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Introduction and Principle of IR spectroscopy


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Introduction and Principle of IR spectroscopy

  1. 1. Introduction and Principle of IR Spectrophotometry Presented by: Rajaram Kshetri B.pharm, IOM
  2. 2. Contents • Introduction of Spectroscopy • Introduction of IR spectrophotometry • Principle of IR spectrophotometry • Molecular vibrations
  3. 3. Spectroscopy • Method of “Seeing the unseeable” • using electromagnetic radiation to obtain information about atoms and molecules that are too small to see. Atoms Molecules
  4. 4. Spectroscopy is an instrumentally aided study of the interactions between matter (sample being analyzed) and energy (any portion of the electromagnetic spectrum) EMR ANALYTE SPECTROPHOTOGRAPH 1.UV-Visible radiations--------excitation of electrons---------UV-visible spectrum 2.IR-radiations------------------vibration changes in electrons--------IR spectrum 3.Radio frequency---------------spin rotational changes-------------N.M.R spectrum Conc. should be lower
  5. 5. IR spectrophotometry Energy of molecule = Electronic energy+ Vibrational energy + Rotational energy • IR spectroscopy is concerned with the study of absorption of infrared radiation, which causes vibrational transition in the molecule. Hence, IR spectroscopy also known as Vibrational spectroscopy. • IR spectra mainly used in structure elucidation to determine the functional groups.
  6. 6. • IR region: 0.8 µm (800nm) to 1000 µm (1mm) 1.Near IR: 0.8-2 µm 2.Middle IR: 2-15 µm 3.Far IR: 15-1000 µm Most of the analytical applications are confined to the middle IR region because absorption of organic molecules are high in this region. Sub divided into
  7. 7. Principle of IR spectroscopy • Molecules are made up of atoms linked by chemical bonds. The movement of atoms and the chemical bonds like like spring and balls (vibration) • This characteristic vibration are called Natural frequency of vibration.
  8. 8. • When energy in the form of infrared radiation is applied then it causes the vibration between the atoms of the molecules and when, Applied infrared frequency = Natural frequency of vibration Then, Absorption of IR radiation takes place and a peak is observed. Different functional groups absorb characteristic frequencies of IR radiation. Hence gives the characteristic peak value. Therefore, IR spectrum of a chemical substance is a finger print of a molecule for its identification.
  9. 9. Criteria for a compound to absorb IR radiation 1. Correct wavelength of radiation 2. Change in dipole moment 1. Correct wavelength of radiation: A molecule to absorb IR radiation, the natural frequency of vibrations of some part of a molecule is the same as the frequency of incident radiation.
  10. 10. 2. Change in dipole moment • A molecule can only absorb IR radiation when its absorption cause a change in its electric dipole • A molecule is said to have an electric dipole when there is a slight positive and a slight negative charge on its component of atoms.
  11. 11. Molecular vibrations There are 2 types of vibrations: 1.Stretching vibrations 2.Bending vibrations 1. Stretching vibrations:  Vibration or oscillation along the line of bond  Change in bond length  Occurs at higher energy: 4000-1250 cm-1  2 types: a) Symmetrical stretching b)Asymmetrical stretching
  12. 12. a) Symmetrical stretching: 2 bonds increase or decrease in length simultaneously. H H C
  13. 13. b) Asymmetrical stretching • in this, one bond length is increased and other is decreased. H H C
  14. 14. 2. Bending vibrations • Vibration or oscillation not along the line of bond • These are also called as deformations • In this, bond angle is altered • Occurs at low energy: 1400-666 cm-1 • 2 types: a)In plane bending: scissoring, rocking b)Out plane bending: wagging, twisting
  15. 15. a) In plane bending i. Scissoring: • This is an in plane blending • 2 atoms approach each other • Bond angles are decrease H H CC
  16. 16. ii. Rocking: • Movement of atoms take place in the same direction. H H CC
  17. 17. b) Out plane bending i. Wagging: • 2 atoms move to one side of the plane. They move up and down the plane. ii. Twisting: • One atom moves above the plane and another atom moves below the plane. H H CC H H CC