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UV / VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY
P.SUDHA
M.Pharmacy Ist Year(Pharmaceutics)
February 22, 2014
Spectroscopy
 It is the branch of science that deals with the study of

interaction of matter with light.
OR
 It is the branch of science that deals with the study of
interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
Electromagnetic
Radiation
Electromagnetic Radiation
 Electromagnetic radiation consist of discrete

packets of energy which are called as
photons.
 A photon consists of an oscillating electric

field (E) & an oscillating magnetic field (M)
which are perpendicular to each other.
Electromagnetic Radiation
 Frequency (ν):
 It is defined as the number of times electrical

field radiation oscillates in one second.
 The unit for frequency is Hertz (Hz).
1 Hz = 1 cycle per second

 Wavelength (λ):
 It is the distance between two nearest parts of

the wave in the same phase i.e. distance
between two nearest crest or troughs.
Electromagnetic Radiation

 The relationship between wavelength &

frequency can be written as:
c=νλ
 As photon is subjected to energy, so
E=hν=hc/λ
Electromagnetic Radiation
Electromagnetic Radiation

Violet
Indigo
Blue
Green

400 - 420 Yellow
nm
420 - 440 Orange
nm
440 - 490 Red
nm
490 - 570
nm

570 - 585
nm
585 - 620
nm
620 - 780
nm
Principles of
Spectroscopy
Principles of Spectroscopy
 The principle is based on the measurement

of spectrum of a sample containing atoms /
molecules.
 Spectrum is a graph of intensity of absorbed

or emitted radiation by sample verses
frequency (ν) or wavelength (λ).
 Spectrometer is an instrument design to

measure the spectrum of a compound.
Principles of Spectroscopy
1. Absorption Spectroscopy:
 An analytical technique which concerns with

the measurement of absorption
electromagnetic radiation.

of

 e.g. UV (185 - 400 nm) / Visible (400 - 800

nm) Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy (0.76 - 15
μm)
Principles of Spectroscopy
2. Emission Spectroscopy:
 An analytical technique in which emission

(of a particle or radiation) is dispersed
according to some property of the
emission & the amount of dispersion is
measured.
 e.g. Mass Spectroscopy
Interaction of

EMR
with
Matter
Interaction of EMR with matter
1.Electronic Energy Levels:
 At room temperature the molecules are in the lowest energy

levels E0.
 When the molecules absorb UV-visible light from EMR, one

of the outermost bond / lone pair electron is promoted to
higher energy state such as E1, E2, …En, etc is called as
electronic transition and the difference is as:
∆E = h ν = En - E0 where (n = 1, 2, 3, … etc)
∆E = 35 to 71 kcal/mole
Interaction of EMR with matter
2.Vibrational Energy Levels:
 These are less energy level than electronic energy levels.
 The spacing between energy levels are relatively small i.e.

0.01 to 10 kcal/mole.
e.g. when IR radiation is absorbed, molecules are excited from
one vibrational level to another or it vibrates with higher
amplitude.

3. Rotational Energy Levels:
 These energy levels are quantized & discrete.
 The spacing between energy levels are even smaller than

vibrational energy levels.
∆Erotational < ∆Evibrational < ∆Eelectronic
Beer-Lambert’s
Law
Beer Lamberts Law:
A=εbc
A=absorbance
ε =molar absorbtivity with units of L /mol.cm
b=path length of the sample (cuvette)
c =Concentration of the compound in solution,
expressed in mol /L
Electronic
Transitions
The possible electronic transitions are

1

• σ → σ* transition

2

• π → π* transition

3

• n → σ* transition

4

• n → π* transition

5

• σ → π* transition

6

• π → σ* transition
1

• σ → σ* transition

• σ electron from orbital is excited to
corresponding anti-bonding orbital σ*.
• The energy required is large for this
transition.

• e.g. Methane (CH4) has C-H bond only and
can undergo σ → σ* transition and shows
absorbance maxima at 125 nm.
2

• π → π* transition

• π electron in a bonding orbital is excited to
corresponding anti-bonding orbital π*.
• Compounds containing multiple bonds
like alkenes, alkynes, carbonyl, nitriles,
aromatic compounds, etc undergo π → π*
transitions.
e.g. Alkenes generally absorb in the
region 170 to 205 nm.
3

• n → σ* transition

• Saturated compounds containing atoms
with lone pair of electrons like O, N, S and
halogens are capable of n → σ* transition.
• These transitions usually requires less
energy than σ → σ* transitions.
• The number of organic functional groups
with n → σ* peaks in UV region is small
(150 – 250 nm).
4

• n → π* transition

• An electron from non-bonding orbital is
promoted to anti-bonding π* orbital.
• Compounds containing double bond
involving hetero atoms (C=O, C≡N, N=O)
undergo such transitions.
• n → π* transitions require minimum
energy and show absorption at longer
wavelength around 300 nm.
5
&

• σ → π* transition
• π → σ* transition

6

• These electronic transitions are forbidden
transitions & are only theoretically possible.
• Thus, n → π* & π → π* electronic
transitions show absorption in region above
200 nm which is accessible to UV-visible
spectrophotometer.
• The UV spectrum is of only a few broad of
absorption.
The possible electronic transitions can
graphically shown as:
Terms used
in
UV / Visible
Spectroscopy
Chromophore
The part of a molecule responsible for imparting color,
are called as chromospheres.
OR
The functional groups containing multiple bonds
capable of absorbing radiations above 200 nm due to n
→ π* & π → π* transitions.
e.g. NO2, N=O, C=O, C=N, C≡N, C=C, C=S, etc
Auxochrome
The functional groups attached to a chromophore which
modifies the ability of the chromophore to absorb light ,
altering the wavelength or intensity of absorption.
OR
The functional group with non-bonding electrons that
does not absorb radiation in near UV region but when
attached to a chromophore alters the wavelength &
intensity of absorption.
Auxochrome
e.g.

Benzene λmax = 255 nm
OH

Phenol λmax = 270 nm

Aniline λmax = 280 nm

NH2
Absorption
& Intensity
Shifts
1 • Bathochromic Shift (Red Shift)
• When absorption maxima (λmax) of a
compound shifts to longer wavelength, it is
known as bathochromic shift or red shift.
• The effect is due to presence of an
auxochrome or by the change of solvent.
• e.g. An auxochrome group like –OH, -OCH3
causes absorption of compound at longer
wavelength.
1 • Bathochromic Shift (Red Shift)
• In alkaline medium, p-nitrophenol shows
red shift. Because negatively charged oxygen
delocalizes more effectively than the
unshared pair of electron.
O

+

O

-

O

N

+

O

-

N
OH

-

Alkaline
OH

medium

p-nitrophenol
λmax = 255 nm

O

-

λmax = 265 nm
2 • Hypsochromic Shift (Blue Shift)
• When absorption maxima (λmax) of a
compound shifts to shorter wavelength, it is
known as hypsochromic shift or blue shift.

• The effect is due to presence of an group
causes removal of conjugation or by the
change of solvent.
2 • Hypsochromic Shift (Blue Shift)
• Aniline shows blue shift in acidic medium, it
loses conjugation.
NH2

+

+

H

NH 3 Cl

-

Acidic
medium

Aniline
λmax = 280 nm

λmax = 265 nm
3 • Hyperchromic Effect
• When absorption intensity (ε) of a
compound is increased, it is known as
hyperchromic shift.
• If auxochrome introduces to the compound,
the intensity of absorption increases.
N

Pyridine
λmax = 257 nm
ε = 2750

N

CH3

2methylpyridine
λmax = 260 nm
ε = 3560
4

• Hypochromic Effect

• When absorption intensity (ε) of a
compound is decreased, it is known as
hypochromic shift.

CH3

Naphthalene
naphthalene
ε = 19000

2-methyl
ε = 10250
Shifts and Effects

Absorbance ( A )

Hyperchromic shift

Red
shift

Blue
shift

Hypochromic shift
λmax
Wavelength ( λ )
PRINCIPLES OF UV
- VISIBLE
SPECTROSCOPY
Principle
 The UV radiation region extends from 10 nm to 400

nm and the visible radiation region extends from 400
nm to 800 nm.
Near UV Region: 200 nm to 400 nm
Far UV Region: below 200 nm
 Far UV spectroscopy is studied under vacuum
condition.
 The common solvent used for preparing sample to be
analyzed is either ethyl alcohol or hexane.
Instrumentation
Components of UV-Visible spectrophotometer

 Source
 Filters & Monochromator

 Sample compartment
 Detector
 Recorder
Five Basic Optical Instrument Components
 1) Source – A stable source of radiant energy at the desired







wavelength (or 
range).
2) Wavelength Selector – A device that isolates a restricted
region of the EM spectrum used for measurement
(monochromators, prisms & filters).
3) Sample Container – A transparent container used to
hold the sample (cells, cuvettes, etc).
4) Detector/Photoelectric Transducer – Converts the
radiant energy into a useable signal (usually electrical).
5) Signal Processor & Readout – Amplifies or attenuates the
transduced signal and sends it to a readout device as a
meter, digital readout, chart recorder, computer, etc.
Double Beam Spectrophotometer
LIGHT SOURCES
Various UV radiation sources are as follows
a. Deuterium lamp
b. Hydrogen lamp
c. Tungsten lamp
d. Xenon discharge lamp
e. Mercury arc lamp
Various Visible radiation sources are as follow
a. Tungsten lamp
b. Mercury vapour lamp
c. Carbonone lamp
Wavelength Selectors
 Wavelength selectors output a limited, narrow,

continuous group of wavelengths called a band.
Two types of wavelength selectors:
A) Filters
B) Monochromators
A)Filters –
Two types of filters:
a) Interference Filters
b) Absorption Filters
Cont..
B. Monochromators
 Wavelength selector that can continuously scan a
broad range of wavelengths.
 Used in most scanning spectrometers including UV,
visible, and IR instruments.
Refractive type
PRISM TYPE

Reflective type

Diffraction type
GRATING TYPE
Transmission Type
SAMPLE COMPARTMENT
 Spectroscopy requires all materials in the beam path other than








the analyte should be as transparent to the radiation as possible.
The geometries of all components in the system should be such
as to maximize the signal and minimize the scattered light.
The material from which a sample cuvette is fabricated controls
the optical window that can be used.
Some typical materials are:
Optical Glass - 335 - 2500 nm
Special Optical Glass – 320 - 2500 nm
Quartz (Infrared) – 220 - 3800 nm
Quartz (Far-UV) – 170 - 2700 nm
Detectors
 After the light has passed through the sample, we want to

be able to detect and measure the resulting light.
 These types of detectors come in the form of transducers
that are able to take energy from light and convert it into
an electrical signal that can be recorded, and if necessary,
amplified.
 Three common types of detectors are used
 Barrier layer cells
 Photo emissive cell detector
 Photomultiplier
SUMMARY
 Types of source, sample holder and detector for

various EM region
REGION

SOURCE

SAMPLE
HOLDER

DETECTOR

Ultraviolet

Deuterium lamp

Quartz/Fused
silica

Phototube, PM
tube, diode array

Visible

Tungsten lamp

Glass/Quartz

Phototube, PM
tube, diode array
DIFFERENT UV-VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC
METHODS
FOR MULTICOMPONENT ANALYSIS

 (a) Simultaneous equation method
 (b) Absorbance ratio method

 (c) Geometric correction method
 (d) Orthogonal polynomial method
 (e) Derivative spectrophotometry

 (f)Difference spectrophotometry
(a) Simultaneous equation method:
 If a sample contains two absorbing drugs (X and Y) each of

which absorbs at the λ-max of the other (λ1 and λ2), it may
be possible to determine both the drugs by the
simultaneous equations method.
The information required is
 The absorptivities of X at λ1 and λ2, aX1 and aX2.
 The absorptivities of Y at λ1 and λ2, aY1 and aY2.
 The absorbances of the diluted sample at λ1 and λ2, A1 and
A2.
Let, Cx and Cy be the concentration of X and Y
respectively in the sample.
 The absorbance of the mixture is the sum of the individual

absorbances of X and Y
At λ1 A1 = aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy …………..(1)
At λ2 A2 = aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy …………..(2)
Multiply the equation (1) with aX2 and (2) with aX1
A1 aX2 = aX1 Cx aX2 + aY1 Cy aX2 …………(3)
A2 aX1 = aX2 Cx aX1+ aY2 Cy aX1 ………….(4)
A1 aX2 - A2 aX1 = aY1 Cy aX2 - aY2 Cy aX1
A1 aX2 - A2 aX1 = Cy (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1)
Cy = (A1 aX2 - A2 aX1) / (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1) ……….(5)
Same way we can derive
Cx = (A2 aY1 – A1 aY2) / (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1)………... (6)
These equations are known as simultaneous equations and by solving
these simultaneous equations we can determine the concentration of X
and Y in the sample.
(b) Absorbance ratio method:
The absorbance ratio method is a
modification of the simultaneous equations procedure.
In the quantitative assay of two components in
admixture by the absorbance ratio method, absorbances
are measured at two wavelengths, one being the λ-max of
one of the components (λ2) and other being a wavelength
of equal absorptivity of two components (λ1), i.e. an isoabsorptive point.
 At λ1

A1 = aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy …………… (1)
 At λ2 A2 = aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy…………....(2)
Now divide (2) with (1)
A2/A1 = (aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy)/(aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy)
 Divide each term with (Cx + Cy)
A2/A1 = (aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy) / (Cx + Cy) (aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy) / (Cx + Cy)
Put Fx = Cx / (Cx + Cy) and Fy = Cy / (Cx + Cy)
A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 Fy] / [aX1 Fx + aY1Fy]
Where Fx is the fraction of X and Fy is the fraction of Y i.e. Fy = 1-Fx
Therefore,
A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 (1-Fx)] / [aX1 Fx + aY1(1-Fx)]
= [aX2 Fx + aY2 – aY2Fx] / [aX1 Fx + aY1 – aY1Fx]
At iso-absorptive point
aX1 = aY1 and Cx = Cy
There fore
A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 – aY2Fx] / aX1
= (aX2 Fx/ aX1) + (aY2/ aX1) –( aY2Fx/ aX1)
Let Qx = aX2/aX1 , Qy = aY2/aY1 and absorption ratio Qm = A2/A1
Qm = Fx Qx + Qy - Fx Qy
= Fx (Qx-Qy) + Qy
Fx = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy) ………………………..(3)
From the equations (1) A1 = aX1 (Cx + Cy)
there fore Cx + Cy = A1 / aX1
There fore Cx = (A1/aX1) – Cy ……………………(4)
From the equation (3)
Cx / (Cx + Cy) = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy)
There fore
Cx / (A1 / aX1) = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy)
There fore
Cx = [(Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy)] X (A1 / aX1) …………(5)
(c) Geometric correction method:
 A number of mathematical correction procedures have been developed

which reduce or eliminate the background irrelevant absorption that
may be present in samples of biological origin.
 The simplest of this procedure is the three point geometric procedure,
which may be applied if the irrelevant absorption is linear at the three
wavelengths selected.
If the wavelengths λ 1, λ 2 and λ 3 are selected to that the
background absorbances B 1 , B 2 and B 3 are linear, then
the corrected absorbance D of the drug may be calculated
from the three absorbances A 1 , A 2 and A 3 of the sample
solution at λ 1, λ 2 and λ 3 respectively as follows,
Let v D and w D be the absorbance of the drug alone in the
sample solution at λ 1 and λ 3 respectively, i.e. v and w are
the absorbance ratios vD/D and wD/D respectively.
B 1 = A 1 – vD, B 2 = A 2 –D and B 3 = A 3 –wD
Let y and z be the wavelengths intervals (λ 2 – λ 1 ) and
(λ 3 - λ 2 ) respectively
D= y(A 2 -A 3 ) + z(A 2 – A 1 ) / y (1-w) + z(1-v)
 This is a general equation which may be applied in any

situation where A 1, A 2 and A 3 of the sample, the
wavelength intervals y and z and the absorbance ratio
v and w are known.
(d) Orthogonal polynomial method:
The technique of orthogonal polynomials is another
mathematical correction procedure, which involves
more complex calculations than the three-point
correction procedure. The basis of the method is that
an absorption spectrum may be represented in terms
of orthogonal functions as follows
A(λ ) = p P (λ ) + p1 P1 (λ ) + p2 P2 (λ ) ….. pn Pn (λ )
 Where A denotes the absorbance at wavelength λ
belonging to a set of n+1 equally spaced wavelengths
at which the orthogonal polynomials, P (λ ) , P1 (λ ),
P2 (λ ) ….. Pn (λ ) are each defined.
(e)Derivative Spectroscopy:
 For the purpose of spectral analysis in order to relate

chemical structure to electronic transitions, and for
analytical situations in which mixture contribute
interfering absorption, a method of manipulating the
spectral data is called derivative spectroscopy.
 Derivative spectrophotometry involves the conversions of a
normal spectrum to its first, second or higher derivative
spectrum. In the context of derivative spectrophotometry,
the normal absorption spectrum is referred to as the
fundamental, zero order, or D 0 spectrum.
 The first derivative D 1 spectrum is a plot of the rate of change of

absorbance with wavelength against wavelength i.e. a plot of the slope
of the fundamental spectrum against wavelength or a plot of dA/dλ vs.
λ. . The maximum positive and maximum negative slope respectively in
the D spectrum correspond with a maximum and a minimum
respectively in the D 1 spectrum. The λmax in D spectrum is a
wavelength of zero slope and gives dA/dλ = 0 in the D 1 spectrum.
 The second derivative D 2 spectrum is a plot of the curvature of the D

spectrum against wavelength or a plot of d 2 A/ dλ 2 vs. λ. The
maximum negative curvature in the D spectrum gives a minimum in
the D 2 spectrum, and the maximum positive curvature in the D
spectrum gives two small maxima called satellite bands in the D 2
spectrum. The wavelength of maximum slope and zero curvature in the
D spectrum correspond with cross-over points in the D 2 spectrum.
(f)Difference Spectroscopy:
 Difference spectroscopy provides a sensitive method for detecting

small changes in the environment of a chromophore or it can be used
to demonstrate ionization of a chromophore leading to identification
and quantitation of various components in a mixture.
The essential feature of a difference spectrophotometric assay
is that the measured value is the difference absorbance (Δ A) between
two equimolar solutions of the analyte in different forms which exhibit
different spectral characteristics.
 The criteria for applying difference spectrophotometry to the assay of a
substance in the presence of other absorbing substances are that:
A)Reproducible changes may be induced in the spectrum of the analyte
by the addition of one or more reagents.
B) The absorbance of the interfering substances is not altered by the
reagents.
 The simplest and most commonly employed technique for altering the

spectral properties of the analyte properties of the analyte is the
adjustment of the pH by means of aqueous solutions of acid, alkali or
buffers

A
A)The Spectrum of compound in A(acid) and B(Base)
B) The difference spectrum of B relative to A

B
Conclusion:
 Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis:
 It is used for characterizing aromatic compounds and
conjugated olefins.
 It can be used to find out molar concentration of the
solute under study.
 Detection of impurities:
 It is one of the important method to detect impurities
in organic solvents.
 Detection of isomers are possible.

 Determination of molecular weight using Beer’s law.
Reference Books
 Introduction to Spectroscopy
 Donald A. Pavia

 Elementary Organic Spectroscopy
 Y. R. Sharma

 Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry
 A.H. Beckett, J.B. Stenlake
RESOURCES
 http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtT

xtJml/Spectrpy/UV-Vis/spectrum.htm
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultraviolet%E2%80%93v

isible_spectroscopy
 http://teaching.shu.ac.uk/hwb/chemistry/tutorials/m

olspec/uvvisab1.htm
UV/Visible Spectroscopy Principles

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UV/Visible Spectroscopy Principles

  • 1. UV / VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY P.SUDHA M.Pharmacy Ist Year(Pharmaceutics) February 22, 2014
  • 2. Spectroscopy  It is the branch of science that deals with the study of interaction of matter with light. OR  It is the branch of science that deals with the study of interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
  • 4. Electromagnetic Radiation  Electromagnetic radiation consist of discrete packets of energy which are called as photons.  A photon consists of an oscillating electric field (E) & an oscillating magnetic field (M) which are perpendicular to each other.
  • 5.
  • 6. Electromagnetic Radiation  Frequency (ν):  It is defined as the number of times electrical field radiation oscillates in one second.  The unit for frequency is Hertz (Hz). 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second  Wavelength (λ):  It is the distance between two nearest parts of the wave in the same phase i.e. distance between two nearest crest or troughs.
  • 7. Electromagnetic Radiation  The relationship between wavelength & frequency can be written as: c=νλ  As photon is subjected to energy, so E=hν=hc/λ
  • 9. Electromagnetic Radiation Violet Indigo Blue Green 400 - 420 Yellow nm 420 - 440 Orange nm 440 - 490 Red nm 490 - 570 nm 570 - 585 nm 585 - 620 nm 620 - 780 nm
  • 11. Principles of Spectroscopy  The principle is based on the measurement of spectrum of a sample containing atoms / molecules.  Spectrum is a graph of intensity of absorbed or emitted radiation by sample verses frequency (ν) or wavelength (λ).  Spectrometer is an instrument design to measure the spectrum of a compound.
  • 12. Principles of Spectroscopy 1. Absorption Spectroscopy:  An analytical technique which concerns with the measurement of absorption electromagnetic radiation. of  e.g. UV (185 - 400 nm) / Visible (400 - 800 nm) Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy (0.76 - 15 μm)
  • 13. Principles of Spectroscopy 2. Emission Spectroscopy:  An analytical technique in which emission (of a particle or radiation) is dispersed according to some property of the emission & the amount of dispersion is measured.  e.g. Mass Spectroscopy
  • 15. Interaction of EMR with matter 1.Electronic Energy Levels:  At room temperature the molecules are in the lowest energy levels E0.  When the molecules absorb UV-visible light from EMR, one of the outermost bond / lone pair electron is promoted to higher energy state such as E1, E2, …En, etc is called as electronic transition and the difference is as: ∆E = h ν = En - E0 where (n = 1, 2, 3, … etc) ∆E = 35 to 71 kcal/mole
  • 16. Interaction of EMR with matter 2.Vibrational Energy Levels:  These are less energy level than electronic energy levels.  The spacing between energy levels are relatively small i.e. 0.01 to 10 kcal/mole. e.g. when IR radiation is absorbed, molecules are excited from one vibrational level to another or it vibrates with higher amplitude. 3. Rotational Energy Levels:  These energy levels are quantized & discrete.  The spacing between energy levels are even smaller than vibrational energy levels. ∆Erotational < ∆Evibrational < ∆Eelectronic
  • 18. Beer Lamberts Law: A=εbc A=absorbance ε =molar absorbtivity with units of L /mol.cm b=path length of the sample (cuvette) c =Concentration of the compound in solution, expressed in mol /L
  • 20. The possible electronic transitions are 1 • σ → σ* transition 2 • π → π* transition 3 • n → σ* transition 4 • n → π* transition 5 • σ → π* transition 6 • π → σ* transition
  • 21. 1 • σ → σ* transition • σ electron from orbital is excited to corresponding anti-bonding orbital σ*. • The energy required is large for this transition. • e.g. Methane (CH4) has C-H bond only and can undergo σ → σ* transition and shows absorbance maxima at 125 nm.
  • 22. 2 • π → π* transition • π electron in a bonding orbital is excited to corresponding anti-bonding orbital π*. • Compounds containing multiple bonds like alkenes, alkynes, carbonyl, nitriles, aromatic compounds, etc undergo π → π* transitions. e.g. Alkenes generally absorb in the region 170 to 205 nm.
  • 23. 3 • n → σ* transition • Saturated compounds containing atoms with lone pair of electrons like O, N, S and halogens are capable of n → σ* transition. • These transitions usually requires less energy than σ → σ* transitions. • The number of organic functional groups with n → σ* peaks in UV region is small (150 – 250 nm).
  • 24. 4 • n → π* transition • An electron from non-bonding orbital is promoted to anti-bonding π* orbital. • Compounds containing double bond involving hetero atoms (C=O, C≡N, N=O) undergo such transitions. • n → π* transitions require minimum energy and show absorption at longer wavelength around 300 nm.
  • 25. 5 & • σ → π* transition • π → σ* transition 6 • These electronic transitions are forbidden transitions & are only theoretically possible. • Thus, n → π* & π → π* electronic transitions show absorption in region above 200 nm which is accessible to UV-visible spectrophotometer. • The UV spectrum is of only a few broad of absorption.
  • 26. The possible electronic transitions can graphically shown as:
  • 27. Terms used in UV / Visible Spectroscopy
  • 28. Chromophore The part of a molecule responsible for imparting color, are called as chromospheres. OR The functional groups containing multiple bonds capable of absorbing radiations above 200 nm due to n → π* & π → π* transitions. e.g. NO2, N=O, C=O, C=N, C≡N, C=C, C=S, etc
  • 29. Auxochrome The functional groups attached to a chromophore which modifies the ability of the chromophore to absorb light , altering the wavelength or intensity of absorption. OR The functional group with non-bonding electrons that does not absorb radiation in near UV region but when attached to a chromophore alters the wavelength & intensity of absorption.
  • 30. Auxochrome e.g. Benzene λmax = 255 nm OH Phenol λmax = 270 nm Aniline λmax = 280 nm NH2
  • 32.
  • 33. 1 • Bathochromic Shift (Red Shift) • When absorption maxima (λmax) of a compound shifts to longer wavelength, it is known as bathochromic shift or red shift. • The effect is due to presence of an auxochrome or by the change of solvent. • e.g. An auxochrome group like –OH, -OCH3 causes absorption of compound at longer wavelength.
  • 34. 1 • Bathochromic Shift (Red Shift) • In alkaline medium, p-nitrophenol shows red shift. Because negatively charged oxygen delocalizes more effectively than the unshared pair of electron. O + O - O N + O - N OH - Alkaline OH medium p-nitrophenol λmax = 255 nm O - λmax = 265 nm
  • 35. 2 • Hypsochromic Shift (Blue Shift) • When absorption maxima (λmax) of a compound shifts to shorter wavelength, it is known as hypsochromic shift or blue shift. • The effect is due to presence of an group causes removal of conjugation or by the change of solvent.
  • 36. 2 • Hypsochromic Shift (Blue Shift) • Aniline shows blue shift in acidic medium, it loses conjugation. NH2 + + H NH 3 Cl - Acidic medium Aniline λmax = 280 nm λmax = 265 nm
  • 37. 3 • Hyperchromic Effect • When absorption intensity (ε) of a compound is increased, it is known as hyperchromic shift. • If auxochrome introduces to the compound, the intensity of absorption increases. N Pyridine λmax = 257 nm ε = 2750 N CH3 2methylpyridine λmax = 260 nm ε = 3560
  • 38. 4 • Hypochromic Effect • When absorption intensity (ε) of a compound is decreased, it is known as hypochromic shift. CH3 Naphthalene naphthalene ε = 19000 2-methyl ε = 10250
  • 39. Shifts and Effects Absorbance ( A ) Hyperchromic shift Red shift Blue shift Hypochromic shift λmax Wavelength ( λ )
  • 40. PRINCIPLES OF UV - VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY
  • 41. Principle  The UV radiation region extends from 10 nm to 400 nm and the visible radiation region extends from 400 nm to 800 nm. Near UV Region: 200 nm to 400 nm Far UV Region: below 200 nm  Far UV spectroscopy is studied under vacuum condition.  The common solvent used for preparing sample to be analyzed is either ethyl alcohol or hexane.
  • 42. Instrumentation Components of UV-Visible spectrophotometer  Source  Filters & Monochromator  Sample compartment  Detector  Recorder
  • 43.
  • 44. Five Basic Optical Instrument Components  1) Source – A stable source of radiant energy at the desired     wavelength (or  range). 2) Wavelength Selector – A device that isolates a restricted region of the EM spectrum used for measurement (monochromators, prisms & filters). 3) Sample Container – A transparent container used to hold the sample (cells, cuvettes, etc). 4) Detector/Photoelectric Transducer – Converts the radiant energy into a useable signal (usually electrical). 5) Signal Processor & Readout – Amplifies or attenuates the transduced signal and sends it to a readout device as a meter, digital readout, chart recorder, computer, etc.
  • 45.
  • 47. LIGHT SOURCES Various UV radiation sources are as follows a. Deuterium lamp b. Hydrogen lamp c. Tungsten lamp d. Xenon discharge lamp e. Mercury arc lamp Various Visible radiation sources are as follow a. Tungsten lamp b. Mercury vapour lamp c. Carbonone lamp
  • 48. Wavelength Selectors  Wavelength selectors output a limited, narrow, continuous group of wavelengths called a band. Two types of wavelength selectors: A) Filters B) Monochromators A)Filters – Two types of filters: a) Interference Filters b) Absorption Filters
  • 49. Cont.. B. Monochromators  Wavelength selector that can continuously scan a broad range of wavelengths.  Used in most scanning spectrometers including UV, visible, and IR instruments. Refractive type PRISM TYPE Reflective type Diffraction type GRATING TYPE Transmission Type
  • 50. SAMPLE COMPARTMENT  Spectroscopy requires all materials in the beam path other than        the analyte should be as transparent to the radiation as possible. The geometries of all components in the system should be such as to maximize the signal and minimize the scattered light. The material from which a sample cuvette is fabricated controls the optical window that can be used. Some typical materials are: Optical Glass - 335 - 2500 nm Special Optical Glass – 320 - 2500 nm Quartz (Infrared) – 220 - 3800 nm Quartz (Far-UV) – 170 - 2700 nm
  • 51. Detectors  After the light has passed through the sample, we want to be able to detect and measure the resulting light.  These types of detectors come in the form of transducers that are able to take energy from light and convert it into an electrical signal that can be recorded, and if necessary, amplified.  Three common types of detectors are used  Barrier layer cells  Photo emissive cell detector  Photomultiplier
  • 52. SUMMARY  Types of source, sample holder and detector for various EM region REGION SOURCE SAMPLE HOLDER DETECTOR Ultraviolet Deuterium lamp Quartz/Fused silica Phototube, PM tube, diode array Visible Tungsten lamp Glass/Quartz Phototube, PM tube, diode array
  • 53. DIFFERENT UV-VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR MULTICOMPONENT ANALYSIS  (a) Simultaneous equation method  (b) Absorbance ratio method  (c) Geometric correction method  (d) Orthogonal polynomial method  (e) Derivative spectrophotometry  (f)Difference spectrophotometry
  • 54. (a) Simultaneous equation method:  If a sample contains two absorbing drugs (X and Y) each of which absorbs at the λ-max of the other (λ1 and λ2), it may be possible to determine both the drugs by the simultaneous equations method.
  • 55. The information required is  The absorptivities of X at λ1 and λ2, aX1 and aX2.  The absorptivities of Y at λ1 and λ2, aY1 and aY2.  The absorbances of the diluted sample at λ1 and λ2, A1 and A2. Let, Cx and Cy be the concentration of X and Y respectively in the sample.  The absorbance of the mixture is the sum of the individual absorbances of X and Y
  • 56. At λ1 A1 = aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy …………..(1) At λ2 A2 = aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy …………..(2) Multiply the equation (1) with aX2 and (2) with aX1 A1 aX2 = aX1 Cx aX2 + aY1 Cy aX2 …………(3) A2 aX1 = aX2 Cx aX1+ aY2 Cy aX1 ………….(4) A1 aX2 - A2 aX1 = aY1 Cy aX2 - aY2 Cy aX1 A1 aX2 - A2 aX1 = Cy (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1) Cy = (A1 aX2 - A2 aX1) / (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1) ……….(5) Same way we can derive Cx = (A2 aY1 – A1 aY2) / (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1)………... (6) These equations are known as simultaneous equations and by solving these simultaneous equations we can determine the concentration of X and Y in the sample.
  • 57. (b) Absorbance ratio method: The absorbance ratio method is a modification of the simultaneous equations procedure. In the quantitative assay of two components in admixture by the absorbance ratio method, absorbances are measured at two wavelengths, one being the λ-max of one of the components (λ2) and other being a wavelength of equal absorptivity of two components (λ1), i.e. an isoabsorptive point.
  • 58.  At λ1 A1 = aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy …………… (1)  At λ2 A2 = aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy…………....(2) Now divide (2) with (1) A2/A1 = (aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy)/(aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy)  Divide each term with (Cx + Cy) A2/A1 = (aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy) / (Cx + Cy) (aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy) / (Cx + Cy) Put Fx = Cx / (Cx + Cy) and Fy = Cy / (Cx + Cy) A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 Fy] / [aX1 Fx + aY1Fy] Where Fx is the fraction of X and Fy is the fraction of Y i.e. Fy = 1-Fx Therefore, A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 (1-Fx)] / [aX1 Fx + aY1(1-Fx)] = [aX2 Fx + aY2 – aY2Fx] / [aX1 Fx + aY1 – aY1Fx]
  • 59. At iso-absorptive point aX1 = aY1 and Cx = Cy There fore A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 – aY2Fx] / aX1 = (aX2 Fx/ aX1) + (aY2/ aX1) –( aY2Fx/ aX1) Let Qx = aX2/aX1 , Qy = aY2/aY1 and absorption ratio Qm = A2/A1 Qm = Fx Qx + Qy - Fx Qy = Fx (Qx-Qy) + Qy Fx = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy) ………………………..(3) From the equations (1) A1 = aX1 (Cx + Cy) there fore Cx + Cy = A1 / aX1 There fore Cx = (A1/aX1) – Cy ……………………(4) From the equation (3) Cx / (Cx + Cy) = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy) There fore Cx / (A1 / aX1) = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy) There fore Cx = [(Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy)] X (A1 / aX1) …………(5)
  • 60. (c) Geometric correction method:  A number of mathematical correction procedures have been developed which reduce or eliminate the background irrelevant absorption that may be present in samples of biological origin.  The simplest of this procedure is the three point geometric procedure, which may be applied if the irrelevant absorption is linear at the three wavelengths selected.
  • 61. If the wavelengths λ 1, λ 2 and λ 3 are selected to that the background absorbances B 1 , B 2 and B 3 are linear, then the corrected absorbance D of the drug may be calculated from the three absorbances A 1 , A 2 and A 3 of the sample solution at λ 1, λ 2 and λ 3 respectively as follows, Let v D and w D be the absorbance of the drug alone in the sample solution at λ 1 and λ 3 respectively, i.e. v and w are the absorbance ratios vD/D and wD/D respectively. B 1 = A 1 – vD, B 2 = A 2 –D and B 3 = A 3 –wD
  • 62. Let y and z be the wavelengths intervals (λ 2 – λ 1 ) and (λ 3 - λ 2 ) respectively D= y(A 2 -A 3 ) + z(A 2 – A 1 ) / y (1-w) + z(1-v)  This is a general equation which may be applied in any situation where A 1, A 2 and A 3 of the sample, the wavelength intervals y and z and the absorbance ratio v and w are known.
  • 63. (d) Orthogonal polynomial method: The technique of orthogonal polynomials is another mathematical correction procedure, which involves more complex calculations than the three-point correction procedure. The basis of the method is that an absorption spectrum may be represented in terms of orthogonal functions as follows A(λ ) = p P (λ ) + p1 P1 (λ ) + p2 P2 (λ ) ….. pn Pn (λ )  Where A denotes the absorbance at wavelength λ belonging to a set of n+1 equally spaced wavelengths at which the orthogonal polynomials, P (λ ) , P1 (λ ), P2 (λ ) ….. Pn (λ ) are each defined.
  • 64. (e)Derivative Spectroscopy:  For the purpose of spectral analysis in order to relate chemical structure to electronic transitions, and for analytical situations in which mixture contribute interfering absorption, a method of manipulating the spectral data is called derivative spectroscopy.  Derivative spectrophotometry involves the conversions of a normal spectrum to its first, second or higher derivative spectrum. In the context of derivative spectrophotometry, the normal absorption spectrum is referred to as the fundamental, zero order, or D 0 spectrum.
  • 65.
  • 66.  The first derivative D 1 spectrum is a plot of the rate of change of absorbance with wavelength against wavelength i.e. a plot of the slope of the fundamental spectrum against wavelength or a plot of dA/dλ vs. λ. . The maximum positive and maximum negative slope respectively in the D spectrum correspond with a maximum and a minimum respectively in the D 1 spectrum. The λmax in D spectrum is a wavelength of zero slope and gives dA/dλ = 0 in the D 1 spectrum.  The second derivative D 2 spectrum is a plot of the curvature of the D spectrum against wavelength or a plot of d 2 A/ dλ 2 vs. λ. The maximum negative curvature in the D spectrum gives a minimum in the D 2 spectrum, and the maximum positive curvature in the D spectrum gives two small maxima called satellite bands in the D 2 spectrum. The wavelength of maximum slope and zero curvature in the D spectrum correspond with cross-over points in the D 2 spectrum.
  • 67. (f)Difference Spectroscopy:  Difference spectroscopy provides a sensitive method for detecting small changes in the environment of a chromophore or it can be used to demonstrate ionization of a chromophore leading to identification and quantitation of various components in a mixture. The essential feature of a difference spectrophotometric assay is that the measured value is the difference absorbance (Δ A) between two equimolar solutions of the analyte in different forms which exhibit different spectral characteristics.  The criteria for applying difference spectrophotometry to the assay of a substance in the presence of other absorbing substances are that: A)Reproducible changes may be induced in the spectrum of the analyte by the addition of one or more reagents. B) The absorbance of the interfering substances is not altered by the reagents.
  • 68.  The simplest and most commonly employed technique for altering the spectral properties of the analyte properties of the analyte is the adjustment of the pH by means of aqueous solutions of acid, alkali or buffers A A)The Spectrum of compound in A(acid) and B(Base) B) The difference spectrum of B relative to A B
  • 69. Conclusion:  Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis:  It is used for characterizing aromatic compounds and conjugated olefins.  It can be used to find out molar concentration of the solute under study.  Detection of impurities:  It is one of the important method to detect impurities in organic solvents.  Detection of isomers are possible.  Determination of molecular weight using Beer’s law.
  • 70. Reference Books  Introduction to Spectroscopy  Donald A. Pavia  Elementary Organic Spectroscopy  Y. R. Sharma  Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry  A.H. Beckett, J.B. Stenlake

Editor's Notes

  1. This template can be used as a starter file for presenting training materials in a group setting.SectionsRight-click on a slide to add sections. Sections can help to organize your slides or facilitate collaboration between multiple authors.NotesUse the Notes section for delivery notes or to provide additional details for the audience. View these notes in Presentation View during your presentation. Keep in mind the font size (important for accessibility, visibility, videotaping, and online production)Coordinated colors Pay particular attention to the graphs, charts, and text boxes.Consider that attendees will print in black and white or grayscale. Run a test print to make sure your colors work when printed in pure black and white and grayscale.Graphics, tables, and graphsKeep it simple: If possible, use consistent, non-distracting styles and colors.Label all graphs and tables.
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  10. This is another option for an Overview slides using transitions.
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  33. Use a section header for each of the topics, so there is a clear transition to the audience.
  34. Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  35. Discuss outcomes of the case study or class simulation.Cover best practices.