Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Situational Awareness for Fire and EMS

12,634 views

Published on

Failure to recognize unsafe situations. Failure to prevent unsafe actions. Failure to deliver effective operations. These are the results of poor situational awareness in emergency responders of all levels. This program uses real-life case studies and in-class exercises to train emergency responders in applying the six steps of situational awareness and action so that on the fireground and in the field they can be aware, alert, aggressive, always!

Who - Emergency Responders of all levels
What - Situational Awareness
Where - on the fireground / in the field
When - at all times
Why - for safe and effective action
How - through understanding and applying the six steps of Situational Awareness and ACTION
WOW - using real life case studies and in-class exercises

Published in: Education

Situational Awareness for Fire and EMS

  1. 1. Become Aware Keep Alert Be Aggressive Always
  2. 2. Perceive Process Predict Decide Take Action Communicate & Coordinate
  3. 3. Defined as • “Knowing what is going on so you can figure out what to do." Involves • Perceiving, Processing, & Predicting • Decision Making, Taking Action, Communicating & Coordinating
  4. 4. What critical Cues & Clues? What is going on? Where is it going (and how fast)? Decide on Action to help! Take Effective Action! Communicate & Coordinate!
  5. 5. Perceive Process Predict Decide Take Action Communicate & Coordinate
  6. 6. Perceive
  7. 7. Information does NOT DEMAND your attention You MUST seek / scan for critical clues & cues
  8. 8. Change in location (including arrival) Change in task (including receiving assignment) Change in resources (tools, water, crew, etc.) Change in conditions (or conditions do not change) YOU MUST ACTIVELY… PERCEIVE, PROCESS, PREDICT DECIDE, TAKE ACTION, COMMUNICATE & COORD.
  9. 9. Cold General Scanning for SA Warm Specific Scanning for SA+A Hot Focused Scanning for SA+A
  10. 10. •Intuition •Gut Feeling •Hunch •Instinct •Expertise •Sixth Sense •Feeling •Insight
  11. 11. Unit Condition Action Needs
  12. 12. Perceive Process
  13. 13. Perceived information is filtered and prioritized to identify critical clues & cues Critical clues and cues form a Mental Model Processing is based on education and experience (if reflective)
  14. 14. Perceive Process Predict
  15. 15. It is going in this direction At this rate With these results if we don’t intervene
  16. 16. Perceive Process Predict Decide
  17. 17. Classic decision making • Define, Goals, Options, Select, Act, Evaluate Recognition Primed Decision Making • Reflex decision making based on previous experience • Pattern matching from long term memory • Right experience helps right pattern matching • Pattern matching to observations not assumptions
  18. 18. Perceive Process Predict Decide Take Action
  19. 19. Perceive Process Predict Decide Take Action Communicate& Coordinate
  20. 20. If You See Something, Say Something If you are in charge, LISTEN!
  21. 21. Perceive Process Predict Decide Take Action Communicate
  22. 22. 1st PERCEIVE 2nd PROCESS 3rd PREDICT Thick, Fast Smoke, Open Door, Lowering Neutral Plane Bad Flow Path Flashover
  23. 23. 1st Decide 2nd Take Action 3rd Communicate Close Door, or Spray Water, or Vent Close Door UCAN Report
  24. 24. Loud Noise Sudden Light Sudden Movement Sudden Person / Object
  25. 25. Prioritize Delegate Deflect Streamline
  26. 26. Prioritize Delegate Deflect Automate
  27. 27. Decision making becomes intuitive (System 1) Hypervigilant and easily distracted Attention focus is narrowed Struggle to understand and process complex information Revert to behaviors that are routine, comfortable, or habit • We do not rise to the occasion, we fall back on our training. • We do not train until we get it right, we train until we do not get it wrong.
  28. 28. You will naturally confirm your expectations You will naturally ignore conflicts with expectations Conflicts must be immediateRED FLAGS Look for MISSING critical clues and cues. • “I didn’t see this, but I should have.” • “If it was THIS, then I SHOULD see THAT.”
  29. 29. Perceive Process Predict Decide Take Action Communicate& Coordinate
  30. 30. • The OODA Loop • Observe • Orient • Decide • Act • Loop F-86 Sabre MiG 15
  31. 31. • The OODA Loop • Observe - Perceive • Orient – Process & Predict • Decide - Decide • Act – Take Action, Communicate & Coord. • Loop – Then do it again, rapidly
  32. 32. Pattern matching accelerates decision making for experienced firefighters No reflective experience with this situation will not help Over reliance can lead to expectation errors
  33. 33. System 1: Intuition •Fast, automatic, frequent, emotional, stereotypic, subconscious System 2: Reasoning •Slow, effortful, infrequent, logical, calculating, conscious
  34. 34. System 2 is most active System 1 is always trying to take control Critical Situations trigger System 2 System 2 will seek info as needed We train to make things System 1
  35. 35. Do not commit to an action and then simply focus on that action. Do not wait until the action is complete to re-scan for SA+A.
  36. 36. Will our action be able to achieve our goal in time? If the answer is no, pick something that you CAN do something about. Do not pick a strategy or tactic that is not going to change the outcome. • Flowing not enough water • Committing to search with a low survivability profile
  37. 37. RESCUE
  38. 38. Train like you fight. Fight like you train.
  39. 39. Become Aware Keep Alert Be Aggressive Always
  40. 40. Perceive Process Predict Decide Take Action Communicate & Coordinate
  41. 41. Unit Condition Action Needs
  42. 42. • The OODA Loop • Observe - Perceive • Orient – Process & Predict • Decide - Decide • Act – Take Action & Communicate • Loop – Then do it again, rapidly

×