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  2. 2. CertificateThis is to certify that, Ankit Mishra of E.C-VII-A has made a report onthe ―3-Dimensional Technology‖. The report here submitted is true,genuine, and accurate in its limitations.Dr. V.K Pandey(H.O.D ECE DEPTT.)--------------------------------------------Mr. Deepak Bhardwaj(Lecturer)---------------------------------------------- 2
  3. 3. Acknowledgement 3
  4. 4. AbstractOur left eye and right eye are two separate lenses, registering twodifferently-angled images of the mouse, which are then sent to yourbrain. The brain then acts as the ‗image processor‘, putting the twopictures together to come up with one three-dimensional picture inyour mind. In computers, 3-D (three dimensions or three-dimensional)describes an image that provides the perception of depth. 3-DTechnology has a vision of the future that is a quantum leap beyondcurrent display hardware. It is working to integrate a volumetricdisplay that can satisfy the visualization needs of industries as diverseas military, medicine, science, engineering, education, andentertainment. 3-D image creation can be viewed as a three-phaseprocess of: tessellation , geometry , and rendering 3-D Studio MAX,Softimage 3D, and Visual Reality. The Virtual Reality ModellingLanguage (VRML ) allows the creator to specify images and the rulesfor theirs display and interaction using textual language statements. 4
  5. 5. ContentsIntroduction………………………………………………………….. 6Stereoscopy………………………………………………………….. 103-D image processing on integral imaging………………… 113-D Conformal Radiology…………………………………………. 213-D Printing……………………………………………………………. 233-D Television…………………………………………………………. 26Digital 3-D………………………………………………………………. 313-D Cameras……………………………………………………………. 37 5
  6. 6. IntroductionIn computers, 3-D (three dimensions or three-dimensional) describesan image that provides the perception of depth. When 3-D images aremade interactive so that users feel involved with the scene, theexperience is called virtual reality3-D image creation can be viewed as a three-phase process of:tessellation , geometry , and rendering . In the first phase, models arecreated of individual objects using linked points that are made into anumber of individual polygons (tiles). In the next stage, the polygonsare transformed in various ways and lighting effects are applied. In thethird stage, the transformed images are rendered into objects withvery fine detail.Tessellation • A tessellation or tiling of the plane is a collection of plane figures that fills the plane with no overlaps and no gaps • Regular and semi-regular tessellations, Hexagonal tessellation of a floor • A regular tessellation is a highly symmetric tessellation made up of congruent regular polygons. Only three regular tessellations exist: those made up of equilateral triangles, squares, or hexagons. A semiregular tessellation uses a variety of regular polygons; there are eight of these. The arrangement of polygons 6
  7. 7. at every vertex point is identical. Regular and semi-regular tessellationsRendering Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model, by means of computer programs In the graphics pipeline, it is the last major step, giving the final appearance to the models and animation. Rendering has uses in architecture, video games, simulators, movie or TV special effects, and design visualization, each employing a different balance of features and techniques. A rendered image can be understood in terms of a number of visible features. 7
  8. 8. shading — how the color and brightness of asurface varies with lighting texture-mapping — a method of applying detail tosurfaces bump-mapping — a method of simulating small-scale bumpiness on surfaces fogging/participating medium — how light dimswhen passing through non-clear atmosphere or air shadows — the effect of obstructing light soft shadows — varying darkness caused bypartially obscured light sources reflection — mirror-like or highly glossyreflection transparency (optics), transparency (graphic) oropacity — sharp transmission of light through solid objects translucency — highly scattered transmission oflight through solid objects refraction — bending of light associated withtransparency diffraction — bending, spreading andinterference of light passing by an object or aperture thatdisrupts the ray indirect illumination — surfaces illuminated bylight reflected off other surfaces, rather than directly from a lightsource (also known as global illumination) caustics (a form of indirect illumination) —reflection of light off a shiny object, or focusing of light through atransparent object, to produce bright highlights on anotherobject depth of field — objects appear blurry or out offocus when too far in front of or behind the object in focus motion blur — objects appear blurry due to high-speed motion, or the motion of the camera non-photorealistic rendering — rendering ofscenes in an artistic style, intended to look like a painting ordrawing 8
  9. 9. 3D Rendering modeling andAnimation 9
  10. 10. StereoscopyStereoscopy (also called stereoscopic or 3-D imaging) is any techniquecapable of recording three-dimensional visual information or creatingthe illusion of depth in an image.Human vision uses several cues to determine relative depths in aperceived scene[1]. Some of these cues are: Stereopsis Accommodation of the eyeball (eyeball focus) Occlusion of one object by another Subtended visual angle of an object of known size Linear perspective (convergence of parallel edges) Vertical positionStereoscopy is the enhancement of the illusion of depth in aphotograph, movie, or other two-dimensional image by presenting aslightly different image to each eye, and thereby adding the first ofthese cues (stereopsis) as well.Traditional stereoscopic photography consists of creating a 3-Dillusion starting from a pair of 2-D images. The easiest way to enhancedepth perception in the brain is to provide the eyes of the viewer withtwo different images, representing two perspectives of the sameobject, with a minor deviation exactly equal to the perspectives thatboth eyes naturally receive in binocular vision. 10
  11. 11. 3-D Information Processing based on Integral ImagingThree-dimensional (3D) information processing covers entire stages ofthe data processing stream, including acquisition, processing, anddisplay. The techniques that have been developed so far can be listedaccording to the amount of data they address. Stereoscopy andholography are located at the opposite ends of that list. Stereoscopyaccesses the 3D information by using two view images. The requiredbandwidth is only two times larger than that of the two-dimensional(2D) case, and the system requirement is also relatively simple—astereo camera for acquisition and view splitting optical means such asa parallax barrier and lenticular lens for display. The explicit 3D dataextraction, however, requires massive image processing and generallyis prone to errors since the depth is only implicitly encoded in thedisparity between two view images. The display of 3D images alsoresults in eye fatigue or discomfort, since only limited depth cues areprovided to the viewer. Holography directly addresses the wavefront ofthe light from the object scene. Since the whole data extent of theobject light can be captured and reproduced without loss, the 3Dinformation processing can be achieved in a complete way. However,the required bandwidth is too huge, and no device is currentlyavailable for handling the holographic data in real time withsatisfactory resolution and viewing angle. Integral imaging is aninteresting alternative of stereoscopy and holography. Integralimaging addresses the spatioangular distribution of light rays. 11
  12. 12. Although it depends on sampling density, it is safe to say that the dataextent of integral imaging is larger than stereoscopy and smaller thanholography.Principle of Integral ImagingFor the 3D information acquisition, the object is captured by an imagesensor such as a charge coupled device (CCD) through a lens array.The lens array consists of many identical lenses, i.e., elementallenses, and forms an array of the images of the object that are calledelemental images. These elemental images are captured and stored bya CCD. For 3D data processing, the captured elemental images aredigitally processed to extract 3D data explicitly or to visualize the 3Dstructure of the object for other applications. For the 3D display, theelemental images are presented by an SLM and observed through thelens array. The light rays from the elemental images are integrated bythe lens array such that they form a 3D image of the captured object. 12
  13. 13. Three-Dimensional Information AcquisitionPickup MethodsThe first stage of integral imaging is the acquisition of thespatioangular light ray distribution, i.e., elemental images, which isreferred to as the pickup process. The basic configuration where therecording medium has the same size as the lens array is simple asshown in the pickup part of Fig. 2. In practice, however, the CCDsensor, which is used as a recording medium, is much smaller than thelens array, requiring modification of the basic configuration. Theimmediate modification would be addition of one imaging lens fordemagnification of the elemental images as shown in Fig. 4. Usualissues associated with this pickup system include (1) crosstalkbetween neighboring elemental images, (2) nonparallel pickupdirections, and (3) difficulty of simultaneous pickup of real and virtualobjects. The crosstalk means overlapping of the elemental images onthe CCD plane as shown in Fig. 4. The overlapped elemental imagescannot be separated in later steps, and eventually this degrades thequality of the reproduced 3D images. The pickup direction means thedirection from which the object is captured by a given elemental lens.If one draws a trajectory of a chief ray that passes through theprincipal points of an elemental lens and the imaging lens as shown inFig. 4, all the other rays refracted by the elemental lens will be evenly 13
  14. 14. distributed with respect to that chief ray. Hence the direction of thechief ray in the object space can be regarded as the pickup direction[3]. The pickup directions should be parallel, since the display systemof integral imaging has parallel directions for all elemental lenses.Nonparallel pickup directions as shown in Fig. 4 cause depth-dependent distortion of the reconstructed images [3,4]. Moreover thebasic configuration shown in Fig. 4 can capture only real objects, andthe simultaneous pickup of real and virtual objects is not possible..Recent progress with the pickup system makes it possible to solvethese issues. For the nonparallel pickup directions, adding a largeaperture field lens after the aerial elemental image plane and locatingthe imaging lens at the focal length of the field lens as shown in Fig.5(a) can be one solution [3]. By controlling the size of the imaging lensaperture, reduction of the crosstalk is also possible to some extent.However, recent analysis shows the crosstalk cannot be completelyeliminated by the setup of Fig. 5(a). The enhanced system is shown inFig. 5(b) . In this configuration, a telecentric lens system behind thelens array aligns the pickup directions parallel to each other. Theaperture stop also eliminates the crosstalk. Hence clear anddistortion-free elemental images can be captured. However, only realobjects can be captured, and simultaneous pickup of real and virtualobjects is not possible yet. The configuration shown in Fig. 5(c)tackles these three issues at the same time . As shown in Fig. 5(c), atelecentric lens system is used behind the lens array to make thepickup directions parallel and prevent crosstalk as before. The uniquepoint is the use of the 4-f optics in front of the lens array. The 4-foptics, which consists of 5 planes, i.e., the critical plane, first lens,aperture plane, second lens, and rear focal plane, separated from eachother by the focal length, relays the object to the lens array spacemaintaining the parallel pickup directions and no crosstalk condition.Therefore the objects located around the critical plane are relayed bythe 4-f optics to the space around the lens array, and captured,spanning real and virtual fields simultaneously without anygeometrical distortion. The dynamic control of the lateral location ofthe aperture at the Fourier plane of the 4-f optics can also change theangular range captured in each elemental image, making it possible to 14
  15. 15. increase the viewing angle of the 3D images by time multiplexingafterwards . Another issue with the pickup system is pseudoscopic–orthoscopic conversion. When objects are captured by a pickupsystem and reproduced by a display system, the depth order of theobjects is reversed. To the viewer, the farther object looks like it isoccluding the closer object, which is unnatural. A simple way toremedy this is to rotate each elemental image by 180° . The real imageis converted to a virtual image with corrected depth order. Theelemental image rotation can be done digitally or optically. For opticaloperation, several systems using a gradient-index lens array oroverlaid multiple lens arrays have been proposed as shown in Figs.6(a) and 6(b). Instead of rotating each elementalimage, it is also possible to invert the depth order of the objects usingan optical depth converter that usually consists of multiple lens arraysas shown in Fig. 6(c) . A digital second pickup as shown in Fig. 6(d)has also been proposed, where not only the depth order but also thedepth range can be controlled . For practical applications of thepickup system, compact implementation of overall system is one ofthe major issues. Recently, some progress has been reported. In onestudy, a micro lens array was inserted in the main body of the camerasuch that the overall system looks like an ordinary hand-held camera .A direct integration of the multiaperture complimentary metal oxidesemiconductor image sensor has also been reported . 15
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  18. 18. Viewing Quality EnhancementThere has been intensive research to enhance the viewing quality ofthe integral imaging display system. These systems enhance viewingparameters by increasing the information bandwidth using temporal orspatial multiplexing or by modifying the configuration such that thelimited information bandwidth contributes more to a specific viewingparameter while minimally sacrificing others. The depth range is oneof the essential parameters of the integral imaging display since itcharacterizes the 3D nature of the integral imaging. One possiblemethod for depth range enhancement is to combine floating displayswith the integral imaging as shown in Fig. 16(a). The floating displayrelays the object or image to the observer space. It is possible todesign the relay optics so that the image is magnified along thelongitudinal direction during the relay. Therefore, combined withintegral imaging, the insufficient depth range of integral imagingdisplay can be enhanced, giving much improved depth sensation to theobserver . Creating multiple CDPs shown in Fig. 16(b) is anothersolution. Since the depth range is formed around a CDP, the availabledepth range is widened by creating multiple CDPs. This is achieved bymoving the elemental image plane , using a birefringent plate ,overlaying multiple liquid crystal display panels , or using multipleelectrically controllable active diffuser screens made of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) . The viewing angle enhancement isachieved by enlarging the area in the elemental image plane thatcorresponds to each elemental lens or by arranging it such that moreelemental images can contribute to the integration of the 3D images.Elemental lens switching using an orthogonal polarization mask wasan early but very effective method . The curved lens array structureshown in Fig. 17(a) can further increase the horizontal viewing angle .A horizontal viewing angle of 66° for real 3D images was achievedexperimentally using curved screen and lens array . The use of themultiple axis telecentric relay system shown in Fig. 17(b) can providethe elemental images to the lens array with proper directions,increasing the viewing angle . Head tracking, shown in Fig. 17(c), isanother approach . Instead of enlarging the 18
  19. 19. static viewing angle, the head tracking system can be used todynamically adapt the system for the observer, enhancing theeffective viewing angle. Although it is not practical yet, it is alsoreported that a lens array made of negative refractive index materialcan have a much smaller f-number, and hence the viewing angle canbe enhanced . Resolution enhancement is mainly achieved bypresenting more information using a higher resolution display panel orusing a temporal/spatial multiplexing scheme. Okano et al. usedultrahigh definition video system of over 4000 scan lines fordeveloping a high-resolution integral imaging system . The use ofmultiple projectors, which is shown in Fig. 18(a), has also beenproposed to increase the resolution of the elemental images . The timemultiplexing scheme is usually combined with the movement of thelens array in an effort to reduce the grid pattern that is visible due tothe lens array structure and to increase the effective resolution of thedisplay panel as well. The moving lenslet array technique is the firstreport of a time multiplexing resolution enhancement method . Thelens array, however, should be mechanically scanned along twodirections, which makes actual implementation difficult. A rotatingprism sheet in front of the lens array, which is shown in Fig. 18(b), canrelax this limitation , but mechanical movement is still required. Arecently proposed electrically controllable pinhole array, which isshown in Fig. , eliminates this requirement completely . Low lightefficiency, however, still remains a problem. 19
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  22. 22. 3-D Conformal RadoilogyThree-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) is a complexprocess that begins with the creation of individualized, 3D digital datasets of patient tumors and normal adjacent anatomy. These data setsare then used to generate 3D computer images and to developcomplex plans to deliver highly "conformed" (focused) radiation whilesparing normal adjacent tissue. For example, 3DCRT allows radiationto be delivered to head and neck tumors in a way that minimizesexposure of the spinal cord, optic nerve, salivary glands and otherimportant structures.How does 3DCRT work?3DCRT begins with a "virtual simulation" in which computedtomography (CT) scans of the region of interest are obtained. Thevirtual simulation creates a permanent digital file that can beaccessed by the entire treatment planning group to develop multiple,individualized courses of therapy.Scanned images are then linked into treatment planning software thatallows physicians to visualize the treatment area in three dimensions.With this capability, radiation beam direction and intensity can beselected to more precisely target the tumor while sparing surroundingtissue. Clinicians input these selections into computer systems thatcontrol treatment delivery. 22
  23. 23. What results are possible with 3DCRT?A study presented in October 2003 by PAMF radiation oncologistPauling Chang demonstrates how three-dimensional treatmentplanning can improve radiation treatment. The study found that 3DCRTcould improve the delivery of radiation beams to breast cancer tumorswhile reducing burns to the surrounding skin. 23
  24. 24. 3-Dimensinal PrintingThe system was developed at MIT and is shown schematically in Fig.7. The method is very reminiscent of selective laser sintering, exceptthat the laser is replaced by an inkjet head.ProcessThe multi-channel jetting head (A) deposits a liquid adhesivecompound onto the top layer of a bed of powder object material (B).The particles of the powder become bonded in the areas where theadhesive is deposited.Once a layer is completed the piston (C) moves down by the thicknessof a layer. As in selective laser sintering, the powder supply system (E)is similar in function to the build cylinder In this case the piston movesupward incrementally to supply powder for the process and the roller(D) spreads and compresses the powder on the top of the buildcylinder. The process is repeated until the entire object is completedwithin the powder bed.After completion the object is elevated and the extra powder brushedaway leaving a "green" object. Parts must usually be infiltrated with ahardener before they can be handled without much risk of damage.Applications Reconstructing fossils in paleontology. Replicating ancient and priceless artifacts in archaeology. Rreconstructing bones and body parts in forensic pathology. Reconstructing heavily damaged evidence acquired from crime scene investigations. Advantages 3D printing improves the iterative design process, enhancing communication and understanding of design intent among all stakeholders 24
  25. 25. On-the-fly modeling enables the creation of prototypes thatclosely emulate the mechanical properties of the target designSome technologies allow the combination of black and whiterigid materials in order to create a range of grayscales suitablefor consumer electronics and other applicationsSave time and cost by removing the need to design, print and‗glue together‘ separate model parts made with differentmaterials in order to create a complete model.Online 3D printing services allow for a broad range of materialsto be 3D printed and delivered worldwide with no investmentcost. 25
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  27. 27. 3-D TelevisionA 3D television (3D-TV) is a television set that employs techniques of3D presentation, such as stereoscopic capture, multi-view capture, or2D plus depth, and a 3D display—a special viewing device to project atelevision program into a realistic three-dimensional field.TechnologiesThere are several techniques to produce and display 3D movingpictures.Common 3D display technology for projecting stereoscopicimage pairs to the viewer include: With lenses: o Anaglyphic 3D (with passive red-cyan lenses) o Polarization 3D (with passive polarized lenses) o Alternate-frame sequencing (with active shutter lenses) Without lenses: Autostereoscopic displays, sometimes referred to commercially as Auto 3D.Shutter GlassesThese are glasses that alternately shut off the left eye and right eye,while the TV emits separate images meant for each eye, thus creatinga 3D image in the viewer‘s mind.Here‘s how it works: The video signalof the TV stores an image meant for the left eye on its even field, andan image meant for the right eye on its odd field. The TV itself issynchronised with the shutter glasses via infra-red or RF technology.The shutter glasses contain liquid crystal and a polarising filter. Uponreceiving the appropriately synced signal from the TV, the shutterglass is automatically applied with a slight current that makes it dark, 27
  28. 28. as if a shutter was drawn (hence the name). So at a time, only one eyeis seeing one image.The technology perfectly draws the shutters over either eye to makethe left eye see the image meant for it on the even field, and make theright eye see the odd field of the video signal. By viewing these twoimages from different orientations, a 3D image is built up by theviewer‘s brain.While it seems like this would cause a delay for the viewer, there‘s noneed for such worries. With the high screen refresh rates that thesemodern 3D televisions have, the end user‘s viewing experience isseamless, smooth and rich.However, the one down-side of this technology is that due to the rapiddrawing of ‗shutters‘, lesser light reaches the eye, thus making theimage seem darker than it is.Polarised GlassesPolarised glasses are basically your regular sunglasses, and have beenused as a medium for 3D stereoscopic viewing for a long time now.They are also the most popular mode of 3D glasses, currently used bylarge cinema houses and IMAX. Just like the shutter glasses, polarisedglasses use the lenses to show different images to each eye, makingthe brain construct a 3D image for the viewer.Here‘s how it works: For polarised glasses to work, the movie beingshown has to be shot using either two cameras, or a single camerawith two lenses. Two projectors (left and right), both fitted withpolarizing filters on their lenses, then simultaneously show the movieon the same screen. The polarizing filter orients images from the leftprojector to one plane (for the sake of example, let‘s say ‗vertical‘);and the filter on the right lens orients its images to the plane that isperpendicular to the left one (‗horizontal‘).The viewer sits wearing the special glasses, which are equipped withdifferently polarised lenses. The left lens of the glasses is aligned withthe same plane (vertical) that the left projector is throwing up images 28
  29. 29. at; and the right lens is aligned perpendicularly to correspond with theplane of the right projector (horizontal).Thus, the viewer‘s left eye sees only the images which the leftprojector is screening, while the viewer‘s right eye sees only theimages which the right projector is screening. As both the images aretaken from different angles, the viewer‘s brain combines the two tocome up with a single 3D image.But again, like the shutter glasses, the amount of light reaching youreyes with polarised glasses is significantly lesser, making the imageappear darker than it is.Without GlassesThe less popular of the two autostereoscopic models involves the useof lenticules, which are tiny cylindrical plastic lenses. These lenticules are pasted in an array on a transparent sheet, which is then stuck on the display surface of the LCD screen. So when the viewer sees an image, it is magnified by the cylindrical lens 29
  30. 30. When you are looking at the cylindrical image that the TV is nowshowing you, your left and right eye see two different 2D images,which the brain combines to form one 3D image. However, lenticular lenses technology is heavily dependant on whereyou are sitting. It requires a very specific ‗sweet spot‘ for getting the3D effect, and straying even a bit to either side will make the TV‘simages seem distorted. Depending on the number of lenticules and therefresh rate of the screen, there can be multiple ‗sweet spots‘.The other major method to enable autostereoscopic output is calledthe parallax barrier. This is being actively pursued by companies suchas Sharp and LG, since it is one of the most consumer-friendlytechnologies and the only one of the lot which allows for regular 2Dviewing.The parallax barrier is a fine grating of liquid crystal placed in front ofthe screen, with slits in it that correspond to certain columns of pixelsof the TFT screen. These positions are carved so as to transmitalternating images to each eye of the viewer, who is again sitting in anoptimal ‗sweet spot‘. When a slight voltage is applied to the parallaxbarrier, its slits direct light from each image slightly differently to theleft and right eye; again creating an illusion of depth and thus a 3Dimage in the brain. 30
  31. 31. The best part about this, though, is that the parallax barrier can beswitched on and off with ease (one button on the remote is all it wouldtake, according to Sharp), allowing the TV to be used for 2D or 3Dviewing. So on a computer monitor, you could play video games in full3D glory and then easily switch to 2D mode for your workrequirements.While the wide range of content it offers is heartening, again, the needto sit in the precise ‗sweet spots‘ hampers the usage of thistechnology.Still, there are quite a few companies finally looking to make 3D TVs areality. In the upcoming third part of this series, we will take a look atsome of the brands and products that promise to bring next-gencontent to your living room. 31
  32. 32. Digital 3DDigital 3D is a non-specific 3D standard in which films, tv shows, andvideo games are presented and shot in digital 3D technology or laterprocessed in digital Post-production to add a 3D effect. One of the firststudios to use digital 3D was Walt Disney Pictures. In promoting theirfirst CGI animated film Chicken Little, they trademarked the phraseDisney Digital 3-D and teamed up with RealD in order to present thefilm in 3D in the United States. A total of over 62 theaters in the USwere retro-fitted to use this new system.Even though some critics and fans were skeptical about digital 3D, itbegan to catch on and now there are several more digital 3D formatssuch as Dolby 3D, XpanD 3D and MasterImage 3D. In 2008, IMAXannounced that it would be releasing digital versions of its films andnow IMAX 3D can be shown digitally in an IMAX digital venue. The firsthome video game console to be capable of 3D was the Sega MasterSystem in which a limited number of titles where capable of delivering3D.HistoryA first peak of 3D film production started in 1952 and continued to1955, during a time which was known as the golden era of 3D film.Anaglyph red/blue 3D glasses were used in theaters along withPolarized 3D glasses, and was among the many gimmicks proposed bymovie studios - like cinerama and cinemascope - to bring audiences tothe theater and in order to compete with television. A later processthat used red/green glasses came in the 1960s, this too lost out. Timeand time again 3D has been used to promote theaters, however theadvent of widescreen formats and widescreen TVs eclipsed theseefforts. 32
  33. 33. After announcing that Home on the Range would be their last handdrawn feature in fear that Pixar would not re-sign for a newdistribution deal, Disney went to work on Chicken Little. Not only didmake it using CGI but also presented it in 3D. Disney heeded asuggestion by the RealD company to use their system and, afterlooking at test footage, decided to proceed. In 2005, Chicken Littlewas a success at the box office in both 2D and 3D screenings. Twomore films followed in their classic feature animation - Meet theRobinsons and Bolt - along with several others. Since then many filmstudios have shot and released many films in several digital 3Dformats. In 2010, Avatar became the first feature film shot in Digital 3Dto win the Academy Award for Best Cinematography and was alsonominated for Best Picture.2D to 3D conversionBefore the advent of digital cinema, converting 2D images to 3D wasmainly used for computer graphics because converting for film wasimpossible. Following the release of Chicken Little, Walt DisneyPictures decided to that it would re-release the 1993 film TheNightmare Before Christmas in digital 3D. The film was rescanned andthen each frame was manipulated to create a left eye and right eyeimage, doubling the number of frames. Disney wanted the film done intime for a Halloween release and the work was costly but provedsuccessful. 2D to 3D conversions have become faster and aconvenience to filmmakers who do not like to deal with any kind of 3Dcamera system whether it shoots film or digital video. Some criticsstate that such things should not be done as it feels fake at times andwould say that if a film has been converted to 3D, they would rathersee its original flat 2D version instead. Some critics and fans do saythat it is a work-in-progress but there is no major standard forconverting 2D to 3D as of this date. CGI animated films can beconverted to 3D by going back to the source models as long as theyare still in existence. A small number of films shot in 2D are set to bere-released in 3D both in theaters and straight-to-3D Blu-ray. Live-Action 33
  34. 34. The standard for shooting live-action films in 3D havent changed muchdue to the standards of how true 3D Film is shot. It involves using twocameras mounted so that their lenses are about as far apart from eachother as the average pair of human eyes, recording two separateimages for both the left eye and the right eye. In 2008, Journey to theCenter of the Earth became the first live-action feature film to bereleased in Digital 3D. This film was later followed with several otherfilms shot in Live-action. The 2009 release of Avatar was shot in a 3Dprocess that is based on how the human eye looks at an image, it wasan improvement to a currently existing 3D camera system.AnimationCGI animation is where most Digital 3D features come along, in 2009the release of Monsters vs Aliens was the first 3D feature byDreamworks animation and used a new digital rendering processcalled InTru3D which is a process developed by Intel to create morerealistic 3D images despite the fact that they are animated. InTru3D isnot a way that films are exhibited in theaters in 3D, the films createdin this process are seen in either RealD 3D or IMAX 3D.Video gamesIn June 1986, Sega released the Sega Master System, part of the thirdgeneration of gaming consoles. The system had a card slot thatprovided power to a single pair of LCD shutter glasses, allowingcertain games to be viewed in 3D; however, only 13 3D-compatiblegames were ever released, and when the system was redesigned in1990 in order to cut down on manufacturing costs, it lost the ability tosupport 3D. It was the first known electronic device released in NorthAmerica to use LCD shutter glasses.In July 1995, Nintendo released the Virtual Boy, a 3D viewer that actedlike a pair of goggles. Both left and right eye images were red, and putstrain on the players eyes; the system was a failure and wasdiscontinued the following year. In December 2008, several 3rd partydevelopers for the PlayStation 3 announced they would work towardbringing Stereoscopic 3D gaming to major gaming consoles using their 34
  35. 35. own technology. In the coming months, both the Xbox 360 and thePlayStation 3 will be capable of 3D imaging via 3DTV andsystem/hardware updates. On June 15, 2010 at the E3 Expo, Nintendounveiled the Nintendo 3DS, the successor to the Nintendo DS series ofhandheld consoles. It will be the first gaming console to allow 3Dviewing without the need for 3D glasses.Home MediaTelevisionAfter the unexpected box office success of Avatar and a recordnumber of 20 3D films released in 2009, TV manufactures saw thedemand for 3DTVs go up dramatically and went in further into researchand development. The first to announce was Panasonic, followed inApril 2010 by an announcement from Sony that their 3DTV technologywould be somewhat loosely based on RealDs technology. Each TVmanufacture would make their own 3D glasses. The same month,Samsung released a 3D starter kit which included the purchase of 3items with a discount a select retailers, the starter kit would include aSamsung model 3DTV, a samsung brand 3D capable Blu-ray diskplayer, and a box with two pairs of Samsung brand 3D glasses whichincluded an exclusive 3D Blu-ray edition of Monsters vs. Aliens.Specifications for 3D also include the HDMI 1.4a standards. Some ofthese tvs can also convert 2D into 3D, but such features are limited asto how much depth can be generated. In June 2010 Panasonicannounced Coraline and Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs as bonus 3DBlu-ray titles with the purchase of any of their 3DTVs. On June 22,2010, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs became the first 3D Blu-raytitle to be released without any requirements to buy any newelectronic hardware but free copies of this title will be included in 3Dentertainment packages by Sony.Home VideoSeveral DVD and Blu-ray releases have already tried their hands atreleasing the 3D versions of films by using an anaglyph format. Onenoted release prior to the advent of digital cinema is the 1982 film 35
  36. 36. Friday the 13th: Part 3 in 3D, but other such films actually shotdigitally like Coraline released on DVD and Blu-ray. Both included 2Dand 3D versions and both where packaged with pairs of 3D glasses, itis currently being offered as a bonus 3D Blu-ray with the purchase ofany Panasonic 3DTV. The Blu-ray Association ordered a new standardfor presenting 3D content on Blu-ray that would also be BackwardsCompatible with all 2D displays. In December 2009, it was announcedthat they had adopted the Multiview Video Codec, which would beplayable in all Blu-ray disk players even if they could not generate a 3Dimage. The codec contains information that is readable on a 2D outputplus additional information that can only be read on a 3D output anddisplay. It is exactly the same when television stations startedbroadcasting in color while most TV owners still had black and whiteTV sets. 36
  37. 37. Dolby 3DDolby 3D (formerly known as Dolby 3D Digital Cinema) is a marketingname for a system from Dolby Laboratories, Inc. to show three-dimensional films in a digital cinema.[edit] TechnologyDolby 3D uses a Dolby Digital Cinema projector that can show both 2Dand 3D films. For 3D presentations, an alternate color wheel is placedin the projector. This color wheel contains one more set of red, green,and blue filters in addition to the red, green, and blue filters found on atypical color wheel. The additional set of three filters are able toproduce the same color gamut as the original three filters but transmitlight at different wavelengths. Glasses with complementary dichroicfilters in the lenses are worn which filter out either one or the otherset of three light wavelengths. In this way, one projector can displaythe left and right stereoscopic images simultaneously. This method ofstereoscopic projection is called wavelength multiplex visualization.The dichroic filters in the Dolby 3D glasses are more expensive andfragile than the glasses technology used in circular polarizationsystems like RealD Cinema and are not considered disposable.However, an important benefit of Dolby 3D as compared to RealD isthat no special silver screen is needed for it to work. 37
  38. 38. 3-D CamerasThe application of 3D capturers is the process of usingdigital cameras and pre-designed light to capture theinformation of shape and appearance of real objects. Thisprocess provides a simple way of acquiring 3D models ofunparalleled details of objects and realizes 3D imagemodeling by scanning t hem from the real world.The purpose of a 3D camera is usually to create a point cloudof points on the surface of the subject. These points can thenbe used to extrapolate the shape of the object (a processcalled reconstruction). 3D cameras are very analogous tocameras. Like cameras, they have a cone-like field of view,and like cameras, they can only collect information aboutsurfaces that are not obscured. While a camera collectscolor information about surfaces within its field of view, 3Dcameras collect distance information about surfaces withinits field of view. The ―picture‖ produced by a 3D cameradescribes the distance to a surface at each point in thepicture.For most situations, a single scan will not produce acomplete 3D image model of the object. Multiple scans frommany different directions are usually required to obtaininformation about all sides of the objects. These scans aremerged to create a complete 3D image model.Technologies of 3D cameras and 3D scannersThere are two types of 3D cameras, which are contact andnon-contact. Non-contact 3D cameras can be further dividedinto two main categories, active cameras and passivecameras. There are a variety of technologies that fall undereach of these categories.Active 3D cameras emit some kind of radiation or light anddetect its reflection in order to probe an object orenvironment. Possible types of radiation used include light,ultrasound or x-ray. 38
  39. 39. Time of Flight Technique:The time-of-flight 3D laser camera is an active 3D camerathat uses laser light to probe the object. At the heart of thistype of 3D camera is a time-of-flight laser range finder. Thelaser range finder finds the distance of a surface by timingthe round-trip time of a pulse of light. A laser is used to emita pulse of light and the amount of time before the reflectedlight is seen by a detector is timed. Since the speed of lightis a known, the round-trip time determines the traveldistance of the light, which is twice the distance betweenthe 3D camera and the object surface. The laser range finderonly detects the distance of one point in its direction of view.Thus, the 3D capturer scans its entire field of view one pointat a time by changing the range finder‘s direction of view toscan different points. The view direction of the laser rangefinder can be changed by either rotating the range finderitself, or by using a system of rotating mirrors. The lattermethod is commonly used because mirrors are much lighterand can thus be rotated much faster. Typical time-of-flight 3Dlaser capturers can measure the distance of 10,000 pointsevery second.Triangulation Technique:The triangulation 3D laser capturer is also an active 3D lasercapturer that uses laser light to probe the environment. Thistype of 3D laser capturer is identical to the time-of-flight 3Dlaser scanner except for the way in which the laser rangefinder determines distance. The triangulation laser rangefinder used in this 3D capturer shines a laser on the subjectand a camera looks at the location of the laser dot. The laserand the camera are placed so that the direction of the laserand the view direction of the camera are not parallel.Depending on how far away the laser strikes a surface, thelaser dot appears at different places in the camera‘s field ofview. This technique is called triangulation because the laserdot, the camera and the laser emitter form a triangle. Thelength of one side of the triangle, the distance between thecamera and the laser emitter is known. The angle of the 39
  40. 40. laser emitter corner is also known. The angle of the cameracorner can be determined by looking at the location of thelaser dot in the camera‘s field of view. These three pieces ofinformation fully determine the shape and size of the triangleand gives the location of the laser dot corner of the triangle.Structured Light Technique:Structured light 3D capturers project a pattern of light on thesubject and look at the deformation of the pattern on thesubject. The pattern maybe be one dimensional or twodimensional. An example of a one dimensional pattern is aline. The line is projected onto the subject using either anLCD projector or a sweeping laser. A camera, offset slightlyfrom the pattern projector, looks at the shape of the line anduses a technique similar to triangulation to calculate thedistance of every point on the line. In the case of a single-line pattern, the line is swept across the field of view togather distance information one strip at a time. An exampleof a two dimensional pattern is a grid or a line strip pattern.A camera is used to look at the deformation of the patternand a fairly complex algorithm is used to calculate thedistance at each point in the pattern. A variety of otherpatterns can be used, each with their own advantages anddisadvantages. The advantage of structured light 3Dcapturers is speed. Instead of scanning one point at a time,structured light capturers scan multiple points or the entirefield of view at once. This reduces or eliminates the problemof distortion from motion. Some existing systems are capableof scanning moving objects in real-time.Passive 3D Image Modeling TechnologiesPassive 3D capturers do not emit any kind of radiation andlights themselves, but instead rely on detecting reflectedambient radiation. Most 3D capturers of this type detectvisible light because it is a readily available ambientradiation. Other types of radiation, such as infrared couldalso be used. 40
  41. 41. Stereoscopic Technique: Stereoscopic 3D scanners usually employ two video cameras or mirrors, slightly apart, looking at the same scene. By analyzing the slight differences between the images seen by each camera/mirror, it is possible to determine the distance at each point in the images. This method is based on human stereoscopic vision. Reconstruction Technique: The point clouds produced by 3D scanners are usually not used directly. Most applications do not use point clouds, but instead use polygonal 3D image models. The process of converting a point cloud into a polygonal 3D model is called reconstruction. Reconstruction involves finding and connecting adjacent points in order to create a continuous surface. Many algorithms are available for this purpose.Specifications of a particular 3-d camera Z-L1 $9,500.00JPEG picture resolution 8 Mega-pixelPeople captured 1 - 3 sit in one or two rows3D reconstruction 0.3 mmresolutionCapturing time <0.5sExposure time 1/120s - 1/60s 41
  42. 42. Maximum vision field 32"(w)*22"(h)*14"(d)Distance from 3D camera 59"to objectEnvironment light any light intensity conditions, dont needrequirement additional lighting Configured to capture face, chest, backScalability and head3D recon structure angle From 0 to 180 degree at one view directionscopeDimensions 16"(w)*5.5"(h)*8"(d)Weight 7kgSoftware OS Windows 2000, XP,VistaD/2D Laser Crystal Engraving Machines3D laser engraving machines developed by our advanced 3D laserengraving technology are able to engrave your image into 3D lasercrystals. Our latest 3D laser engraving machines use diode pump andair cooling technologies to make 3D laser machines very fast, portableand reliable. Your image can be engraved into a 3D laser crystalthrough our 3D laser engraving machine that penetrate through thecrystal and coordinate with the positions of tiny points depicting theimage.The operation of the 3D laser crystal engraving machine is controlledby the software using an optimized control algorithm to effectivelycreate each portrait with great quality, which is perfect for businessmodels set in shopping mall and traveling area. You can get allequipments, such as 3D laser crystal engraving machines, 3D camera,blank crystals and the way of how to setup/start your 3D laser crystalengraving business, also free setup and training service. 42
  43. 43. LE-X1500 Fast 3D laser crystal engraving machineThe excellent stable diode-pumped solid-state 3D laser engravingtechnology has been developed by our company. The LE-X lasercrystal engraving machine fully utilizes latest laser technologies andreach super high engraving speed - 1500 points/s, and that allow youare able to engrave 2D/3D image into crystral with super fast speed.The most advantage of this new 3D laser engraving machine is smallersize, low power consumption - only needs 700W and 110v voltage.Actually you can easily bring or set 3D crystal engraving business inshopping mall or any where you like. (1) Laser medium Nd: YVO4 diode pump laser. (2) Engraving speed: 1,500 points/s. (3) Size of system: 28"(H) * 20"(W) * 25"(L). (4) Power: 700(w). (5) Laser Position accuracy: 3um (6) Laser Engraving Resolution: 5um (7) Power supply: 110v with 50/60Hz (8) Max. Engraving Crystal size: 8"(X), 8"(Y), 4.5"(Z). (9) Max. marking range: 7"(X), 6.5"(Y), 4"(Z). (10) Laser Engraving speed: 90,000 points/min. (11) Air heat exchange system. (12) Head of 3D laser machine: 1. (13) System weight: 80 kg 43
  44. 44. LE-X1500s Smaller and faster 3D laser crystal engraving machineThe LE-X1500s is small size laser machine with latest diode-pumpedlaser component. This 3d laser crystal engraving machine is especiallydesigned for users who want to setup booth in shopping mall due to itssmaller size and easy to operate. The unique feature of this 3d/2d lasercrystal machine is that it is able to engrave the surface of metal,plastic and leather materials. It combines the capability of 3d lasercrystal engraving with marking on metal surface. Its the first 3d lasercrystal engraving machine in the market with this unique capability.You are able to engrave 3d and 2d images into either in crystals ormetal, plastic and leather gifts. The LE-X1500s 3d laser crystalmachine is the first laser engraving machine in the world withcapability of engraving both subsurface and surface. (1) Laser medium Nd: YVO4 diode pump laser. (2) Engraving speed: 1,500 points/s. (3) Size of system: 24"(H) * 27"(W) * 19"(D). (4) Power: 600(w). (5) Mini diameter of a point: 60um (6) Max diameter of a point: 150um (7) Power supply: 110v or 220v with 50/60Hz (8) Max. Engraving size: 6"(X), 3"(Y), 4"(Z). (9) Max. Crystal size: 8"(X), 6"(Y), 4.5"(Z). (10) Laser Engraving speed: 90,000 points/min. (11) Air cooling system. (12) Head of 3D laser machine: 1. (13) System weight: 60 kg 44
  45. 45. LE-X2000 Super fast 3D laser crystal engraving machineThe LE-X2000 3D laser engraving machine is the fasest laserengraving system with speed (120000 points/min) in our company byusing the most advancedlaser engraving technology - YVO4 diodepump laser, with smaller size. This high speed crystal laser engravingmachine is perfect for shopping mall business model, since with smallsize of system you can put any where to take the customer order andmake 3D crystal product right way. This 3d laser engraving machinehas bigger engraving size 14"(X)*12"(Y)*4"(D) which is biggestengraving size with smaller boby in the market. (1) Laser medium Nd: YVO4 diode pump laser. (2) Engraving speed: 120,000 points/min. (3) Size of system: 27"(H)*27"(W)*35"(D). (4) Power: 1000(w). (5) Laser system resolution: 600 dpi or more. (6) Positioning accuracy: 10um (7) Power supply: 110v or 220v with 50/60Hz (8) Max. Engraving Crystal size: 12"(Y)*14"(X)*4.0"(Z). (9) Air cooling system (10) Head of 3D laser machine: 1. (11) Weight: 100kg. 45
  46. 46. Z-2000A Super fast 3D laser crystal engraving machineThe Z-2000A 3D laser engraving machine uses the latest laserengraving technology - diode pump laser to control the mirror toengrave image into 3D crystal instead of moving crystal. This diodelaser machine is the one with highest engraving speed - 120000points/min in our company. With one or two minutes you can get nice3D crystal with high quality picture engraved. This 3D laser machinehas very small size and is specially designed for shopping mall andeasily to be moved to any where. It looks like a desk computer withtouch color monitor embedded and easy to use. (1) Engraving speed: 120,000 points/min. (2) Laser Medium: Diode pump laser. (3) Size of laser system: 22 "(H) * 12"(W) * 25"(L). (4) Power: less 400(w). (5) 3D Laser Machine position accuracy: 2um. (6) Laser system resolution: 600pdi or more. (7) Power supply: 220v/110v with 50/60Hz. (8) Laser engraving size: X-2.5", Y-2.5", Z-3.0". (9) Max crystal size: X-7", Y-8", Z-4.2". (10) System Weight: 45KG. (11) Air cooling system (12) Head of 3D laser machine: 1. 46
  47. 47. SL-2000 Super Fast 3D laser crystal engraving machineThe SL-2000 3D laser engraving machine is laser engraving systemwith the engraving speed (2000 points/s) by using the most advancedlaser engraving technology - diode pump laser. This high speed crystallaser engraving machine is perfect for shopping mall business model,since it integrates computer with laser machine with small size ofsystem, you can put it to any where to take the customer order andmake 3D crystal product. The unique technology used in the 3D lasermahcine is controllable pulse width, that means the engraved dot sizecan be controlled by software. (1) Laser medium Nd: Diode (DPSSL-Q Switch). (2) Frequency: 2000Hz. (3) Size of laser system: 22"(H)*26"(W)*22"(D). (4) Power: 600w. (5) Laser system resolution: 600 dpi or more. (6) Position Accuracy: 10 um. (7) Power supply: 110v or 220v with 50/60Hz. (8) Engraving size: 5"(Y)*4.5"(X)*4.0"(Z). (9) Weight: 100kg. (10) Engraving speed: 2,000 points/s. (11) Air cooling system. (12) Head of 3D laser machine: 1. 47
  48. 48. 48