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Stereoscopic 3D: Generation Methods and Display Technologies for Industry and Home Entertainment


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This was a talk I gave to a 4th year (senior-level) undergraduate class in Human Computer Interaction at Ryerson University. The talk focused on the different methods of displaying Stereoscopic 3D content, as well as the methods on generating such content. Technologies such as DLP 3DTVs, 3D theatres, and autostereoscopic displays are discussed. For the methods, 3D cameras, 2D to 3D conversion and other popular methods are discussed.

Published in: Technology, Art & Photos
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Stereoscopic 3D: Generation Methods and Display Technologies for Industry and Home Entertainment

  1. 1. Stereoscopic 3D: Generation Methodsand Display Technologies for Industry and Home Entertainment Raymond Phan Ph.D. CandidateMultimedia and Distributed Computing (MDC) Research Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ryerson University 1 Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation• Introduction – Stereoscopy / 3D Vision • What is 3D all about?? • Depth and Disparity• Some methods on generating 3D content – Conversion from 2D imagery / video to 3D • Cut and Paste Technique • Depth Based Image Rendering – Recover Depth Maps – Automated Methods – Using motion, focus cues, perspective – Semi-Automated MethodsHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 2Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  3. 3. Outline of Presentation – (2) – Acquiring 3D content directly • Stereo Rigs, Multi-camera Setup • 3D cameras• Displaying 3D Content – Anaglyphs (very retro) – 3D Theatres with polarized glasses • RealD (most popular), IMAX – Shutter glass technology • nVidia 3D Vision, XpanD 3D, DLP projection systems, DLP TVsHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 3Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  4. 4. Outline of Presentation – (3) – Interference Filter Technology • Based on projecting colours of different wavelengths to each eye  Dolby 3D, Panavision 3D – Autostereoscopic Systems • Technology without the use of glasses – Parallax Barriers, Lenticular Arrays – Single view vs. Multi-view systems • Seen in the Nintendo 3DS, Fujifilm FinePix Real 3D cameras, etc.• Applications• ConclusionsHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 4Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  5. 5. Introduction• So… what is stereoscopy / 3D vision? – Creating the illusion of depth in an image or video – Take images on flat displays, and make it “look real” Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 5 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  6. 6. Introduction – (2)• Need to know some basic things first: – Objects seen with the left eye are separated by horizontal distances with the right eye  disparity – Greater/smaller the distance, the closer/farther the object  depth Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 6 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  7. 7. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (1)• 1st Method: Cut and Paste Technique – Used in IMAX’s 3D DMR process – 35 mm frames  High res. digital  Left-eye frames – Right-eye frames  Left frames objects are manually shifted horizontally to create this new frame Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 7 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  8. 8. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (2) – Remember disparity (close/far)! The closer the object, the farther the shift needs to be – Main Disadvantage: Very time consuming! • Currently done on a frame-by-frame basis • Due to this, only ~10 minutes of 35 mm video is 3D converted  Takes ~1 month to complete whole process • Our MDC Project with IMAX: Goal  Perform 2D to 3D movie conversion faster • Use a semi-automatic process to extract objects, and do this every 10, or 20 frames or so • In between frames, “guess” the best estimate of where the objects areHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 8Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  9. 9. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (3)• 2nd Method: Depth-Based Image Rendering (DBIR) – 3D Content  1 2D Image + Depth Map – Depth Map: Image containing depth of each image • Closer Pixels == Light values, Farther Pixels == Dark values – Orig. Image  Left View. Right view  Use depth map (d(x,y)) to calculate shifted pixel from left viewEquation togenerate viewRight(x,y) =Left(x+d(x,y),y) Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 9 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  10. 10. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (4)• Commonly known as 2D to 3D Conversion – Goal of 2D to 3D Conversion: Use an image and determine what the best depth map is – We use this depth map for conversion – Use original single view image / frame as the left view, and the depth map to create the right view• There are two main methods to do this: – Automated Methods  Automatically examine features in an image or frame and infer depthHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 10Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  11. 11. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (5) – Semi-Automated Methods  User-guided • Mark certain areas of the image / frame on what you think the depths should be at these locations • Algorithm determines the rest of the depths• Question: How do we know for sure that we’re marking the proper depths? – Been shown that as long as you mark depths in a perceptually consistent way, perception is good• Automated Methods: – Popular Methods: Motion, Focus and PerspectiveHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 11Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  12. 12. Generating 2D: 2D – 3D – (6)• Motion: Main Principle – Objects that are closer move faster – Objects that are far move slower• Find motion vectors – Find how much a pixel moves from one frame to the next  Calculate displacement vector – Larger vector == Closer depth and vice-versaHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 12Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  13. 13. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (7)• Potential Problems: – Sometimes, far away objects move just as fast too – Motion estimation (calculating motion vectors) can be subject to error (i.e. very fast motion) – If the image / frame is noisy, will corrupt measurements• Depth from focus: Main Principle – Take multiple pictures of the same scene – Each is taken with different camera parametersHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 13Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  14. 14. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (8)• We basically change the focal length of the camera – Focal length : Distance from the image plane to the surface to capture – Crudely, we can change the focal length by adjusting the zoom of your lens• After, we find the amount of blur of an object – In this aspect, sharper surfaces are closer, and farther objects are more blurryHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 14Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  15. 15. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (9)• We find a correlation between the depth, and the amount of blur over the surfaces – Finding multiple images at different focal lengths is a must!• Problems: – Needs > 1 of same shot • May not have such info – Math is just too crazy – Method rarely used now!Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 15Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  16. 16. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (10)• Depth from perspective: Main Principle – We use parallel lines and vanishing points in an image or frame to give us a sense of depth – Examples: Railroad Tracks, Tunnels, Roadsides – These entities give us a sense of depth where they appear to converge at a single point – This single point would be the farthest point in the image and the farthest depthHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 16Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  17. 17. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (11)• Problems: – Only a subset of images / frames fall into this category – Can only deal with outdoor or with scenes that have perspective within them • Not all images belong here!Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 17Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  18. 18. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (12)• Semi-automatic methods: – Mark some areas in an image / frame on what you think the best depth should be – Use this info to determine the rest of the depths – This is the area that I am focusing on right now• We can consider this as a case of multiple object image segmentation – Each “object” is a user-marked depth – We decompose the rest of the image into different objects  i.e. different depthsHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 18Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  19. 19. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (13) • • This method allows the user to fully control the depth perception and experience • Potential Problem: – Takes more time because of user interaction and computational complexity increasesHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 19Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  20. 20. Generating 3D: 2D – 3D – (14)• Another way to generate depth maps: – Specialized hardware • Example: ZCam  Measures depth using bounced infra-red light off of objects read in by a camera sensor – Problem: Hardware is expensive! Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 20 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  21. 21. Direct 3D Acquisition – (1)• Can directly acquire 3D information: – Grabbing both left and right eye images / video• 1st Method: Stereo Rigs – Tripod with 2 cameras, separated by eye distance – Drawbacks: • Need 2 cameras! Synchronization! • Difficult to separate cameras by eye distance Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 21 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  22. 22. Direct 3D Acquisition – (2)• We can also use multi-camera stereo rigs – Each pair of cameras is positioned at a different point to capture the same scene – Each viewpoint captures the objects in a different way so that we can assemble all these together to view a 3D object without glasses (more later)Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 22Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  23. 23. Direct 3D Acquisition – (3)• Example: MERL 3DTV system (w/o glasses) – 16 cameras and projectors for 16 viewpoints – Depending on where you stand, you see a different viewpoint  Just like in real-life!Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 23Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  24. 24. Direct 3D Acquisition – (4)• 2nd Method: 3D Cameras – Specialized cameras specifically designed to take left and right eye images Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 24 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  25. 25. Direct 3D Acquisition – (5)• Non Digital 3D Cameras take left and right images on two separate rolls of film• Digital 3D Cameras (e.g. Fujifilm’s W1) take left and right images and generate two separate image files• IMAX and specialized 3D video cameras operate in the same way – Two separate rolls of film – For IMAX, the cameras are large as the film is larger. Why? For higher resolutionHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 25Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  26. 26. Displaying 3D Content – (1)• Left & Right eye images are created – How do we display these so we can perceive 3D? – Many technologies exist to display 3D imagery and video• Let’s start off with the most basic one: Anaglyphs – Left & right is filtered with separate colour filters – Example: If you had a red colour filter, you determine how much red a pixel has and that’s the output – Each colour filter is chromatically different • One filter cannot have any similarity in colour to the other Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 26 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  27. 27. Displaying 3D Content – (2)• When one side is filtered with one colour, you must choose the other filter to be a contrasting colour – How do we choose? Trichromacy theory states that all colours are made up of Red, Green & Blue – We basically choose the colour filters from this set• Examples: – Red and Cyan (Green + Blue) Filters – Red and Green Filters – Red and Blue Filters, etc.Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 27Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  28. 28. Displaying 3D Content – (3)• After you filter each image separately, you superimpose the results onto one image• To view the images, you use anaglyph glasses, where each side is of the same filter you used – i.e. if you used Red for the left, and Cyan for the right, we use anaglyph glasses that are of the same order – Here, the image with the red filter goes to the left eye, and the cyan image goes to the right eyeHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 28Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  29. 29. Displaying 3D Content – (4)• As such, because we’re seeing two separate images for two eyes, we thus perceive 3DHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 29Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  30. 30. Displaying 3D Content – (5)• Advantages: – Great for viewing without 3D technology – Anaglyph glasses are pretty cheap• Problems: – Range of colours can be limited, as the predominant colours in the images are of the colour filters you applied – Doesn’t work will if the range of colours in the image are limitedHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 30Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  31. 31. Displaying 3D Content – (6)• 2nd method: 3D films in theatres with polarized glasses – 2 projectors  Left & Right video projected simultaneously on the theatre screen – Views filtered with orthogonal polarizing filters – Viewers wear low-cost polarized eyeglasses – Each lens is orthogonally polarized with the otherHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 31Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  32. 32. Displaying 3D Content – (7)• What’s polarization!? – Light can be viewed as a propagating wave – Polarization determines the orientation of a wave’s oscillations – When passed through a polarizing filter, orientation of the light’s propagation changes by forcing it through a slit – Consequence – Not all light passes through – Left view passed through a horizontal polarized filter – Right view passed through a vertical polarized filter Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 32 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  33. 33. Displaying 3D Content – (8) – Both views are shown simultaneously on a silver perforated screen to preserve polarization – Glasses  Left lens has a horizontal filter Right lens has a vertical filter – Left blocks right view, and right blocks left view!• Drawbacks: – Need to keep your head level – Tilting your head causes the left and right views to bleed into each other – Image is darker, as only some of the light is sent Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 33 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  34. 34. Displaying 3D Content – (9)• There is a way to combat “head level” issue – Circular Polarization  Used in RealD technology – IMAX used former method  Now they changed – RealD is used in standard 3D theatres – IMAX has the bigger screen, and better sound!• What is circular polarization? – We change the way the wave propagates in a circular motionHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 34Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  35. 35. Displaying 3D Content – (10)• Each lens of the 3D projector continuously changes polarization direction• 3D glasses: Circularly polarized liquid crystal that automatically adjust its polarization – How is this possible? – One lens is circularly polarizing clockwise, while the other is polarizing counter-clockwise – One lens is designed to filter clockwise images, and counter-clockwise images for the other – Each lens receives correct corresponding imageHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 35Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  36. 36. Displaying 3D Content – (11)• 3rd Method: Using shutter glasses – Most popular in current 3DTVs on the market – Also used in DLP Projection Systems• Shutter glasses principle: – Lenses are usually made of LCDs – Used to separate the left and right views – Lenses contain liquid crystals that block or pass light in sync with an IR sensor, connected @ display – Voltages are applied to the lenses so that one eye blocks light, but the other one allows it throughHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 36Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  37. 37. Displaying 3D Content – (12) – Alternate this shutting off in sync with the image displayed on the screen to show 3D, via IR sensor – TV / monitor displays the left image, right lens is blocked  Allows left eye image to be seen – After, we do for right image, with left lens blocked  Allows right eye image to be seenHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 37Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  38. 38. Displaying 3D Content – (13)• Is used in nVidia 3D Vision Kit & XpanD 3D – XpanD 3D: Company that markets shutter glass 3D technology to homes and theatres • Currently > 1000 theatres with shutter glass tech. – nVidia 3D Vision: Kit for an nVidia video card • IR sensor connected to video card to control views • Only works with a compatible 3D monitor• Advantages: – No silver screen and keeping your head level• Disadvantages: Shutter glasses are expensive! – Need to replace batteries, high maintenanceHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 38Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  39. 39. Displaying 3D Content – (14)• DLP 3DTV technology further explained – DLP: Digital Light Processing – Backbone: Digital Micromirror Device • Tiny mirrors direct light • Device can have over 1 million mirrors! – Each micromirror is either ON or OFF • ON reflect light out towards screen • OFF do not reflect out towards screen (absorb it instead) – Each mirror in the DLP 3DTV is controlled by a pixel in the image to display to the screen Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 39 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  40. 40. Displaying 3D Content – (15)• For DLP 3DTVs, mirrors == diamond configuration – One mirror displays two pixels of input data: How!? • Each mirror shows one pixel, then does a half-pixel shift downwards and shows the other pixel immediately below • @ twice the normal frame so you can’t see the change • Wait! Aren’t we losing 50% of the data? Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 40 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  41. 41. Displaying 3D Content – (16) – No! The half-pixel shifting ensures same resolution • Called SmoothPicture algorithm – Saves bandwidth: Use same bandwidth for 3D images – For a 2D image, the input data is the image itself – For showing 3D, the left-eye image is shown first, then the right-eye image is shown after ½-pix shifting – LCD shutter glasses are in sync during each shift• Drawbacks: – Obviously, the TV is expensive – Shutter glasses are high maintenance, and expensive Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 41 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  42. 42. Displaying 3D Content – (17)• Next method: Interference Filter Technology – Used in Dolby 3D and Panavision 3D systems – A multispectral colour filter is used to filter specific wavelengths of red, green and blue, directed to the left eye – Another colour filter used to filter different wavelengths of red, green and blue, directed to the right eye – This uses glasses too  Designed to filter the same wavelengths in tune with each colour filterHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 42Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  43. 43. Displaying 3D Content – (18)• This process is called: wavelength multiplex visualization• Advantages: – No silver screen required – Works with conventional screens – Is not restricted to just theatres• Disadvantages: – Glasses are more expensive – Colour filters must be very accurateHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 43Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  44. 44. Displaying 3D Content – (19)• Last but not least: Autostereoscopic Displays – View 3D content without glasses – Currently seen in small gaming systems and small commercial 3D cameras • Nintendo 3DS and view screen of the Fujifilm W1 – Currently not available publicly for larger screens – Common problem with autostereoscopic: Good for viewing over small screens, but larger screens tend to make people dizzy or cause discomfort – Research currently performed to minimize thisHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 44Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  45. 45. Displaying 3D Content – (20)• Principle: Uses either lenticular sheets or parallax barrier sheets – Impose the left and right images onto narrow alternating strips – Half the columns show the corresponding columns in the left image, and other half show the corresponding right image cols. – In the figure, they’re represented as green and pink respectivelyHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 45Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  46. 46. Displaying 3D Content – (21) – After we use a screen that either blocks every other strip  Parallax Barrier – Or can use lenses of same size as the strips so that we can bend the left and right strips and make it appear to fill the entire image – Either of these will allow the left and right images to be directed to the correct eye – You just need to stand in the right spot!Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 46Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  47. 47. Displaying 3D Content – (22)• This can work with multi-view systems too – The technology can be modified to display a different viewpoint of the scene • Remember multi-view stereo rigs? – When you stand in a different position, you will get a different perspective of the scene • Just like what would happen in real-life! – Achieve this directing the view of a particular perspective to the right pairs of strips / lenses 47
  48. 48. Displaying 3D Content – (23)• Current advocates for autostereoscopic tech. – Sharp in 2004 designed their first autostereoscopic LCD monitor in 2004  Discontinued in 2007 – Similar  Philips WOWvx series • Discontinued in 2009 – Hitachi  Designed autostereoscopic mobile phone in 2009 – Nintendo 3DS  Uses parallax barrier – Fujifilm W1 Viewscreen  Uses lenticular sheetsHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 48Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  49. 49. Displaying 3D Content – (24)• Advantages: – Glass-free: No maintenance req’d on equipment – Ideal for delivering to a large group of people • Co-ordination is required for glass-based technology – Proven good for small screens / mobile phones• Disadvantages: – Larger screens still experimental and expensive – Larger screens require you to stand far back to appreciate 3D contentHuman Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 49Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  50. 50. Applications• What can 3D be used for? – Entertainment and Gaming (obviously!) – Real-time 3D Video Teleconferencing – Interactive Medical Surgery – Interactive Training Sessions – Virtual Model Exploration  – Robot Navigation – Fine Art Appreciation Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 50 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  51. 51. Conclusions• This presentation gave a basic overview of how 3D is made, and how we display 3D• This presentation is not exhaustive! – Many other methods to generate 3D material• Much research performed in this area – Several technical conferences in 3D: IEEE 3DTVCON, IEEE 3DIM, SPIE Electronic Imaging – Research group in Europe researching on standardizing 3D to mobile phones: Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 51 Thursday, March 8th, 2012
  52. 52. Thank You! Questions?Human Computer Interaction Guest Lecture 52Thursday, March 8th, 2012