WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATEMR. ROHAN MOHITE, ROLL NO.-65,MR.TEJAS KORDE, ROLL NO.-109,MR.MANGESH BAIRAGI, ROLL NO.-74,MR.VISHAL KHEDKAR, ROLL NO.-106,MR.SACIN AUTADE, ROLL NO.-105,of BACHELOR OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, SEMISTER SECOND, haveundertaken and completed the project work titled “WATER RESOURCEMANAGEMENT” during the academic year 2011 – 2012 under the guidance ofPROF. SANDHYA THAKKAR .This is a bonafide project work and the information presented in it is true andoriginal to the best of our knowledge and belief. PROJECT GUIDE PROF. SANDHYA THAKKAR PAGE NO.2
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis project WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT is a result of co-operation,hard work and good wishes of many people. We would like to thank our project guideProf. Sandhya Thakkar for her involvement in our project work and timelyassessment that provided us inspiration and valued guidance throughout our study. We are highly indebted to Dr. Mrs. Shakuntala A. Singh, Principal K.G. JoshiCollege of Arts & N.G. Bedekar College of Commerce, for giving us an opportunityto do a project. We would like to thank Prof. Mr.D.M. Murdeshwar, course co-ordinator, for his friendly guidance and constant encouragement. We would like to express our gratitude towards our parents, our teachers of K.G.Joshi College of Arts & N.G. Bedekar College of Commerce, the library staff and ourcollege friends whose co-operation, encouragement and efforts have helped us ingiving the final shape and structure to the project. Our thanks and appreciations also go to our college mates and to all those peoplewho have willingly helped us out with their abilities. PAGE NO.3
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTIONDEFINITION-.1.” Water resource management is the control of water usage and also the quality ofwater. Many cities have departments that will test the quality of water at treatmentplants.” Water is a unique substance. It is one of the few materials on the Earth thatexists naturally as a solid, liquid or gas. It is not possible for life on earth to existwithout water. Scientists estimate that there are over one billion cubic kilometers ofwater on this earth, which covers nearly three fourth of the earths surface. Thoughthis seems an extremely huge amount, in actual fact, less than one percent is fresh andusable and is found in lakes, ponds, rivers and groundwater. Of the remaining, ninetyseven percent is found in oceans and two percent is locked up in glaciers and ice-caps.From a global viewpoint, fresh water is abundant and the volume of fresh waterrenewed by the hydrological cycle between the oceans, the atmosphere, the sun andthe land is more than enough to meet the needs of five to ten times existing worldpopulation. PAGE NO.5
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Globally fresh water fond is 35 million km^3 & only 105 thousand km^3 isaccessible. Water quality monitoring is not yet developed in some countries, in other it isin decline. The quality of water available for drinking is posing a serious threat to theexistence of life. Degradation of water quality is a consequence (result) of humanactivities, land use practices and economic development. Land use practices affect thequality of water in our streams, lakes, ground water and ultimately the marineenvironment. Experience has shown that it is within our ability to slow and reversewater quality degradation, to improve human health and ecosystem integrity bynations putting forward a concerted effort. To accomplish this, aggressive, positiveand timely policies and actions are needed. The world has a moral obligation to ensurethat future generations inherit a world with clean water and healthy environment. Sothere is a significant need for Water Resource Management. Water Resources Management is a very important issue with regard to theconservation and the protection of water. Water demand management is meant tomanage the available water resources wisely and to deliver the necessary amount forsustainable development. In these include environmental conservation with inter andintra generation equity in mind while any policy of conservation is formulated. Water Resources Management is an international, multidisciplinary forumfor the publication of original contributions and the exchange of knowledge andexperience on the management of water resources. In particular, the journal publishescontributions on water resources assessment, development, conservation and control, PAGE NO.6
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENTemphasizing policies and strategies. Contributions examine planning and design ofwater resource systems, andoperation, maintenance and administration of water resource systems.Coverage extends to these closely related topics: water demand and consumption;applied surface and groundwater hydrology; water management techniques;simulation and modeling of water resource systems; forecasting and control ofquantity and quality of water; economic and social aspects of water use; legislationand water resources protection.Water Resources Management is supported scientifically by the European WaterResources Association, a scientific and technical nonprofit-making Europeanassociation. WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA In pre-British India water management was essentially a local matter and was in thehands of the community. This changed with the arrival of the British period and ofmodernity. Control over water resources passed from the hands of the community intothose of the state. While ownership of natural resources was claimed by the state,management passed into the hands of engineers and bureaucrats. The induction towestern engineering ushered in the era of large dams and there was a concomitantdecline of traditional forms of small scale, local, community-managed systems of PAGE NO.7
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENTwater harvesting and management. These new projects became symbols ofdevelopment. Government initiatives for water resource management are outlined inNational Water Policy, 1987, National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statementon Environment and Development, 1992, and Policy Statement for AbatementPollution, 1992. The strategy and policy statement prescribe command and control,technological zoning, fiscal incentives and use of economic instruments asmechanisms for of water pollution control. The present approach to control waterpollution in India is to use regularity instruments along with systems for monitoringthe prescribed standards to achieve the governments policy goals. This standardsfor ambient and point source discharges are set by various acts of the government.Compliance is mandatory and provisions for penalties are made in the acts. Theseare monitored by the central and state pollution control boards. A legal frameworkand occasionally fiscal incentive schemes for implementation and compliance of thestandards support the regulatory approach. The Constitution of India provides for the right to life, which is afundamental right under Art. 21 and has been interpreted by the courts to also includethe right to pureair and water. Citizens may also fight against polluted water under s. 277 of the IPCwhich deals with fouling water or water bodies. The causing any Public nuisance,and the power of the Executive magistrate under sec. 133 of Cr. P.C is one whichwould bring seedy relief from any fouling of the water. The more pollution is the PAGE NO.8
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENTWater [Prevention and Control of Pollution] Act, 1974. This Act is meant to curb thevarious kinds of pollution ranging from domestic to industrial pollution. Violationsunder this Act are more severe, recent legislation on water. Another legislation dealing with the aspect of purity of water is parts X-Band XI-A of the Merchant Shipping Act, inserted by the Amending Act of 1983dealing with every aspect of marine pollution. There are several judicial decisionswhich have affected the issues of water rights.Water resource management by Community: the evolution of PaniPanchayat- Pani Panchayat in Maharashtra The term Pani Panchayat actually refers to the mobilization of groups offarmers for the formulation and implementation of community irrigation projects. Theterm was first coined to denote the five member committee that was formed tooversee the first lift irrigation project set up by the Gram Gourav Pratishthan [GGP].Today the term symbolizes the principles of equitable distribution of water. PAGE NO.9
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Need for Water Resource Management.- Water is a limited resource. The amount of freshwater available to mankindand nature is limited. Only saltwater resources are abundantly available, but even thequality of these resources is under stress as well. Agriculture accounts for almost two-thirds of freshwater consumption. Efficiency is often far below 50%, mainly due toconveyance losses in inefficient irrigation systems. Only 12% of freshwater is used toprovide drinking water to the growing world population. Less than 50% of the worldpopulation has access to potable water from safe sources. More than 50% of all pipedwater is wasted as a result of leaking pipes. The provision of high quality drinkingwater requires treatment depending on the source as well as effective demand of theend-users. Only 20% of the potable water used in industrialized countries is requiredfor drinking, food preparation and hygienic purposes. The rest is consumed inactivities for which a lower quality would be sufficient. The reduction of waterwastage could greatly enhance accessibility of freshwater. Freshwater is becomingincreasingly scarce and expensive like all commodities. Providing water to small andlarge consumers and communities has a price.Climate change is affecting the spatial and temporal availability of water resources,there being either too little, too much, or too dirty water (Kundzewicz, 2007). Moredeveloped countries can afford to pay the higher cost for water. However, in rural andUrban Africa it is not the inability of people to pay for the full cost of drinking water,but rather the lack of capital to invest into efficient water infrastructure. The poorest PAGE NO.10
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENTof the poor often pay more for drinking water of limited quality than the rich – in thesame city. They pay even more than people in the rich North who receive piped waterof high quality 24 hours a day in their apartment. Better cost recovery will not redressthis, more public investment might.Decentralization may also help improve the quality of water supply: Germ investmentmight.Decentralization may also help improve the quality of water supply: Germany hasmore than 5000 water companies, of which 1/3 is public, 1/3 is private, and 1/3 isowned by water users associations. In developing countries such as Kenya, the urbanpoor have probably no more than two hours of drinking water per day, and then stillthe bucket needs to be carried home over an average distance of about 100 m. Advantages of water Resource Management-(Live example with details)Comprehensive Water resource management brings widespread benefits toTamil Nadu.Challenge: Tamil Nadu is a water short state, with limited potential for further water resource PAGE NO.11
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENTexploitation. Its ability to meet rapidly growing water demands in a sustainable manner iscontingent on managing the challenge of allocating water across sectors and withinsectors. At the time of project preparation, the state lacked the institutional apparatus tosupport comprehensive multi-sectoral water planning and management. Irrigationconstituted over 75% of total water use, but system performance was disappoint- ingresulting in inequitable supplies and significant waste. This affected access to water notonly within poor agriculture-dependent communities and but also within other sectorsvying for limited water supplies. Groundwater extraction rates were beyond safe yields inseveral parts of the state, leading to contamination from salt water intrusion. Other waterquality issues with associated health consequences were pervasive, primarily due tountreated industrial effluents and sewage.ApproachThe project’s primary objectives were to support water resources planning on a riverbasin basis and across all uses of water; to improve institutional and technical capabilityfor managing the state’s water resources; to improve agricultural productivity through PAGE NO.12
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENTmodernization and completion of irrigation systems; to upgrade water management andfarmer participation; and to assure sustainability of water infrastructure and theenvironment.ResultsSubstantial institutional restructuring and development occurred to enhance multi- sectoralwater management on a river basin basis. Environmental considerations were mainstreamedinto water planning and management. Significant agricultural productivity and income gainswere registered through improved water use, supported by irrigation system improvementsand farmer participation in newlyformed water users associations.Highlights• The State Water Policy was updated in accordance with the National Water Policy and a State Water Plan was prepared.• A Water Resources Organization was formed as an independent organization, responsiblefor multi- sectoral water management and structured on river basin lines. This included theestablishment of new decentralized field management under basin managers. A frameworkwater resources plan and five detailed river basin plans were completed.Two River Basin Organizations were created, the first of their kind in South Asia. PAGE NO.13
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT• A State environmental planning framework was developed and environmental units were created in several agencies. Environmental and social assessments and environmental action plans were produced for all major river basins. A water and soil monitoring program was operated, with over 400 sampling locations across multiple basins.• An inventory of about 3.3 million wells throughout the State was completed. The Tamil Nadu Groundwater (Development and Management) Act was passed.• The Tamil Nadu Farmers’ Management of Irrigation Systems Act was passed. 1566water users associations were formed—covering an area over 630,000 ha—and givenresponsibility for the O&M of canals serving less than 700 ha.Training was given to tens of thousands of farmers.• One catchment with depleted cover in a sub-basin of the Cauvery was restored.There were dramatic increases in yields, by over 40% for some crops. Scheme improvementsconverted almost 218,000 ha irrigation and created over 73,000 ha of new irrigated area,directly benefiting 3.2 million people. Scheme completions increased irrigated area by about60,260 ha and improved irrigation on about 95,300 ha, directly benefiting over 87,000people.• One catchment with depleted cover in a sub-basin of the Cauvery was restored. PAGE NO.14
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENTWhat constitutes the enabling environment for waterresources management? First of the entire right attitude: government as an enabler, ratherthan a top-down manager.Governments:1.) National water policies enact water resources legislation2.) Ensure separation of regulating and service provision functions encourageand regulate the private sector3.) Encourage dialogue with neighbouring countries.What are the appropriate institutional roles? First of all organizations and agencies at all levels and acrosssectors are participating and talking to each other.How?-1.) By anchoring the coordination at the highest apex level,2.) By creating coordination bodies at the river basin level,3.) By devolving responsibility to the lowest appropriate level and By developing human and institutional capacity. PAGE NO.15
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Decentralized Water Resources Management Water resources management has traditionally been approached in acentralized, hierarchical manner. Many constitutions, legal frameworks, policies andstrategies still recognize IWRM in this way. However, with increasing water scarcityand competition among different water users, it has recently been suggested thatWRM needs to combine both a top-down with a bottom-up approach. This involves acombination of actions and responsibilities at the central level and others at the locallevel. Decentralization of some WRM responsibilities to the local governments istherefore imperative. But in order for such decentralized management to be effectivelocal communities need to be empowered and educated on WRM.The setting up oflocal committees helps in raising awareness in the local areas of the roles andresponsibilities of different stakeholders in water resources management, thusdeveloping ownership for WRM. The committees were then made responsible for thecompensation to the local population due to the installation of power lines linked tohydropower infrastructure. Since then, as the institutions have gradually becomestronger, they have been involved in the preparation of local WRM plans and theimplementation of programs. With further strengthening and capacity building, theirresponsibilities will grow with the long-term goal of transitioning to relatively self-sufficient organizations. PAGE NO.16
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENTWATER RESOURCE DEPARTMENTATION AS HOW IT IS MANAGED. Green water, blue water, grey water… 0.1% Domestic Products Export Virtual 100% Withdrawals Water Rivers Returns •Domestic •wastewater lakes •industry •surplus Blue aquifers Ocean River Irrigation s 36% Green Soil Moisture Transpiration Domestic Food Export Virtual 6.5% Water PAGE NO.17
HEALTH BENEFITS OF WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENTWater supply and health Adequate quantities of safe water for consumptionLack of improved domestic water supply leads to and its use to promote hygiene are complementarydisease through two principal transmission routes measures for protecting health. The quantity of water People use depends upon their ease of access to it. If• Waterborne disease transmission occurs by drinking water is available through a house or yard connection contaminated water. This has taken place in many people will use large quantities for hygiene, but dramatic outbreaks of faecal–oral diseases such as consumption drops significantly when water must be cholera and typhoid. Outbreaks of waterborne disease carried for more than a few minutes from a source to continue to occur across the developed and develop- the household (9). ing world. Evidence suggests that waterborne disease contributes to background rates of disease not Sanitation and health detected as outbreaks. The waterborne diseases Sanitation facilities interrupt the transmission of include those transmitted by the faecal–oral route much faecal–oral disease at its most important source (including diarrhoea, typhoid, viral hepatitis A, cholera, by preventing human faecal contamination of water and dysentery) and dracunculiasis. International efforts soil. Epidemiological evidence suggests that sanitation focus on the permanent eradication of dracunculiasis is at least as effective in preventing disease as (Guinea worm disease). Improved water supply. Often, however, it involves major• Water-washed disease occurs when there is a lack behavioural changes and significant household cost. Of sufficient quantities of water for washing and per- Sanitation is likely to be particularly effective in sonal hygiene. When there is not enough water, peo- controlling worm infections. Adults often think of ple. sanitation in adult terms, but the safe disposal of Cannot keep their hands, bodies and domestic children’s faeces is of critical importance. Children are environments clean and hygienic. Without enough the main victims of diarrhoea and other faecal–oral water, skin and eye infections (including trachoma) disease, and also the most likely source of infection. Are easily spread, as are the faecal–oral diseases. Child-friendly toilets, and the development of effective• Diarrhoea is the most important public health prob- school sanitation programmes, are important and lem affected by water and sanitation and can be both popular strategies for promoting the demand for waterborne and water-washed. Sanitation facilities and enhancing their impact. PAGE NO.18
HEALTH HAZARDS OF WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT• Approximately 4 billion cases of diarrhoea each to trachoma, Esrey et al. 4 found that providingyear cause 2.2 million deaths, mostly among adequate quantities of water reduced the medianchildren under the age of five. This is equivalent infection rate by 25%. To one child dying every 15 seconds, or 20 jumbo jets • 200 million people in the world are infected with crashing every day. These deaths represent approxi- schistosomiasis, of which 20 million suffer severe mately 15% of all child deaths under the age of five consequences. The disease is still found in 74 In developing countries. Water, sanitation, and countries of the world. Esrey et al., in reviewing hygiene interventions reduce diarrhoeal disease on epidemiological studies, found a median 77% average by between one-quarter and one-third. reduction from well-designed water and sanitation• Intestinal worms infect about 10% of the population interventions. Of the developing world. These can be controlled • Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health through better sanitation, hygiene and water supply threat. According to data from about 25 000 tests on. Intestinal parasitic infections can lead to wells in Bangladesh, 20% have high levels of arsenic malnutrition, anaemia and retarded growth, (above 0.05 mg/l). These wells were not, however, depending upon the severity of the infection. selected at random and may not reflect the true• It is estimated that 6 million people are blind from percentage.. Many people are working hard in trachoma and the population at risk from this Bangladesh, West Bengal and other affected areas disease is approximately 500 million. Considering the to understand the problem and identify the solution. more rigorous epidemiological studies linking water PAGE NO.19
MULTIPLE CRITERIA ANALYSIS (MCA) INWATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (WRM) Abstract Multiple criteria analysis (MCA) is aframework for ranking or scoring the overall performance ofdecision options against multiple objectives. The approach haswidespread and growing application in the field of waterresource management. Water resource management decisions aretypically guided by multiple objectives measured in differentunits. Multiple criteria analysis (MCA) represents a body oftechniques potentially capable of improving the transparency,auditability and analytic rigour of these decisions. The MCAframework ranks or scores the performance of alternativedecision options against multiple criteria which are typicallymeasured in different units. In the study of MCA applications in WRM eight types ofMCA application in water resource management were identified:1. Catchment management. This involves applications ofMCA to problems of whole catchment management, which areoften concerned with land use and land management patterns.An example of this application can be drawn from Chang et al.(1997) where MCA methods are employed to evaluate landmanagement strategies within a catchment in Tweng–Wenreservoir watershed in Taiwan. Land use within the catchment isguided by economic and environmental objectives. 2. Ground water management. These studies use MCA specifically for the management of groundwater, often to
determine the best ways of remediation of contaminated groundwater supplies. It is illustrated by Almasri and Kaluarachchi (2005) who use MCA to evaluate options for managing nitrate contamination of groundwater in the Sumas–Blaine aquifer in Washington State, US.3. Infrastructure selection. These studies are concerned with choosing major water infrastructure supply options for a city or region. Most involve urban water supply. An example comes from Eder et al. (1997) who use MCA techniques to evaluate 12 water supply infrastructure options for the Austrian part of the Danube River. The options involve major infrastructure such as hydroelectric power schemes.4. Project appraisal. These studies use MCA to rank or score a set of water management projects which often involve some form of water condition restoration activity. For example, Al-Rashdan et al. (1999) use MCA to prioritize a set of projects aimed to improve the environmental quality of the Jordan River.5. Water allocation. These applications involve decisions about how much of a limited water resource is allocated to competing uses. An example comes from Agrell et al. (1998) who use MCA to inform water release decisions from the Shellmouth Reservoir in south-west Manitoba, Canada. Water release aims to deliver on multiple social, economic and environmental uses.6. Water policy and supply planning. This involves the evaluation of policy options (e.g., levies, legislation, awareness raising) and longer term strategic planning for a region’s water supply. An example comes from Joubert et al.
(2003) where MCA is used to evaluate water demand and supply management policies in Cape Town, South Africa.7. Water quality management. These papers involved an application of MCA primarily involving the evaluation of options aimed specifically at improving water quality (as opposed to supply). They often involve human and ecosystem health objectives. An example comes from Lee and Chang (2005) where MCA is used to develop a water quality management plan for the Tou–Chen River Basin in northern Taiwan.8. Marine protected area management.5 This involves theuse of MCA to manage nearshore marine environments. Onesuch study by Fernandes et al. (1999) uses MCA to evaluatecoral reef management options in the Caribbean.] An additional category was termed ‘method papers.’These papers explored MCAmethods for water management ona theoretical level. So MCA is an application/technique involved in waterresource management.
Water Resource Management toolsWhat are the practical managementinstruments?Water managers need practical ‘tool boxes’ in order to work.I) Water resources assessment1.) Data collection networks and assessment techniques2.)Environmental impact assessment (EIA) techniques3.) Risk management tools, for instance for floods anddroughts.II) Communication and information:1.) Raise awareness - a water movement informedstakeholder participation.III) Allocation and conflict resolution:1.) Allocation through market instruments2.) Allocation based on the valuation of costs and benefits3.)Tools for conflict resolution: upstream versusdownstream, sector versus sector, human versus nature.
IV) Regulatory instruments (3 types):1.) Direct controls - regulations, rights, standards, land useplans utility regulation, etc2.) Economic instruments - prices, tariffs, subsidies,incentives, fees, charges, markets, taxes, etcV) Basic Principles:1.) user-pays principle polluter-pays principle. Subsidise the good, tax the bad.2.) Encouraged self-regulation: transparent. benchmarking, product labeling, etc. 3.) Technology: 1.) Research and development technology assessment. 2.) Guidelines technology choice guidelines And last but not least: 4.) Financing: 1.) Investment in IWRM - by users, governments, private. sectors and donors. 2.) Banks – provides high returns to society...
WATER RESOURCE POLICY-IN INDIA- A comprehensive policy on water is necessary on theface of a growing number of social, economic andenvironmental issues surrounding water resources for properwater resource management in India. In 1987, the NationalWater Resources Council adopted the National Water Policy(NWP) and submitted the document to Parliament forimplementation. The NWP is the primary document stating theposition of the Government of India (GOI) on water resourceissues, ranging from drought and flood management to drinkingwater provisions.In essence, the policy serves as a guideline to help planners andmanagers develop the countrys water resources to its maximumpotential. But the adoption of the policy is also a step-forward forthe government in terms of promoting the sustainablemanagement of the countrys water resources. Water conservation by dams and their utilization: (A type of WRM) Dams as means of storing large quantities of water havebeen constructed for the past more than a century in differentparts of the worked. During the 20thcentury, a very largenumber of damswerebuilt in the USA, China, Russia, India, Europe and other parts of the world. Many of these were multi-
purpose projects providing irrigation, hydropower, flood controland other benefits to the society. The vast network of irrigationcanals in India provided a security against severewater shortages and famines of the past. Coupled with theadaptation of modem farming practices with high yieldingvarieties of seeds, fertilizers etc., a sort of Green Revolutiontook place in the irrigated areas of the country and sustainedfood production with the population growth. Hydropowerprovided a significant part of powerrequirements in Europe, USA and India.Drinking water requirements for several large cities andparts of rural areas were also met by these newly createdstorages. Large dam projects like the Bhakra, Nagarjunasagar,Tungabhadra, Hirakud, and Beas. Ramganga, Sharavathi andhundreds of other medium irrigation projects provided theimmediate requirements of water and power in the earlydecades of the countrys independence. The Bhakra and theNagarjunasagar have performed specially well and supportedthe increase in agricultural production over a vastarea. In south India, the dams built on the Cauvery River in theearly part of this century have sustained agricultural production(specially rice) for more than half a century and these structures(Krishnarajasagar and Mettur Dams) are revered by the farmersand the people of this area.
In south India, hydropower from storage dams has been themain stay of the power requirements of the states of Karnatakaand Kerala for the last several decades. Policies needed for the future- (FOR WRM) All mega-dam projects should be thoroughlyexamined for cost benefits by independent authorities andfeasibility of satisfactory rehabilitation of those affected andfeasibility of mitigation of environmental impacts. If after all thestudies the project appears to be feasible, it should be splitup into several stages so that the benefits to the community startaccruing with a minimum of investment. If during the stage-wiseexecution of the project, any of the environmental orrehabilitation aspects cannot be resolved satisfactorily to allconcerned; the project needs to be reviewed before proceedingfurther. It is also necessary that those getting affected by theproject should be made stakeholders not only in theexecution of the project but also in their | management allthrough the operational life of the project Part of the benefitsfrom the project should accrue to the affected people on acontinuous basis throughout the life of the project.
A PRACTICAL WAY LAID DOWN IN DUBLIN FOR WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT- AS TO HOW WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENTSHOULD BE? The Dublin principles show the wayfor Water Resource ManagementThe Dublin principles aim at wise water management withfocus on poverty.Four simple, yet powerful messages were provided inDUBLIN. They were the basis for the Rio Agenda 21 andfor the millennium Vision-to-Action.The four principles are: 1.) Freshwater is a finite and vulnerable resource,essential to sustain life, development and theenvironment i.e. One resource, to be holisticallymanaged.2.) Water development and management should bebased on a participatory approach; involving users,planners and policy-makers at all levels i.e. managewater with people - and close to people.3.) Women play a central role in the provision,management and safeguarding of water i.e. involvewomen all the way!
4.)Water has an economic value in all itscompeting uses and should be recognized as aneconomic good i.e. having ensured basic humanneeds, allocate water to its highest value and movetowards full cost pricing to encourage rational use andrecover costs.Poor water management hurts the poor most.
CASE STUDIES- Managing the Whole Water Cycle The consequence of focusing on surface water andneglecting groundwater is shown by the perverseoutcome from the cap on surface water use inAustralia’s Murray-Darling basin. During the 1980s and1990s, water abstractions grew rapidly in the Murray-Darling basin primarily to service the growth ofirrigated crops. Because of concerns about the damagebeing done to the aquatic environment, in 1995 a capwas placed on further abstractions from surface watersbeyond the abstractions that were diverted in the1993–94 year.While the cap has (with a few exceptions) been adheredto and surface water abstractions have remainedsteady at about 11,200 gigaliters a year, there hasbeen a dramatic increase in groundwater use within thebasin. Groundwater licenses have been issued thatcould allow the extraction of 3,261 gigaliters a year,around 34 percent of the surface water allocation. Anestimated 186 gigaliters a year of stream flow havealready been captured due to the growth in groundwater
extraction from the introduction. The cap until 1999/2000 because of the connectivitybetween surface water and groundwater. This figurewill grow as abstractions from less directly connectedgroundwater systems start to have an impact onrivers. A review in 2000 recommended that the surfacewater cap be replaced with an integrated surface waterand groundwater cap that was based on the waterneeded for ecosystem functioning, rather than waterabstraction in an arbitrary year. This recommendationhas now been enacted in the2007 Water Act.Pani Roko Abhiyan For the first time in the last 50 years, several stategovernments are dealing with drought in a different ways -moving away from drought relief to drought mitigation. InGujarat Pani Roko Abhiyan was started in the year 2001when 23 out of 25 districts were drought hit and ground waterlevel receded alarmingly, causing a loss of Rs. 4000 corers inagriculture to Gujarat government. Sardar Patel ParticipatoryWater Conservation Programme. (SPPWCP) was then initiated. In the programme the40% cost is met by villagers and 60% cost by Stategovernment. By the end of the 2000, 13,539 structures hadbeen erected. The villagers contributed Rs. 200 corers fromwhich 2500 check dams were planned. Due to the 2001
earthquake, only 800 structures could be made in this year. InMadhya Pradesh also Pani Roko Abhiyan started fromKalalhoont village of Jhabua district when it was crippledby two consecutive droughts, an NGO, Action for Social. Advancement (ASA) offered the villagers torenovate tanks with 25% contribution of villagers. ASA,villagers and State govt. accepted the challenge and turned acalamity into an opportunity. The water, which was stored, wasenough to irrigate more than 61 hectares of land and additionallyrecharged the wells. Such initiatives were started all over M.P.M.P. government spent Rs. 316 crore while people contributedRs. 99 crore and the scheme reached out to all the 52,000villages in the state.
CONCLUSION- The current rate of population growth, combined withthe growing strain on available water resources, India couldwell have the dubious distinction of having the largestnumber of water-deprived persons in the world in the next25 years. This is the scenario if the available resources arenot managed judiciously and with care.Urbanisation and an ever-increasing population in therecent decades have contaminated water bodies, thusmaking them unfit for use. These, coupled with growingneeds, have led to increasing dependency on ground water.Excessive tapping of ground water, through numerousboreholes, has led to a decline in the water table, whosemeans of replenishing itself have been greatly hampered. Eighty-five per cent of India’s urban population hasaccess to drinking water but only 20% of the availabledrinking water meets health and safety standards. It isestimated that by the year 2050, half of India’s populationwill be living in urban areas and will face acute waterproblems. Furthermore, there are serious inequities in thedistribution of water. Consumption of water ranges from16 litres per day to 3 litres per day depending on the cityand the economic strata of the Indian consumer. The water in rivers is wasted as it flows into theoceans and is not properly harnessed. The debate on damsas a means of harnessing water continues to make this issuepolitically and environmentally sensitive. No clearecologically stable and financially viable solution hasemerged. Water projects can bring many positive changes
to the lives of poor people and can work particularly toimprove the lives of rural women, small farmers etc.Governments play and will continue to play a critical role inrural development and resource management. Governmentsdefine the legal, policy and institutional frameworks withinwhich water resources are managed and rural economiesand societies function. The concept of Pani Panchayats hascome to stay, if the state functionaries fail in their duty toprovide basic means of livelihood to its masses, the peoplewill and should be encouraged to manage their own localresources. To this end, if conservation of wetlands is left tothe management of local self government institutions, thiswill dilute State entity and will lead to increased peopleparticipation in decision making. If every State adoptsstrategy to tap rain water, scarcity would be a matter,forgotten. Hence Water resource management is essential, notonly in INDIA but around the globe.