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  1. 1. On Kidney Stones By Michael & Bryan
  2. 2. What is a kidney stone? • A tiny crystalline mineral structure that has escaped the urine and entered the kidney • Over time, other small impurities attached themselves to the mineral • If not expelled from the body, the kidney stone can block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell
  3. 3. What is a kidney stone? • Common minerals that cause kidney stones are as follows 1. Calcium oxalate (70% of stones) 2. Calcium phosphate (10%) 3. Uric acid (~10%) 4. Struvite (~10%) 5. Crystine (>1%) 6. Medically-induced stone (>1%)
  4. 4. Common Symptoms • Symptoms vary from severity and nature of kidney stone • Most commonly reported symptoms are oderous urine, pain while urinating, blood mixed with urine, and a sharp pain in the lower back • Less common symptoms include chills, nausea, excessive urination and
  5. 5. Common many reasons, the Causes • Kidney stones can form for foremost being: A. An imbalanced diet B. Lack of proper hydration C. Improper metabolism D. An infection in the urinary tract E. An over-active parathyroid gland (hyperparathyroidism) It is also common for a kidney stone to form without any direct cause, although diet & hydration always factor into their
  6. 6. Diagnosing a Kidney Stone • Intravenous Pyelogram A. A series of x-rays of the kidneys & surrounding area used to detect imperfections • Renal ultrasound A. Use of sound waves to project an image of the kidneys B. Can detect and give accurate measurements of kidney swelling, and kidney stone
  7. 7. Shock Wave Lithotripsy • Litho= stone • tripsy=crushed • Projection of precise sonic waves from outside the body to shatter a kidney stone • Most common & efficient means of treating a kidney stone in North America • Cannot be used on stones that exceed 2cm in size
  8. 8. Facts & Statistics • Roughly 10% of all Canadians will have a kidney stone at some point in their life • Typical age demographic ranges from 20-50 years old • Men are three times more susceptible to forming a kidney stone than women • Form at a faster rate in dry climates
  9. 9. Facts & Statistics • Women are becoming more likely to develop kidney stones • Once an individual has a kidney stone, they are more likely to have another • Drinks like coffee,tea, & cola help contribute to the formation of kidney stones • One can pass a kidney stone without knowledge of one even forming
  10. 10. Bibliography "Featured Story." The National Kidney Foundation: A to Z Health Guide. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. <> . "Kidney Stones." Kidney Stones. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. < kidney/urogenital_disorders/overview_urogenital_disorders/kidney_stones/Pages /index.aspx>. "Kidney Stones." - The Kidney Foundation of Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. <>. "Urology." UW Health. 29 Nov. N.p., n.d. Web. <>. 2013. Kidney Stones." - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. < disease_id=173&channel_id=2035&relation_id=20729>.