misconceptions among respondents.
  35. 35. 35 Research variables were redrafted to obtain the best response as possible. The final instrument was presented to the Biology teachers and Principal of the school for comments and appraisal. Comments and observations shared with the administrators further assured validity. With the procedure followed in validating the instrument, the questionnaire-checklist was assumed to be qualifying and 10 sets finally prepared for administration to the actual respondents. Administration of the instrument- approval from the school authorities was secured before actual administration of the instrument. STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA To interpret the data gathered the following statistical treatments were used. 1. Weighted mean was used to determine the degree of influence of the responses. 2. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to determine the degree of relationship between the Modern Instructional materials used to the students’ academic performance.