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Earth's Natural Resources

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Earth's Natural Resources

  1. 1. Materials for Life Earth's Natural Resources
  2. 2. What Do We Need to Live? • Air – 21% Oxygen – Free of pollution • Food – A variety • Water – Clean – Uncontaminated • Shelter – Clothes/housing – Protection from heat/cold/rain – Fresh • Hope – A reason to live • Love – Companionship
  3. 3. How Do We Get These? • Is there a cost for breathable air? • What all is involved in getting food to your plate? • Where does the water we drink come from? • How are your shoes and clothing made? • What natural resources provide the materials for making and your homes (including power, heat, etc.)
  4. 4. Which are Non-essential? • • • • Transportation Beauty Education Entertainment • • • • Recreation Safety Communication Sanitation • What resources make these possible?
  5. 5. Pick Seven... • • • • Transportation Beauty Education Entertainment • • • • • Air • Water • Food • Shelter Recreation Safety Communication Sanitation • Land/soil
  6. 6. Biotic Resources – Resources that come from organic materials (living or previously living things). • Fossil Fuels • Plant products (Biomass) • Animal products • Biodiversity
  7. 7. Fossil Fuels • Coal – mined out of the ground • Natural gas – flammable methane gas – found near petroleum, underground • Oil – liquid found underground between folds of rock
  8. 8. • Coal Fossil Fuels – burned for electricity, heat, and in factories • Natural gas – used to heat homes, generate electricity, & for manufacturing • Oil – Gasoline & Diesel fuel • for transportation (cars, trucks, airplanes, ships, trains) – Lubricants • petroleum jelly, grease, engine oil – Plastics – Asphalt • paved roads, parking lots, etc. – Kerosene, propane, butane • burned for light/heat
  9. 9. Products Made from Petroleum-based Chemicals Antihistamines Credit Cards Ink Surfboards Antiseptics Dentures Insecticides Surgical Equipment Antibiotics Deodorant Lipstick Syringes Artificial Limbs Diapers Medical Equipment Telephones Aspirin Dinnerware Nylon Rope Tennis Balls Balloons DVDs Pacemakers Tennis Rackets Bandages Dyes Pantyhose Tennis Shoes Cameras Eyeglass Frames Perfumes Tents Candles Fertilizers Photographic Film Toothbrushes Clothing Food Preservatives Piano Keys Toothpaste Computers Footballs Plastics Toys Cough Syrup Glue Shampoo Tranquilizers Cosmetics Golf Balls Shaving Cream Umbrellas Crayons Heart Valve Replacements Soft Contact Lenses Vitamin Capsules
  10. 10. Plant Products • Food crops – fruits/veggies, wheat, rice, nuts, sugar cane, spices • Biofuels – ethanol & biodiesel (plantbased fuels) • Timber – paper, building (houses/furniture), manufacturing – burned as fuel for heat • Other products – cotton, wax, cork, rubber, hemp (rope fiber)
  11. 11. Animal products • Food: – – – – meat dairy poultry seafood • Biomass – methane • Other: – leather, wool – sponges, pearls
  12. 12. Biodiversity • Many different species increases an ecosystem's stability • Extinction reduces biodiversity – habitat loss and degradation (climate change) – excessive nutrient load and other forms of pollution – over-exploitation and unsustainable use – invasive species
  13. 13. Abiotic Resources – Resources from inorganic (non-living) materials. • Wind/Air • Land/Soil • Water • Solar Power • Geothermal Energy • Minerals
  14. 14. Wind/Air • Surface air contains 21% Oxygen – essential for cellular respiration in all living organisms • Wind produced from uneven heating of Earth's surface – air moves from areas of high (hot) to low (cool) pressure
  15. 15. AIR POLLUTION • An increase in the content of harmful substances (pollutants) in the lower atmosphere. – Where do pollutants come from? • Emissions – vehicles – manufacturing plants – Charcoal grills, lawnmowers • Photochemical smog • Ozone loss – CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) • Smoke – forest fires, wood stoves, etc. • Natural disasters – volcanic eruptions, fires, earthquakes
  16. 16. Consequences of Air Pollution • Humans/animals – – – – – respiratory & renal problems high blood pressure problems of nervous system eye irritation cancer • Plants – reduced growth – degeneration of chlorophyll • mottling of leaves (patches/ spots of color) • Acid rain • Greenhouse effect • Ozone layer destruction
  17. 17. Land/Soil • Land for building & development • Soil for growing food (crops/livestock) – loamy soil is best • holds water but allows for drainage • rich in nutrients & organic material
  18. 18. SOIL POLLUTION • Agricultural use of chemical fertilizers & pesticides – can kill organisms (decomposers) that help replenish healthy soil • Landfills, septic systems, nuclear & industrial waste – buried chemicals/toxins dissolve into soil/water
  19. 19. SOIL POLLUTION • Clear-cutting forested areas, construction zones – leads to erosion & leaching of soil nutrients – can eliminate of beneficial microbes • Impervious surfaces (cement/asphalt) – storm water runoff carries pollutants into soil/water – bioswales help filter naturally
  20. 20. Water • Drinking water – required for all cellular reactions & transport of chemicals • Irrigation – to grow food crops, water lawns, etc. • Sanitation – laundry, showers, dishes & other household uses • Recreation – swimming, river rafting, water-skiing, sailing, fishing, etc. • Landscaping – fountains, streams/ponds • The average American uses 150-250 gallons of water EVERY DAY!
  21. 21. Hydroelectric Power Plants • Flowing water moves turbines. • Turbines spin giant magnets. • Spinning magnets create a flow of electrons (electricity!).
  22. 22. Water for Industry • Steam-powered machinery • Manufacture of products – food/beverages, drugs, cosmetics, – chemicals, cleaners, paint, etc. • Cooling of materials – metals, nuclear reactors, etc.
  23. 23. • Is there any relationship between the amount of available water and the number and variety of plants and animals that can live in a given area?
  24. 24. WATER POLLUTION • Contamination of water – Pipes • lead dissolves into water – Litter/household garbage – Farming • fertilizers and pesticides • algal "blooms" – Industry waste • mercury salts, sulfates, minerals – Runoff • chemicals from impermeable surfaces
  25. 25. • Disease-causing organisms – cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, botulism, dysentery, polio, etc. • swim diapers or pet and farm animal waste, broken sewers, • storm runoff/flooding • Temperature change – can affect breeding – eggs/larvae particularly sensitive • Depletion of oxygen – aquatic organisms rely on dissolved O2 for breathing
  26. 26. Solar Power • Powers photosynthesis in producers • Solar heating – greenhouses – solar cookers – water heating • Solar power plants
  27. 27. Solar Wastewater Treatment • Gresham’s Wastewater Treatment Plant takes dirty water from bathrooms, kitchens, laundries and businesses, cleans it, and returns it to the natural water cycle via the Columbia River. • The treatment plant treats an average 13 million gallons of wastewater daily. • The treatment plant serves 108,000 customers and treats wastewater from the cities of Gresham, Fairview and Wood Village.
  28. 28. Geothermal Energy • Direct use – hot water from springs or reservoirs near surface – used for bathing or heating homes • Electricity generation – Power plants require water or steam at high temperatures (300° to 700°F) – Geothermal power plants built where geothermal reservoirs are located within a mile or two of the surface • Heat pumps – use stable ground or water temperatures near Earth's surface to control building temperatures above ground
  29. 29. Minerals – Precious metals • Gold, silver, platinum – Precious & semi-precious gems • Diamonds, rubies, emeralds – Building/manufacturing materials • • • • marble, limestone sand, gravel, silicon iron ore, zinc, lead, copper sulfur, talc – Radioactive substances • Uranium, radium, plutonium – Food additives • salt, calcium, magnesium, zinc
  30. 30. Renewable vs. Nonrenewable Biotic Fossil Fuels Biomass (Plants) Animal Product Abiotic Minerals Wind/Air Water Land/Soil Geothermal Energy Solar Energy • Only ~ 10% our nation's energy usage comes from renewable resources.
  31. 31. Nonrenewable Resources • Resources being used up faster than they can be replaced by natural processes are called nonrenewable. – Fossil Fuels • in 2011, 42% of all electricity in the US was generated from burning coal – Minerals What's Left?
  32. 32. Renewable Resources • Renewable resources can be replenished by natural processes at least as quickly as they are used. • • • • Air Land Water Many plant & animal sources, if carefully managed
  33. 33. Inexhaustible Resources • Resources that will not run out, no matter how much of it people use.. – Solar Energy – Wind/wave – Geothermal

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