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2019 Top Lessons Learned Since the Phoenix Project Was Released

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2019 Top Lessons Learned Since the Phoenix Project Was Released

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2019 Top Lessons Learned Since the Phoenix Project Was Released

  1. 1. @RealGeneKim Session ID: Gene Kim Building A World-Class Engineering Culture: Top Lessons Learned Since The Phoenix Project Was Released
  2. 2. @RealGeneKim My Definition of DevOps The architecture, technical practices, and cultural norms that enable us to… increase our ability to deliver applications and services... quickly and safely, which enables rapid experimentation and innovation, and the fastest delivery of value to our customers… while ensuring world-class security, reliability, and stability... …so that we can win in the marketplace. (vs. traditional software development and infrastructure practices)
  3. 3. @RealGeneKim Another Definition of DevOps Better, Faster, Safer, Happier Jon Smart, Head of Better Ways of Working, Barclays
  4. 4. @RealGeneKim The Downward Spiral
  5. 5. @RealGeneKim
  6. 6. @RealGeneKim
  7. 7. @RealGeneKim IT Ops And Dev At War 12
  8. 8. @RealGeneKim
  9. 9. @RealGeneKim IT Operations CBS Photo Archive/Star Trek: The Original Series/Getty Images
  10. 10. @RealGeneKim The Developers
  11. 11. @RealGeneKimSource: Flickr: birdsandanchors The Product Managers
  12. 12. @RealGeneKim“Hot Fuzz”: Rogue Pictures
  13. 13. @RealGeneKim The Product Managers Source: Flickr: birdsandanchors Architects
  14. 14. @RealGeneKim
  15. 15. @RealGeneKim Session ID: Surprise #1: The Business Value Of DevOps Is Even Higher Than We Thought
  16. 16. @RealGeneKim Elite Low Difference Deployment Frequency On-demand (multiple times per day) Weekly to monthly 46x Deployment Lead Time < 1 hour 1 day to 1 week 2,555x Deploy Success Rate 0-15% 46-60% 7x Mean Time to Restore < 1 hour 1 week to 1 month 2,604x Elite vs. Low Performers Source: Google/DORA: 2018 State Of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html
  17. 17. @RealGeneKim Elite Low Difference Deployment Frequency On-demand (multiple times per day) Weekly to monthly 46x Deployment Lead Time < 1 hour 1 day to 1 week 2,555x Deploy Success Rate 0-15% 46-60% 7x Mean Time to Restore < 1 hour 1 week to 1 month 2,604x Elite vs. Low Performers Source: Google/DORA: 2018 State Of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html
  18. 18. @RealGeneKim Elite Low Difference Deployment Frequency On-demand (multiple times per day) Weekly to monthly 46x Deployment Lead Time < 1 hour 1 day to 1 week 2,555x Deploy Success Rate 0-15% 46-60% 7x Mean Time to Restore < 1 hour 1 week to 1 month 2,604x Elite vs. Low Performers Source: Google/DORA: 2018 State Of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html
  19. 19. @RealGeneKim Elite Low Difference Deployment Frequency On-demand (multiple times per day) Weekly to monthly 46x Deployment Lead Time < 1 hour 1 day to 1 week 2,555x Deploy Success Rate 0-15% 46-60% 7x Mean Time to Restore < 1 hour 1 week to 1 month 2,604x Elite vs. Low Performers Source: Google/DORA: 2018 State Of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html
  20. 20. @RealGeneKim High Performers Are More Secure And Controlled 2x 29% less time spent remediating security issues more time spent on new work Source: Google/DORA: 2018 State Of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html
  21. 21. @RealGeneKim High Performers Win In The Marketplace 2x 2xmore likely to exceed profitability, market share & productivity goals more likely to achieve organizational and mission goals, customer satisfaction, quantity & quality goals Source: Google/DORA: 2018 State Of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html
  22. 22. @RealGeneKim High Performers Win In The Marketplace 2.2xhigher employee Net Promoter Score 50%higher market capitalization growth over 3 years* Source: Google/DORA: 2018 State Of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html
  23. 23. @RealGeneKim© 2018, DevOps Research and Assessment, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Elite Performers Data shows a new 4th high performance group: elite performers Proportion of high performers has grown YoY, but the bar for excellence remains high Elite performers are still able to optimize for throughput and stability Source: Google/DORA: 2018 State Of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html
  24. 24. @RealGeneKim The Opposite Of Technical Debt Is…
  25. 25. @RealGeneKim When we can safely, quickly, reliably, securely achieve all the goals, dreams and aspirations of our business…
  26. 26. @RealGeneKim Session ID: Surprise #2: DevOps Is As Good For Ops & Sec … ...As It Is For Dev!
  27. 27. @RealGeneKim Deploy Smaller Changes, More Frequently * Source: http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=14218138919
  28. 28. @RealGeneKim “As a lifelong Ops practitioner, I know we need DevOps to make our work humane. In the past, I’ve worked every holiday, on my birthday, my spouse’s birthday, and even on the day my son was born.” Nathan Shimek Engineering Manager, New Context @nathan_shimek
  29. 29. @RealGeneKim CSG: COBOL App + 20 tech stacks Source: Scott Prugh, Chief Architect, CSG, Inc. And the customer got the feature in half the time!  Apps supporting bill printing and customer care for 50MM customer, 6B transactions per month  20 technology platforms, including mainframe VSAM and DB2, Java, desktop client  Moved from 2 to 4 releases per year  Shared Operations Team performed daily deployments to UAT
  30. 30. @RealGeneKim Developers Carry Pagers “We found that when we woke up developers at 2am, defects got fixed faster than ever” – Patrick Lightbody “You build it, you run it.” – Werner Vogels
  31. 31. @RealGeneKim “As a developer, the most satisfying points in my career? “It’s when I wrote the code, pushed the button to deploy it, watched the metrics to see if it actually worked in production, and fixed it if it broke.” Tim Tischler Director of Operations Engineering Nike, Inc.
  32. 32. @RealGeneKim Capital One: DevOpsSec Source: Tapabrata Pal, Capital One
  33. 33. @RealGeneKim Dev And Ops and Sec: We’re All Engineers
  34. 34. @RealGeneKim Session ID: Surprise #3: The Importance Of Measuring Code Deployment Lead Time
  35. 35. @RealGeneKim “deploys per day” vs. “lead time”
  36. 36. @RealGeneKim “What is your lead time for changes?” “How long does it take to go from code committed to code successfully running in production?”
  37. 37. @RealGeneKimSource: The DevOps Handbook Product Design and Development Product Delivery (Build, Test, Deploy) Create new products and services that solve customer problems using hypothesis-driven delivery, modern UX, design thinking Enable fast flow from development to production and reliable releases by standardizing work, reducing variability and batch sizes Feature design and implementation may require work that has never been done before Integration, test and deployment must be performed continuously, as quickly as possible Estimates are highly uncertain Cycle times should be well-known and predictable Outcomes are highly variable Outcomes should have low variability Change Committed Into Version Control
  38. 38. @RealGeneKimSource: The DevOps Handbook Product Design and Development Product Delivery (Build, Test, Deploy) Create new products and services that solve customer problems using hypothesis-driven delivery, modern UX, design thinking Enable fast flow from development to production and reliable releases by standardizing work, reducing variability and batch sizes Feature design and implementation may require work that has never been done before Integration, test and deployment must be performed continuously, as quickly as possible Estimates are highly uncertain Cycle times should be well-known and predictable Outcomes are highly variable Outcomes should have low variability Change Committed Into Version Control
  39. 39. @RealGeneKimSource: The DevOps Handbook Change Committed Into Version Control Product Design and Development Product Delivery (Build, Test, Deploy) Create new products and services that solve customer problems using hypothesis-driven delivery, modern UX, design thinking Enable fast flow from development to production and reliable releases by standardizing work, reducing variability and batch sizes Feature design and implementation may require work that has never been done before Integration, test and deployment must be performed continuously, as quickly as possible Estimates are highly uncertain Cycle times should be well-known and predictable Outcomes are highly variable Outcomes should have low variability
  40. 40. @RealGeneKim What Is The One Question That Predicts Performance With Startling Accuracy?
  41. 41. @RealGeneKim “To what degree do we fear doing deployments?” Source: Puppet Labs 2015 State Of DevOps: https://puppetlabs.com/2015-devops-report
  42. 42. @RealGeneKim Session ID: Surprise #4: The Surprising Implications Of Conway’s Law
  43. 43. @RealGeneKim Conway’s Law  Eric S. Raymond: “If you have four groups working on a compiler, you’ll get a four pass compiler” (summarizing results of Dr. Melvin Conway’s experiment in 1968)
  44. 44. @RealGeneKim The Birth And Death Of Etsy Sprouter  A story about teams of engineers implementing changes  2008: Devs and DBAs  2009: Devs and DBAs and Sprouter team  2010: Devs
  45. 45. @RealGeneKim Lesson: The Organization and The Architecture Of Our Software Must Be Congruent
  46. 46. @RealGeneKim Lead Time = 9 months Source: Damon Edwards (@damonedwards)
  47. 47. @RealGeneKim Architecture Enables Teams To…  …make large scale changes to the design of its system without the permission of someone outside the team, or depending on other teams  ...complete its work without fine-grained communication and coordination with people outside the team  ...deploy and release its product or service on demand, independently of other services the product or service depends upon  ...do most of its testing on demand, without requiring an integrated test environment  ...perform deployments during normal business hours with negligible downtime Source: Puppet/DORA: 2017 State Of DevOps Report: https://puppet.com/resources/whitepaper/state-of-devops-report
  48. 48. @RealGeneKim The Value Of Platforms  Enable developer productivity  Self-service  On-demand  Immediacy and fast feedback  Focus and flow  Joy  Monitoring, deployment, environment creation, security scans, orchestration…
  49. 49. @RealGeneKim “deploys / day” “deploys / day / dev”
  50. 50. @RealGeneKim High (linear) Low Med Source: Puppet Labs 2015 State Of DevOps: https://puppetlabs.com/2015-devops-report deploys/day # of developers
  51. 51. @RealGeneKim© 2018, DevOps Research and Assessment, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Doing Cloud Right It's not just about adopting cloud, it’s using cloud in essential ways that matters. Only 22% of teams are doing cloud right Teams that use these essentials characteristics are 23X more likely to be elite performers AGREED OR STRONGLY AGREED On-demand self-service Broad network access Resource Pooling Rapid elasticity Measured service
  52. 52. @RealGeneKim Session ID: Surprise #5: DevOps Enables Dynamic, Learning Organizations…
  53. 53. @RealGeneKim Dr. Steven Spear “While designing perfectly safe systems is likely beyond our abilities, safe systems are close to achievable” when the four following conditions are met…” Source: Dr. Steven Spear
  54. 54. @RealGeneKim Dr. Steven Spear’s Four Capabilities 1. See problems as they occur 2. Swarm and solve problems to create new knowledge 3. Spread new knowledge throughout the organization 4. Leaders create new leaders Source: Dr. Steven Spear
  55. 55. @RealGeneKim Capability 1 See problems as they occur: Complex work is managed so that problems in design are revealed They see problems as they occur, through relentless testing of assumptions Automated testing in the deployment pipeline, proactive monitoring of the production environment, … Source: Dr. Steven Spear
  56. 56. @RealGeneKim Pervasive Production Telemetry Etsy engineering culture: anything in production requires telemetry: Ian Malpass: “If it moves, we graph it. Even if it doesn’t move, we graph it, just in case it makes a run for it.” 2011: 200,000 production metrics 2015: 800,000 production metrics
  57. 57. @RealGeneKim Capability 2 Swarming and solving problems as they are seen to build new knowledge Problems that are seen are solved so that new knowledge is built quickly Improvement of daily work is prioritized above daily work Source: Dr. Steven Spear
  58. 58. @RealGeneKim Absence Of Capability 2 “In manufacturing, the absence of effective feedback often contribute to major quality and safety problems. In one well- documented case at the General Motors Fremont manufacturing plant, there were no effective procedures in place to detect problems during the assembly process, nor were there explicit procedures on what to do when problems were found. “As a result, there were instances of engines being put in backward, cars missing steering wheels or tires, and cars even having to be towed off the assembly line because they wouldn’t start.” Source: DevOps Handbook
  59. 59. @RealGeneKim Create as much feedback in our system, from as many areas in our system, sooner, faster, and cheaper, with as much clarity between cause and effect. Why? Because the more assumptions we can invalidate, the more we learn, improving our ability to fix problems and innovate. Source: DevOps Handbook
  60. 60. @RealGeneKim
  61. 61. @RealGeneKim How many times per day is the andon cord pulled in a typical day at a Toyota manufacturing plant? 3,500 times per day Source: http://www.gembapantarei.com/2008/04/how_many_times_do_you_pull_the_andon_cord_each_day.html
  62. 62. @RealGeneKim Capability 2 Stopping work when builds, tests, deployments and services break Stopping work to do peer reviews Source: DevOps Handbook
  63. 63. @RealGeneKim "Automated tests transform fear into boredom." -- Eran Messeri, Google Google Dev And Ops (2013) 15,000 engineers, working on 4,000+ projects All code is checked into one source tree (billions of files!) 5,500 code commits/day 75 million test cases are run daily
  64. 64. @RealGeneKim
  65. 65. @RealGeneKim Capability 3 Spreading new knowledge throughout the organization The new discovery of local knowledge and improvements are turned into global improvements, shared throughout the organization Learning is fed back into the system to prevent future failures Source: Dr. Steven Spear
  66. 66. @RealGeneKim DevOps Practices In Capability 3 Single, shared source code repositories Blameless post-mortems Chaos Monkeys
  67. 67. @RealGeneKim 87
  68. 68. @RealGeneKim Inject Failures Often
  69. 69. @RealGeneKim You Don’t Choose Chaos Monkey… Chaos Monkey Chooses You
  70. 70. @RealGeneKim “Then I remembered all the Chaos Monkey exercises we’ve gone through. My reaction was, ‘Bring it on!’” The 2014 AWS Reboot “When we got the news about the emergency EC2 reboots, our jaws dropped. When we got the list of how many Cassandra nodes would be affected, I felt ill. – Christos Kalantzis Netflix Cloud DB Engineering Source: http://techblog.netflix.com/2014/10/a-state-of-xen-chaos-monkey-cassandra.html
  71. 71. @RealGeneKim The 2014 AWS Reboot “Out of our 2700+ production Cassandra nodes, 218 were rebooted. 22 Cassandra nodes did not reboot successfully. “Netflix customers experienced no downtime that weekend.” – Bruce Wong Netflix Chaos Engineering
  72. 72. @RealGeneKim DevOps Practices In Capability 3 Learning days and internal technology conferences DevOps Dojos and other training Embracing open source Internal architecture to propagate best known patterns (“buoys, not boundaries”) Functional organizations
  73. 73. @RealGeneKim© 2018, DevOps Research and Assessment, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Open Source Software The data shows that using open source software is correlated with high SDO performance Teams that use open source software are 1.75X more likely to be elite performers Those same teams are also 1.5X more likely to expand their open source usage in future
  74. 74. @RealGeneKim Session ID: Surprise #6: DevOps Is For The Unicorns… ...And The Horses, Too
  75. 75. @RealGeneKim DevOps Enterprise: Lessons Learned  In 2018, we’ll hold the fifth year of the DevOps Enterprise Summit, a conference for horses, by horses  Over the years, we’ve had over 200 leaders from:  Capital One, KeyBank, Barclays, GE Capital, ING Bank, Fidelity, PNC, ADP, BofA, Western Union, BBVA  Nationwide Insurance, Zurich Insurance, Hiscox, Aviva, LV=  Walmart, Nordstrom, Target, Macy’s, Marks and Spencer  Nike, Adidas, Sherwin Williams  Verizon, Telstra, T-Mobile, Orange, CSG  Raytheon, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, CSRA, Jaguar Land Rover  Disney, Ticketmaster, NBC/Universal  Kaiser Permanente  US Citizenship & Immigration Services, UK HM Revenue Collection, DISA Forge.mil, NZ Ministry of Social Development, UK Welfare and Pensions, US Joint Warfare Analysis Center  Amazon PrimeNow, CA, Compuware, Google Search, IBM, MicroFocus, Microsoft, SAP
  76. 76. @RealGeneKim Observations  They were using the same technical practices and getting the same sort of metrics as the unicorns  Target: 100+ deploys per week, < 10 incidents per month, enabled 53 business initiatives  Capital One: 100s of deploys per day, lead time of minutes  Macy’s: 1,500 manual tests every 10 days, now 100Ks automated tests run daily  Disney: Has embedded nearly 100 Ops engineers into LOB teams across the enterprise  Nationwide Insurance: Retirement Plans app (COBOL on mainframe)  Raytheon: testing and certification from months to a day  Key Bank: rebuilt consumer online banking in containers and Kubernetes in 1 year  Nordstrom: 20% lead time reduction into executive bonuses
  77. 77. @RealGeneKim Spanning Business/Technology Divide Verizon Enterprise Nike EMEA Capital One KeyBank
  78. 78. @RealGeneKim
  79. 79. @RealGeneKimSource: Puppet/DORA: 2017 State Of DevOps Report: https://puppet.com/resources/whitepaper/state-of-devops-report
  80. 80. @RealGeneKim Leadership Matters Teams with the least reported transformational leadership behaviors (the bottom-third) were one- half as likely to be high IT performers Leaders cannot do it alone! Teams with the top 10% of reported transformational leadership behaviors performed no better than the median Source: Puppet/DORA: 2017 State Of DevOps Report: https://puppet.com/resources/whitepaper/state-of-devops-report
  81. 81. @RealGeneKim Leaders Affect Outcomes Through… Source: Puppet/DORA: 2017 State Of DevOps Report: https://puppet.com/resources/whitepaper/state-of-devops-report
  82. 82. © 2018, DevOps Research and Assessment, LLC. All Rights Reserved.110 © 2018, DevOps Research and Assessment, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Influencing culture - autonomy Giving teams autonomy improves voice and trust Voice and trust improve Westrum organizational culture, which drives SDO and organizational performance
  83. 83. @RealGeneKim Session ID: Surprise #8: Features, Defects, Risks, Debts
  84. 84. @RealGeneKim R&D Outputs Value Cost Quality Employee Happiness Source: Project To Product, Dr. Mik Kersten (upcoming)
  85. 85. @RealGeneKim Allocating R&D Inputs  Features: net new customer visible value  Defects: broken promises to customers  Risks: ensure availability, compliance, security  Debts: architecture debt, technical debt that inhibit features, encourage defects, increase risks Source: Project To Product, Dr. Mik Kersten (upcoming)
  86. 86. @RealGeneKim Fast Push To Market Debts & Risks Features Quality Defects
  87. 87. @RealGeneKim Fast Push To Market — Continued Features Defects Defect fixing dominates work Site reliability tanks Slower and slower velocity Customers leave Morale plunges Devs leave because everything is hard Quality Debts & Risks
  88. 88. @RealGeneKimSource: https://twitter.com/johncutlefish/status/1046169469268111361 Who hasn’t felt this? You hire a bunch of developers, but you still can’t ship the features you promised… …and maybe you even have the feeling that things are slowing down…
  89. 89. @RealGeneKim Near Death Experiences ● Ebay (1999) ● Microsoft (2002): Bill Gates memo ● Amazon (2004): Jeff Bezos memo ● Twitter (2008) ● LinkedIn (2009) ● Etsy (2009) ● Knight Capital (2012) ● Healthcare.gov (2013) ● British Airways (2015) * ● Equifax (2018) * * Not actually a “near death experience” — but I think they’re egregiously bad…
  90. 90. @RealGeneKim The Feature Freeze / Standdown Debt Features Quality Defects Features
  91. 91. @RealGeneKim
  92. 92. @RealGeneKim Quote from Marty Cagan from his book Inspired The deal [between product owners and] engineering goes like this: Product management takes 20% of the team’s capacity right off the top and gives this to engineering to spend as they see fit. They might use it to rewrite, re-architect, or re-factor problematic parts of the code base…​whatever they believe is necessary to avoid ever having to come to the team and say, ‘we need to stop and rewrite [all our code].’ If you’re in really bad shape today, you might need to make this 30% or even more of the resources. However, I get nervous when I find teams that think they can get away with much less than 20%. Cagan notes that when organizations do not pay their “20% tax,” technical debt will increase to the point where an organization inevitably spends all of its cycles paying down technical debt. At some point, the services become so fragile that feature delivery grinds to a halt because all the engineers are working on reliability issues or working around problems.
  93. 93. @RealGeneKim The Same Technique at LinkedIn 2011
  94. 94. @RealGeneKim 2002 Microsoft Security Standdown Famously, Microsoft after SQL Slammer required every product group to freeze feature Source: https://www.wired.com/2002/01/bill-gates-trustworthy-computing/
  95. 95. @RealGeneKim Advice To Business Leaders Managing technical debt doesn’t have to always happen during extinction event crises 20% of R&D time as a part of daily work is one of my favorite patterns Hack Days, Improvement Blitzes, Improvement Days saved Google, Facebook, Etsy, Amazon Surface and solve problems as a part of daily work Work with your teams to determine whether the Debts dial needs to turned up higher! (0% is never sustainable) Encourage “blameless post-mortems”: make it safe to talk about problems
  96. 96. @RealGeneKim From Dr. Mik Kersten, CEO, Tasktop Top annual priority: new features Result: debt to pay down
  97. 97. @RealGeneKim From Dr. Mik Kersten, CEO, Tasktop Last year: Unhappiest team Now: Happiest team Highest feature flow
  98. 98. @RealGeneKim Session ID: Surprise #9: From Dev to Ops… …back to Dev
  99. 99. @RealGeneKim As Your Ambassador From Dev For decades, I self-identified as an Ops person… 2 years ago, I’ve started to self-identify as Dev Clojure / ClojureScript LISP, functional programming, immutability 3000 lines of Objective C -> 1500 lines of TypeScript/React -> 500 lines of ClojureScript Development is so fun, and these days, you can do miraculous things with so little effort
  100. 100. @RealGeneKim Why Functional Programming The famous French philosopher Claude Lévi-Strauss would say of certain tools, ‘is it good to think with?’ Core FP concepts Immutability Pure functions Composability Pioneered by Haskell and Ocaml. Popularized by Clojure, Erlang, Elm, Elixir
  101. 101. @RealGeneKim Interestingly, It Portends Future Of Ops Core concepts Immutability Pure functions Composability Look at… Docker, Docker Compose Kubernetes Kubernetes sidecars Event streams: Apache Kafka
  102. 102. @RealGeneKim Never Have I Valued Infrastructure More Things I detest now Everything outside of my application Connecting to anything to anything Secrets management Bash YAML Patching Building kubernetes deployment files (mostly by Googling) Why my cloud costs are so high
  103. 103. @RealGeneKim
  104. 104. @RealGeneKim The Rebellion Needs You The DevOps Enterprise journey is a rebellion against an ancient and powerful order Digital transformation is changing everything — and that’s where the excitement is The Rebellion needs you — the next generation of leaders
  105. 105. @RealGeneKim Why Do I Think This Is Important?
  106. 106. @RealGeneKim Help I’m Looking For  For 1.5 years, I’ve been working on “The Unicorn Project”  “The Phoenix Project” retold, but from perspective of a developer/architect  It’s a book about people rebelling against an ancient and powerful order  Combination of Redshirts from Star Trek, Hogan’s Heroes, A Team, and the movie Brazil  I’m looking for women in technology to review an early draft of a book
  107. 107. @RealGeneKim Want More Learn More? To receive the following:  A copy of this presentation  Eight excerpts from Beyond The Phoenix Project audio series w/John Willis  The 140 page excerpt of The DevOps Handbook  The 140 page excerpt of The Phoenix Project  Videos and slides from DevOps Enterprise 2014-2017  Whitepaper from DevOps Research and Assessment  The DevOps Enterprise Forum Guidance Papers  Link to the DevOps Audit Defense Toolkit  One hour excerpt of The Phoenix Project audiobook Just pick up your phone, and send an email: To: realgenekim@SendYourSlides.com Subject: devops realgenekim@SendYourSlides.com devops

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