Remember back to chapter 1 in Integrating Technology into Teaching (starting on p7)? It explained the notion of Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (14 points are available on p 20 of text) and Constructivism. These two theories formed the basis of the Technology and Learning Continuum Model (p8) that embraces the following points
All these theorists are committed to “Meaningful learning” (defined on p 17 of text) as students’ actively developing a deep understanding of complex concepts that are central to the subject matter and to their everyday life. Watch this lecture by Alan November on incorporating meaningful technology into student work.
Evolution of Learner Theory: Constructivism owes its development to the work in the early 1900s to behaviorism, later to B.F. Skinners work in programmed instruction, and to cognitive information-processing (CIP) theories. The most important influence of these theories has been in the use of rehearsal strategies where teachers tie new concepts into prior knowledge and then assigning practice to establish the new learning in long term memory.
Incoming data gets sorted and labeled as the brain engages in comprehension. The sorted and labeled data reveals emerging patterns that trigger recall of similar past experiences as the brain engages in elaboration. These cognitive processes empower learning.But if too much information floods the brain with data, preventing comprehension and elaboration, and thus, preventing learning. Jonah Lehrer suggests the danger of too much information is “it can actually interfere with understanding.” Why? Because the brain has a do-it-yourself attitude toward learning.As teachers, we think through material when we plan its delivery. But students’ brains need to engage in that same process to learn for themselves. In short, we process the new material to teach it. Students must process the information similarly to learn it. When you stop informing and engage students in thinking, you empower learning. In other words, you truly teach.
Inquiry Based Learning. These practices are based on the work of John Dewey and Jean Piaget. It changes the focus of classroom instruction from what we know knot how do we come to know. (look over box on p42 for examples)Problem Based Learning. Students are engaged in finding a solution to an ill-structured problem. The problem must be complex, real world and offer many potential solutions. (look over box on p 43 for examples)
This process is explained in detail with examples on p 51-90 in the textbook.
Targeting instruction that goes to deeper level of understanding requires careful planning…making sure that teachers arrive at the place of understanding where students must apply what they learned at lower levels of knowledge.
Identify the learners. Knowing the context of the learning is essential and takes into account prior experience and interests.
Identify curriculum priorities...using state and district curriculum standards. Teachers will organize around broad standards that tie into that deeper understanding or acts as a bridge to other standards.
Design assessment plan using learning targets that develops compelling evidence. Compelling evidence is never a single assessment data point; it is multiple measures of learning so often it is includes the following kinds of assessment
Quiz or test...typically utilized for establishing the foundational knowledge and/or as a formative gauge of knowledge and skills. Usually covers the vocab and discrete pieces of knowledge students must use at higher levels of learning.
“Schools and classrooms must be transformed from storehouses of knowledge to being more like portable texts providing shelter and a gathering place for students as they go out to explore, to question, to experiment, to discover”. KEYS to Teaching 21st Century Tools.
Fill out the ICT Profiles Comparison worksheet, which analyzes the match with your students, the year’s classroom curriculum, the technology you have available and your technology expertise. List the ICT learning activity in the left-hand column; indicate where in your year’s classroom curriculum this type of activity would be matched and then put an “X” in the other columns if where there is a match.
Unit 2 powerpoint
Unit 2<br />Learner Centered Strategies<br />
Unit 2’s Objectives<br />Review learner centered strategies<br />Current educational technologists...who are they and what are they are researching?<br />Classroom practices that connect constructivism to everyday teacher needs<br />Backward design planning and assessment strategies—review steps<br />Evolution of learner theories and how those theories apply to technology integration<br />Matching traditional instructional strategies to technology integration<br />Using ISTE standards to match age appropriate activities with technology<br />
Read Chapter 5<br />We will be using the textbook you’ve used in other TET courses.<br />Integrating Technology into Teaching: The Technology and Learning Continuum by Arthur Recesso and Chandra Orrill<br />
What is a learner centered strategy?<br />Recall what Chapter 1 of your textbook outlined about learning and gave 14 points to the Technology and Learning Continuum Model<br />
Who are the theorists in educational technology that developed these ideas?<br />
Digital tools are unlike any other tools and have unique pedagogy<br />Image licensed under Creative Commons license at http://www.fashionmagazine.com/blogs/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/sum09ooak1_lg.jpg<br />
Learning is a continuum<br />Flickr image licensed under Creative Commons http://www.flickr.com/photos/mdezemery/<br />
Learning is a process where the ideas build upon one another<br />
High quality instruction requires careful planning<br />
Teachers perform two technology integration roles:<br />They are designers of the learning experience<br />They become facilitators of learning<br />
Sheryl Neussbaum-beach<br />Prolific writer and speaker<br />Teacher leader<br />Promotes authentic technology integration<br />Website is http://21stcenturylearning.typepad.com/<br />
Seymour papert<br />Believes students use computers to construct knowledge<br />Early robotics innovator<br />Website is http://www.papert.org<br />
Alan november<br />One of the first to embrace ed tech and web 2.0 technologies<br />Special interest in leadership<br />Website is http://novemberlearning.com<br />
Jamie mckenzie<br />Publisher of online journals<br />Writer of multiple titles<br />Special interest in questioning techniques <br />Website is http://fno.org<br />
Ian jukes<br />Constructivist<br />Online theorist<br />Special interest in leadership<br />Website is http://committedsardine.com<br />
Will richardson<br />Well known bloggist<br />Especially passionate about the Read-Write Web<br />Blogging and wiki advocate<br />Website is http://weblogg-ed.com<br />
Gary stager<br />Radical theorist<br />Constructivist<br />Computers should allow students to explore ideas and interact<br />Website is http://www.stager.org<br />
David Warlick<br />Activist in blogging world<br />Early adopter of web 2.0 literacy<br />Creator of Citation Machine<br />Website is http://davidwarlick.com/wordpress/?page_id=2<br />
What do these theories have to integrating technology?<br />As developer, you will be facilitating learning rather than dictating it<br />Applying the tools of constructivism such as simulations, modeling tools, research activities allow you to support students without taking over their learning<br />Instead of giving them the answer, you’ll lead them towards it<br />
Practices that apply to constructivism <br />Inquiry learning<br />Problem-based learning<br />
Applying these theories to developing classroom planning instruction<br />The process of backwards design considers the need to transform beyond consideration of the textbook as the primary source for daily lessons. It attempts to structure learning so that prior learning is organized into ways of thinking so that the new learning can be more easily taken into existing patterns of organization. Through the gradual building (or scaffolding), students are supported beyond rote, simple understanding of ideas and concepts. (p 51-90) <br />
Characteristics of backwards design and constructivism<br />
Identify the learners, know the context account for prior learning <br />
Rank curricular priorities<br />Find bridges from simple understand to deeper knowledge<br />
Design formative and summative assessments to match learning targets<br />Provide compelling evidence<br />
Use assessment types that produce multiple measures of learning<br />Performance assessments<br />Projects<br />Open-ended questions at cognitive levels of deep understanding (similar to essay questions but requiring more than a single class period to answer)<br />Answers essential questions that uses information from throughout the learning experience<br />Quiz/tests---used to establish learning occurred at foundational levels<br />
International society for technology in education (ISTE) ICT Profiles<br />Created to help teacher envision wide variety of learning experiences that seamlessly integrate technology<br />Target age-specific bands of students<br />Based on ISTE beliefs that students must have regular opportunities to develop tech skills<br />Based on NETS-S 2007<br />Organized around 4 grade bands<br />Created to establish indicators of achievement throughout student’s school career<br />Examples posted by ISTE at http://nets-implementation.iste.wikispaces.net<br />
Unit 2 assignments and activities<br />Read through the Integrated Technology Unit Project Description (download it from Moodle). <br />Review and analyze classroom curriculum.<br />Pick one classroom curriculum unit to incorporate constructivist elements, integrates technology and can be framed around authentic learning experience<br />Analyze the selected unit using the ISTE ICT Profiles…fill out ICT Comparison Worksheet and write paragraph<br />Create your Introductory Wiki page at www.tet7403.pbworks.com<br />Post this week’s discovery about Classroom 2.0 on your blog.<br />
Integrated Technology Unit Project Overview<br />Reflects the constructivist philosophy because you facilitate using basic knowledge to answer overarching questions central to the curriculum. <br />As their teacher, you will act as the facilitator” of their learning as they engage in “sense-making” of this new knowledge<br />Design a learning experience that embodies an “idea-based unit”<br />Each week we will do a piece of this Integrated Technology Unit Project…either thinking, designing, collaborating or writing. You will post these to the class wiki www.tet7304.pbworks.com .<br />
ISTE ICT Comparison Assignment<br />You will read through the ICT Profile you think is most appropriate for your classroom. <br />Fill out the ICT Profiles Comparison worksheet, which analyzes the match with your students, the year’s classroom curriculum, the technology you have available and your technology expertise. List the ICT learning activity in the left-hand column; indicate where in your year’s classroom curriculum this type of activity would be matched and then put an “X” in the other columns if where there is a match.<br />Use the information from the Comparison worksheet to analyze your options and then focus in on one unit where you need to infuse technology integration.<br />Write a paragraph that summarizes which classroom curriculum unit you picked and explain why it was the best match for creating a Technology Integration Unit Project.<br />
Please note: the Profiles do not give lesson plans so it will be up to your expertise and imagination to develop the idea into a rough idea of something that feasible and realistic. Explain which experiences offer the best match with your students, your curriculum, the technology you have available and your technology expertise. <br />