Digital to Physical: 3D Printing for Diverse Sectors

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Digital to Physical: 3D Printing for Diverse Sectors

  1. 1. Digital to Physical: ALM for Diverse Sectors Dr Ben Wood, WMG, University of Warwick b.m.wood@warwick.ac.uk @benjaminmwood© 2012
  2. 2. Agenda 0845-0915 Registration, tea and coffee 0915-0930 Welcome and Introductions 0930-1100 Physical to Digital – Laser scanning and producing a CAD file 1100-1115 Refreshments Break 1115-1245 Digital to Physical – 3D printing and how to deal with ‘bad’ CAD 1245-1330 Lunch 1330-1500 Low Volume Manufacturing – The gap between prototype and product 1500-1600 Adding Functionality – Update on latest polymer technologies 1600 on 1 to 1s with the Polymer Innovation team – individual projects© 2012
  3. 3. What are we going to talk about?© 2012
  4. 4. Introductions – Dr Alex Attridge & Ercihan Kiraci – Dr Greg Gibbons – Dr Kylash Makenji© 2012
  5. 5. Introductions • Name • Company • Why you’re here • What you would most like to get from today© 2012
  6. 6. Physical to Digital Scanning technologies and creating useful data© 2012
  7. 7. Physical to Digital • Contents – Why go from physical to digital? – Technologies for collecting data • Laser Scanning • X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) • Structured Light and Photogrammetry – Laser scanning demo – Case study examples© 2012
  8. 8. Why Physical to Digital? • There are a number of reasons: – Measurement/CAD comparison – Simulation/virtual testing • CFD for fluid flow or aerodynamic modelling • FEA for stress analysis – Create tooling from a physical prototype – Benchmarking competitor product – Reverse engineer to surface model or CAD© 2012
  9. 9. Why Physical to Digital? Colour chart and measurements showing deviation from CAD© 2012
  10. 10. Why Physical to Digital? Creation of an FE mesh for a fatigue crack specimen to help understand the effect of the crack on performance of the part© 2012
  11. 11. Why Physical to Digital? Creation of a digital surface model from a 1/3 scale Le Manns Prototype class clay model, to enable a full-scale physical model to be machine cut for use as a plug for the bodywork mouldings© 2012
  12. 12. Why Physical to Digital? Internal benchmarking of an automotive switchgear mechanism, carried out as part of a “switch feel” customer clinic study© 2012
  13. 13. Why Physical to Digital? Reverse engineering to CAD of a suspension component from a classic rally car to improve strength and compatibility with modern suspension leg/damper technology© 2012
  14. 14. Collecting data • Different technologies for capturing 3D surface geometry: – Laser scanning – X-Ray CT scanning – Structure light scanning (white/blue) – Photogrammetry • Different technologies for different applications© 2012
  15. 15. Laser scanning • Typically utilises Class 2 red laser light • Move laser “stripe” over the surface to be measured • “Stripe” is actually made up of hundreds of points • Point cloud of data collected – x, y, z, co-ordinates • Post-processing required but easy to create mesh© 2012
  16. 16. Laser scanning Point Cloud (XYZ) Accuracy 10µm – System Accuracy approx 40µm 75 stripes/sec - 1000 points/sec data collection Digital Calibration for every point captured© 2012
  17. 17. Multiple lasers Line Scanner Cross Scanner© 2012
  18. 18. Laser scanning Manual Measurement Arm (Faro, Nikon, Roma etc.) Optical CMM On-CMM laser scanning head© 2012
  19. 19. Laser scanning • Good for collecting complex surface geometry • Software can identify and characterise features • CMM or portable systems • Simple to use – quick results • Data captured not perfect – line of sight issues© 2012
  20. 20. X-Ray CT scanning • Uses X-ray technology to create a digital 3D model of the object scanned • Similar concept to medical CT, but much higher powered and much more accurate • Limit to size and density of object to be scanned© 2012
  21. 21. CT Scanning of an object to get Projection Images - Using XT 320 H Machine Object with a Projection Image cylindrical hole on screen inside Detector Projection Image at Projection Image at angle 2 deg. angle 1 deg. X-ray source Rotary table STL format export DICOM Image series export Point cloud data export Reconstructed 3D model visualization as 3D object reconstruction by back-projecting the stack of images - Using visualization software projection images - Using reconstruction software© 2012
  22. 22. X-Ray CT scanning • Excellent technology for internal inspection • Typically good quality data generated • Very large file sizes • Struggles with big changes in density© 2012
  23. 23. Structured light Traditionally white light More recently blue light Projects pattern on to surface Pattern is distorted and captured© 2012
  24. 24. Structured light GOM Phase Vision Breuckmann© 2012
  25. 25. Structured light Often used to characterise panels, clay models, people(!) etc. Good for large surfaces Not so good for smaller objects Can take a while to set up© 2012
  26. 26. Photogrammetry Digital SLR Approx 60 photographs Cloud-based software 3D digital model© 2012
  27. 27. Hands-on Demo • Laser Scanning • Software Down to the workshops!© 2012
  28. 28. Digital to Physical Additive Layer Manufacturing© 2012
  29. 29. Digital to Physical • Contents – Data generation for ALM • Data sources and examples • Data repair – System setup – an overview – System set-up - practical hands-on) – ALM – ‘the real deal’© 2012
  30. 30. DATA GENERATION 05/12/2012 30© 2012
  31. 31. Data Generation • All systems use a ‘.STL’ file: – Surface triangulated mesh file representing the surface of a component • STL files can be generated from – Directly from export of 3D CAD – Surface scan data – Volumetric (e.g CT data) • Data from any of these methods may require pre- processing to be useable in ALM© 2012
  32. 32. STL files from CAD • Use ‘export ‘or ‘save as’ function to create STL© 2012
  33. 33. STL files from surface scan • Scan of iPhone 4 case:© 2012
  34. 34. STL from CT/MRI scan© 2012
  35. 35. Errors in STL files • Some STL files can be very poor quality • Particularly from scan or CT… …but can be poor CAD: – Missing surfaces – Gaps – Intersecting surfaces – Inverted triangle normals© 2012
  36. 36. Errors in STL files • Most ALM systems will not tolerate this and will require a ‘perfect’ STL file – One single continuous surface – All surface normals are correct • Software is available to fix errors relatively easily 05/12/2012© 2012
  37. 37. SYSTEM SETUP – AN OVERVIEW 37© 2012
  38. 38. System Setup – Overview • STL file is the starting point for any ALM system • STL may contain colour information (color STL) – Currently only ZCorp systems – Mcor about to release colour system based on bonded paper sheets (Iris) • VRML colour files are also accepted in ZCorp systems© 2012
  39. 39. System Setup – Overview • All system have proprietary software, e.g: – Insight (Stratsys – FDM) – Objet Studio (Objet - MJM) – Zprint (ZCorp – 3D Printing) • Functions available: – Operators on model • E.g. rescale, rotate, translate, copy – Support generation – Selection of build parameters • Usually defaults, but can ‘play’ on some systems – Obtain time, material usage information • Useful for quoting purposes© 2012
  40. 40. System Setup – Overview • Some systems require a support structure to be generated • This is always necessary for non-powder bed based systems • Support acts as a surface to accept the next layer • The system interface software generates this automatically • Some control on the type of support is allowed, usually to minimise material usage – Density – Shape© 2012
  41. 41. System Setup – Overview • Additional functionality is available with the ‘new’ multi- material printers, giving the ability to: – insert an assembly and define the type of material of each part in the assembly – overcoat with materials – choose glossy or matte surface finish© 2012
  42. 42. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING– THE REAL DEAL 42© 2012
  43. 43. Additive manufacturing– the real deal • Materials • Accuracy • Resolution • Sizes • Time • Costs • ‘non added value’ activity© 2012
  44. 44. Polymers • Most common thermoplastics are: – SLS (PA, PS) – FDM (ABS, PLA, PC, PEEK) • Most common thermosets are: – Acrylic (MJM) – Epoxy (SLA) – Wax-like (for investment casting) • The HDT of FDM materials is equal to the IM grade • The HDT of other polymers is usually lower than 500C • High temperature polymers are available – PEEK (SLS) – PPSF, ULTEM (MJM) • Transparency is available but not for FDM and SLS – Translucency is available for FDM (ABSi - Methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-butadiene- stryrene copolymer) • Fire retardancy is available (most systems) • Biocompatibility is available (non-implantable) for most systems© 2012
  45. 45. Metals • Most metals processed using SLS • Wide range of commercial materials – Ti, Ti alloys, stainless steel, Inconels, CoCr, Maraging steel, tool steel, aluminium… • Now systems processing Ag, Au, Pt (EOS-Cookson Metals tie-up) • Mechanical properties usually approach or match those of wrought materials© 2012
  46. 46. Accuracy, Resolution • Resolution and accuracy are not the same! • Accuracy and resolution are complex and are highly dependent on system and component size, and on quality of calibration Accuracy Resolution x y z x y z SLS 30 30 20 100 100 20 metal SLS 100 100 100 50 50 50 polymer MJM 20 20 16 40 40 16 3DP 250 250 89 100 100 89 05/12/2012© 2012
  47. 47. Size • Polymers – Wide range of size capabilities (50mm-3m+) – Small bed sizes often have higher resolution – Large bed sizes often have faster build rates • Metals – Most metals systems have beds <300x300x300mm – Soon to be released have 500x500x300mm© 2012
  48. 48. Time • Time is very difficult to assess from an STL file since: • Time is dependent upon: – Part volume – Part dimensions – Part orientation – Material used (even in the same process) – Level of finishing required – How much you want to pay (premium for queue jumping)© 2012
  49. 49. Costs (using a bureau) • Not easy to assess just from an STL file since: • Cost is very much dependent upon: – Volume of the component (amount of material) – Part dimensions – Cost of the material – Amount of support material – Resolution required (number of slices) – Orientation required (taller the dearer) – Number of parts required (often cheaper per part to have multiples – especially for SLS) – Level of finish required© 2012
  50. 50. Costs (in-house) • If you have system in-house, need to consider: – Maintenance costs – Material costs (including scrap, waste) – Consumables costs – Infrastructural costs – Labour costs (set-up and clean-down) • Costs can vary widely depending on the system – System - £500-£1m+ – Maintenance – £100 – £30k PA – Material - £1 - £600 /kg – Infrastructural - £0 - £100k + – Labour - £5 - £200 per part© 2012
  51. 51. Low Cost Systems • Recent huge rise in ultra- low cost systems – Makerbot, BFB, Cubify … • Based on FDM technology • £500 - £2,500 • Material costs ~£20/kg • No dedicated computer • No training • Simple post-processing© 2012
  52. 52. Low Volume Manufacturing: Bridging the Gap Dr Ben Wood & Dr Kylash Makenji IIPSI© 2012
  53. 53. Outline • Identifying the problem – How to go from prototype to production? • Direct manufacturing methods • Rapid Tooling – Indirect – Direct • Live demo of direct tooling© 2012
  54. 54. The Problem Injection Moulding Rotational Tooling Moulding Cost Compression Moulding Low Volume CNC Machining Manufacturing ALM 1 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000+ Number of Parts© 2012
  55. 55. What is Rapid Tooling? • Early definition of Rapid Tooling: “a process that allows a tool for injection moulding and die casting operations to be manufactured quickly and efficiently so the resultant part will be representative of the production material.” - Karl Denton 1996 • With Rapid Tooling now covering a wider range of applications, this has generalised to: “a range of processes aimed at reducing both the cost and time for the manufacture of tooling.”© 2012
  56. 56. Classification of Rapid Tooling • Indirect – Use of a Rapid Prototype (RP) pattern to manufacture a tool in a secondary operation • Direct – Directly produce the tool using a layer-additive process© 2012
  57. 57. Indirect Rapid Tooling • Cast tooling – Cast resin tooling – Cast metal tooling – Cast ceramic tooling • Metal spray tooling – Kirksite thermal spray tooling – Rapid Solidification Process tooling – Sprayform tooling • Indirect laser sintered tooling – 3D LaserForm process • 3D Printed tooling – Extrude Hone Prometal© 2012
  58. 58. Cast Resin Tooling • Obtained by two primary methods: – Room temperature vulcanised silicone – Rigid resin tooling • Room temperature vulcanised silicone – Silicone rubber tools for vacuum casting of (generally) polyurethane parts – RP model employed as master pattern – Multistage process – Resin parts vacuum cast or injected into tool – Expensive materials – Low volume (~30 parts) / extremely rapid (1-2 days)© 2012
  59. 59. Cast Resin Tooling • Obtained by two primary methods: – Room temperature vulcanised silicone – Rigid resin tooling • Rigid resin tooling – Aluminium filled epoxy resin tools used for injection / blow moulding – As for RTV silicone, RP model used as master pattern – Multistage process – Difficult and slow to mould parts – Volumes up to ~500 / very rapid (3-5 days)© 2012
  60. 60. Direct Rapid Tooling • Direct metallic tooling – Direct laser melted metallic tooling • EOSint M DirectTool • MCP Selective Laser Melting (SLM) • Direct polymeric tooling – 3D Printed mould inserts • Object Connex 260 • Fortus FDM© 2012
  61. 61. Laser Melted Metallic Tooling • Many similar processes, 2 most employed are: – DirectTool – EOS GmbH – Selective Laser Melting (SLM) – MCP Inc • DirectTool – Latest system EOSINT M270 – Process: • Direct laser melting of metal powder • Ability to polish to mirror finish – Materials: • DSH20 (tool steel) • DS20 / 50 (20mm and 50mm steel) • DM20 / 50 (20mm and 50mm bronze) – Very hard tooling possible (42HRc) – Very high accuracy (~50mm) / 20mm layers – Conformal cooling channels© 2012
  62. 62. Laser Melted Metallic Tooling • Many similar processes, two most commonly employed are: – DirectTool – EOS GmbH – Selective Laser Melting (SLM) – MCP Inc • Selective Laser Melting – Latest system „Realizer‟ – Process: • Direct laser melting of metal powder • Ability to polish to mirror finish – Materials: • Any metallic powders 10-30mm • Stainless steel most common – Very high accuracy (~50mm) / 50mm layers – Conformal cooling channels© 2012
  63. 63. 3D Printed Polymer Inserts • Manufacture a tool insert by ALM – Accurate – Good surface finish – Very rapid (30 mins-2 hours)© 2012
  64. 64. 3D Printed Polymer Inserts • Ready for mass production – Injection mould tooling – Lower cost ‘pocket’ tool – Can be used with wide range of inserts • Easy, quick and inexpensive to make changes© 2012
  65. 65. Hands - On INJECTION MOULDING TOOL INSERTS© 2012
  66. 66. Polymers© 2012
  67. 67. Material Compatibility© 2012
  68. 68. Process Comparison Capital Process Equipment Production Rate Tooling Cost Part Volumes Cost Compression Low Slow Low 100 – 1 mill Moulding Vacuum Forming Medium Medium Medium 10,000 – 1 mill Injection Moulding High Fast High 10,000 – 100 mill Extrusion Medium Fast Low – Medium Med - High Blow Moulding Medium Medium Medium 1,000 – 100 mill Rotational Medium Slow Medium 100 – 1 mill Moulding© 2012
  69. 69. Summary • Many potential manufacturing routes for low volume – Right choice depends on part and material • ALM can be used for much more than prototyping – Key to most rapid tooling methods© 2012
  70. 70. Adding Functionality IIPSI Capabilities and State of the Art© 2012
  71. 71. Outline • Shape memory polymers – Active disassembly • Printed and plastic electronics – Conductive polymers – Low cost applications – Integration • What would you like to see?© 2012
  72. 72. Shape Memory Polymers • Can be ‘programmed’ to change shape when given a trigger • High material cost = niche applications Mould Force into Set Return to part temporary temporary original shape shape shape Heat Cool Heat FORCE Restrain© 2012
  73. 73. SMP Research Focus Medical Aerospace/defence – morphing wings Outer Space – Zero Gravity© 2012
  74. 74. SMPs for SMEs! • ‘Active’ disassembly – Ideal for automotive, consumer electronics • Automatically release at end of life – Materials separation, recycling • Low complexity – Maximise added value© 2012
  75. 75. PLASTIC AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS© 2012
  76. 76. Conductive Polymers • Actual conductive polymers not common – Difficult to process, not like plastics – Normally dissolved in solvent • Applications in PV and EL/OLED – Useful as part of a printed or plastic electronic component© 2012
  77. 77. Plastic and Printed Electronics • Growth area – Funding opportunities • Costs reducing – Expensive materials vs volume production • Key applications – Display technology – ‘Smart’ Packaging – IoT© 2012
  78. 78. Plastic Electronics • Electroluminescence (EL) – Low energy, low heat lighting – Simple circuit PEDOT-PSS transparent electrode +ve Zinc Sulphide Phosphor LIGHT Dielectric -ve Reflective (silver) rear electrode Surface© 2012
  79. 79. EL Applications© 2012
  80. 80. Low Cost Plastic Electronics Airbrush Method© 2012
  81. 81. Low Cost Plastic Electronics Screen Printing Type Method© 2012
  82. 82. Low Cost Plastic Electronics Direct In-Mould Layer Application© 2012
  83. 83. Low Cost Plastic Electronics Post Mould Layer Application© 2012
  84. 84. Hybrid 3D Printing • Bespoke system hybridising MJM with syringe deposition – 2 x 512, 14pl nozzle heads, individually addressed – High viscosity liquid dispensing – Continuous flow for deposition of resins with highly suspended solids – SmartPump for deposition of higher viscosity resins and pastes at extremely high resolution© 2012
  85. 85. Hybrid 3D Printing • Integrated manufacture – Functional components – Electronic circuits • Facilitates adding of functionality and connectivity – Eg interactive books – Internet of Things (IoT)© 2012
  86. 86. Summary • Complex circuits require expensive kit and specialist knowledge • Market is growing, costs coming down – Printing technology, roll-to-roll • Simple circuits achievable with low capital – Layer-by-layer deposition of materials • Future is in integration – IoT – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zG2dvxSKEGU – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kgw51_PtDSs© 2012
  87. 87. What would you like to see in the IIPSI? OVER TO YOU!© 2012

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