On water in India

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On water in India

  1. 1. Water in India 2030Issues, Challenges, ManagementA RESPONSIBLE USE FRAMEWORKShubha Ramachandran - S.Vishwanath
  2. 2. Dry Cauvery cuts TNPL Production- The Hindu, June 2 , 2013• With the Cauvery going dry , the TNPL onSaturday suspended operation of two of thethree huge paper-making machines at itsKagithapuram facility in Karur.
  3. 3. The talk1. Who we are and a Broad over-view2. National Water Policy3. Groundwater and its importance4. Water and Industries5. Responsible water use framework
  4. 4. Reference• National Water Policy• Karnataka State Water Policy• John Briscoe – India’s turbulent water future• Ramaseshan – Ground Water• ‘From Hariyali to Neeranchal’ –Report of theTech. Cmt. On Watershed Prog. In India
  5. 5. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
  6. 6. Total Water• Endowment : 4000 billion cu. mt.• Availability : 1953 b.c.m• Utilizable : 1086 b.c.m• Surface : 690 b.c.m• Ground : 396 b.c.m
  7. 7. Water a state subject• In India Water is a state subject under Entry56 of List 1 of the constitution with legislationand administration substantially framedwithin state boundaries
  8. 8. The Dublin Principles• Principle No. 1 - Fresh water is a finite andvulnerable resource, essential to sustainlife, development and the environmentSince water sustains life, effective management ofwater resources demands a holistic approach, linkingsocial and economic development with protection ofnatural ecosystems. Effective management links landand water uses across the whole of a catchment areaor groundwater aquifer.
  9. 9. • Principle No. 2 - Water development andmanagement should be based on a participatoryapproach, involving users, planners and policy-makers at all levelsThe participatory approach involves raisingawareness of the importance of water among policy-makers and the general public. It means thatdecisions are taken at the lowest appropriatelevel, with full public consultation and involvementof users in the planning and implementation of waterprojects.
  10. 10. • Principle No. 3 - Women play a central part in theprovision, management and safeguarding of waterThis pivotal role of women as providers and users of waterand guardians of the living environment has seldom beenreflected in institutional arrangements for the developmentand management of water resources. Acceptance andimplementation of this principle requires positive policies toaddress women?s specific needs and to equip and empowerwomen to participate at all levels in water resourcesprogrammes, including decision-making andimplementation, in ways defined by them.
  11. 11. • Principle No. 4 - Water has an economic value in all itscompeting uses and should be recognized as an economicgoodWithin this principle, it is vital to recognize first the basic rightof all human beings to have access to clean water andsanitation at an affordable price. Past failure to recognize theeconomic value of water has led to wasteful andenvironmentally damaging uses of the resource. Managingwater as an economic good is an important way of achievingefficient and equitable use, and of encouraging conservationand protection of water resources.
  12. 12. Photo courtesy: Shree Padre
  13. 13. Rainfall Temporal Variation01002003004005006007008009001000Winter (Jan-Feb) Pre Monsoon(Mar-May)Monsoon (Jun-Sept)Post monsoon(Oct-Dec)Rainfall SeasonRainfallinmmRainfall in mm
  14. 14. Water Availability050010001500200025003000350040004500Total Precipitation Total WaterAvailabilityTotal UtilisableWaterQuantityinBillionCubicMeterQuantity in Billion CubicMeter
  15. 15. Per Capita Availability01000200030004000500060001951 1991 2001 2025 2050WaterAvailability(CubicMeterPerCapitaperyear)Water Availability (Cubic Meter Per Capita per year)Water Stress Line (1800 m3)Water Scarcity Line (1000 m3)
  16. 16. Storage Created050100150200250PrePlanUptotheendofVIIIPlanUptotheendofIXPlanUnderConstructionUnderConsiderationStorageCreated(Inbillioncubicmetre)Storage Created (Inbillion cubic metre)
  17. 17. Per Capita Storage610331451964111175326201000200030004000500060007000Russia Brazil USA China SouthAfricaIndiaPerCapitaStorage(cubicmetre)Per Capita Storage( cubicmetre )
  18. 18. Water Demand020040060080010001200140016002010 2025 2050TotalAnticipatedDemand(Inbillioncubicmetre) Total AnticipatedDemand(In billion cubicmetre)
  19. 19. Water Demand(with improved management practices)02004006008001000120014002010 2025 2050TotalAnticipatedDemand(Inbillioncubicmetre)Total AnticipatedDemand (In billion cubicmetre)
  20. 20. Demands of Various Sectors (in %)0%20%40%60%80%100%1997 2010 2025 2050Evaporation LossesEnvironment (Ecology)Inland NavigationPowerIndustriesDomesticIrrigation
  21. 21. Groundwater
  22. 22. According to John Briscoe• 1. The era of large investment in waterinfrastructure for storage is over• 2. The era of groundwater exploitation
  23. 23. Groundwater• India has the single largest exploitation ofgroundwater in the world with over 30 millionwells and bore-wells• 65 % of the net irrigated land gets water frombore-wells• 85 % of rural habitations depend ongroundwater
  24. 24. The well has been the lifeline of water in India forcenturies
  25. 25. A good water harvesting system will revive the dynamic watertable and keep the wells full
  26. 26. Traditional water withdrawal systems like the Sakia can berevived
  27. 27. Indian Context: The “looming” crisis is hereNation-wide 29% of the blocks are critical, semi-critical orover-exploitedIn some states as high as 75%
  28. 28. Emerging Findings: from a world bank studyDeveloping a Responsive PhysicalFramework:• Local physical and resource userealities have tremendous variationacross the country• Hard-Rock aquiferslow storage, low yields, fastrechargeIn Maharashtra, storage 1-5Xannual recharge• Alluvial aquifershigh storage, high yields, slowrechargeIn eastern UP storage 200-500Xannual recharge
  29. 29. Watergy
  30. 30. Sustainability Lens• S ocial• T echnical• I nstitutional• F inancial• L egal• E cological
  31. 31. Irrigation• Agriculture continues to be the largest‘consumer’ of water
  32. 32. Water and Industries
  33. 33. Some key issues• Closed basins , competition betweenagriculture and industry.• Lowest priority in use domestic, agricultureand then industry.• Royalty for water tends to be low hence lowpayback for water conservation or reuse• Zero discharge of waste-water in place
  34. 34. More key issues• Groundwater / surface water interface lessunderstood. Mapping aquifers and managingaquifers important.• Many solutions are optimal at a sub-basinlevel , the challenge is to build partnerships.• Rainfall variability will impact both surface andgroundwater availability.• Limits to growth ? How far can technology findsolutions ?
  35. 35. Response• Water use efficiency• Rainwater harvesting – storage /recharge• Wastewater recycling• Water conservation• Demand management• Is this enough ?
  36. 36. WATER CONSCIENCEWATER RESPONSIBILITY
  37. 37. Vision for a CorporateECOSYSTEMNatural (Surface, ground water resources, rain)Administrative (Govt agencies, piped water)Market (Water and Sanitation markets)
  38. 38. VisionECOSYSTEMNatural (Surface, ground water resources)Administrative (Govt agencies, piped water)Market (Water and Sanitation markets)BOSCH
  39. 39. VisionECOSYSTEMNatural (Surface, ground water resources)Administrative (Govt agencies, piped water)Market (Water and Sanitation markets)BOSCHIn the Fence : Sustainable Water MgmtResponsibility of resource useLeadership by exampleCulture of water literacyTransparencyBusiness Risk and continuity
  40. 40. VisionECOSYSTEMNatural (Surface, ground water resources)Administrative (Govt agencies, piped water)Market (Water and Sanitation markets)BOSCHIn the Fence : Sustainable Water MgmtResponsibility of resource useLeadership by exampleCulture of water literacyTransparencyBusiness Risk and continuityOutside the Fence : Equity, Economy, Environment“Model Behaviour”, leader to emulateContribution to knowledge in public sphereRespect for Private & public rolesEngagement with public policy
  41. 41. VisionECOSYSTEMNatural (Surface, ground water resources)Administrative (Govt agencies, piped water)Market (Water and Sanitation markets)BOSCHIn the Fence : Sustainable Water MgmtResponsibility of resource useLeadership by exampleCulture of water literacyTransparencyBusiness Risk and continuityOutside the Fence : Equity, Economy, Environment“Model Behaviour”, leader to emulateContribution to knowledge in public sphereRespect for Private & public rolesEngagement with public policy
  42. 42. What makes this program Unique ?● Works with an understanding of “ecological endowment”●Pays adequate attention to “groundwater sheds” & knowledge●Attempts to engage with Public Policy not through“Lobbying” but “Participation”● Not solely driven by concerns of business continuity and risksand not project focussed
  43. 43. BOSCH – In CampusWIPRO
  44. 44. External Water Sources – Off CampusWIPROWater Sources
  45. 45. Immediate NeighbourhoodWIPROWater SourcesImmediate Neighbourhood
  46. 46. City - ContextCity – BangaloreWIPROWater SourcesImmediate Neighbourhood
  47. 47. Biome Environmental Trust(Rainwater Club)rainwaterclub@gmail.comwww.rainwaterclub.org1022, 1st floor, 6th Block,HMT Layout, Vidyaranyapura,Bangalore – 560 097,Phone : 080 41672790THANK YOU

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