This phase represents the last part of constructing knowledge in a whole series of activities based on a number of instructional strategies. Strategies change over time and according to the goals…in our case the goals are represented by the learning targets. Those learning targets will lead students to performing their culminating task independently from teacher support and utilize complex, critical thinking.
Eventually the work at this level will allow students to answer the essential questions….and it is those essential questions that help student knowledge transcend any one unit…instead they can generalize to the core principles and concepts of the curriculum. When students are able to analyze and evaluate the information they are learning, it allows them to bridge from simple knowledge and understanding….and move towards the deepest kind of learning. Essential questions are the generalizations that form a framework…and it is that framework that enables students to “be smarter” because they can see the connections between disciplines and concepts.
Students will not arrive at being independent problem solvers without a teacher’s carefully planning. Teachers use the notion of scaffolding to assist learning as they go through the learning process. The process of scaffolding is the only way of ensuring that students can learn in situation where it is beyond their beginning capabilities. The scaffolds allow the student to concentrate on the learning and the scaffolds manage the parts they cannot do at the early stages of a unit.
If you use the analogy of construction scaffolding, you realize that sometimes students need to work in places they cannot reach on their own. The scaffolding structure allows them to perform their work. At some point the construction project proceeds to a place where the scaffolding can be removed and workers can continue with their work without the scaffold. So it is with us in schools….we must provide help to students at the beginning of a unit where they are unfamiliar with the final product work…where they need us to break apart the work into pieces that they can successfully complete or where we give them support to enable to them to work at higher levels than they could independently take on for themselves. It is the goal of these scaffolds to be removed by the end of the project
Look in your textbook at Spotlight 7.1 for more information about these scaffolding categories. Conceptual scaffolds helps learners make decisions. Metacognitive scaffold helps learners tie what they’ve already learned to the new knowledge and how to use new learning strategies. Procedural scaffold help learners complete tasks when they do not know how to organize or use time management skills for themselves. Strategic scaffolds give learners ideas on how to approach a problem, how to generate multiple solutions and how to pick the solution that is the best fit.The next few slides will give you some ideas on the kinds of questions you can ask yourself and will help you phase out the support that students need at the beginning of a unit but should not need at the end of the unit.
This is the perfect phase for helping students go back and revisit things they’ve learned or thought …helping them add onto that knowledge with what they’ve explored in this new learning. It is the revision process that builds that independence….they find confidence in tying new things that they are unsure about to things that are already anchored in their thinking and understanding.
Through structured discussions with their peers students defend their ideas, crtiique others ideas and develop deep understanding of concepts and ideas.
Students engage in making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing.
Blogging that includes commenting and reflecting. You might provide online readings for students to read and write responses to those articles. Create a literature circle where students comment and post on a common book they are reading. Use commenting feature to have students publish messages on topics relevant to what they are learning (remember the email or text message will probably be the most prevalent method for their communication when they enter the working world). Build a class newsletter where student contribute articles and photos they take. Write about their reactions to questions you’ve raised in class or that extend what they learned.
Pbworkswww.pbworks.comWikispaceswww.wikispaces.com/site/for/teachersThese are both free web 2.0 application programs. PB Works is able to provide student accounts under a teacher account…offering more control and monitoring options than before.
This is a high level of evaluation because the moderator must judge the qualities of the online conversation, looking at the posting or comment from a variety of perspectives. They must take a viewpoint that is not their own and they must “look out” for the good of the group by assessing everything’s worth, value and appropriateness.
To do this they must be able to analyze the data source and make judgments based on criterion. Students can start with checklists that you provide and then, as they develop their own expertise, start to create their own checklists. it is important for students to learn not to rely on one source of information and to confirm what they find.http://cybersmartcurriculum.org/researchinfo/lessons/
Use explicit cues that incorporate tools that students may use in the initiating activities to process the new information and move into deeper levels of learning or asking questionsCP rubrics are excellent advanced organizers because they inform the student about what goal they should have in mind. It helps structure new information and help students apply knowledge and critical thinking.As the unit progresses, teachers facilitate conversations and activities were they jointly add form of visual aids (clip art, photos and additional essential questions) to brainstorming software (these are considered explicit cues which are very effective in improving student learning). These kinds of activities bridge into the deeper levels of thinking because it forces students to start making inferences. Students must use analysis and critiquing (Unit 5) in order to ask the questions necessary to help them evaluating and create. Inspiration and Kidspiration are excellent tools to use in this www.inspiration.com Inspiration and Kidspiration are excellent tools to use in this www.inspiration.comBubbl.ushttp://bubbl.us/Rubistarhttp://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.phpMindmeisterhttp://www.mindmeister.com/CMaphttp://cmap.ihmc.us/conceptmap.html
In math, the National Library of Virtual Manipulativeshttp://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vLibrary.html and Shodor’s Interactive Math http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activities/ offers interactive Java applications to explore different math concepts.Gizmos at www.explorelearning.com provides small Java applets to investigate scientific and mathematical phenomenon Concord Consortium provides the Molecular Workbench http://mw.concord.org/modeler/ provides open source interactive software where students can test out ideas. In addition to using the models they have already created, students and teachers are encouraged to create their own.
At this cognitive level, students put the elements they’ve gathered in other activities and put them together to form a coherent whole. They reorganize elements into new patterns through generating ideas, planning or producing.
vScratchhttp://scratch.mit.edu/ is an open software programming language that allows students to create animations, games and stories.Alice http://www.alice.org/ 3D programming environment that makes it easy to create an animation for telling a story, playing an interactive game, or a video to share on the web
This is a very complicated and complex process. Clearly students are able to do this quickly and easily with content they already know and are very familiar….but to use this kind of tool in the classroom requires lots of scaffolding…students typically want to jump steps which makes the end product less than desirable. It is imperative that teachers help students manaage and design the learning activity to give the supports they need in order to be successful in their culminating projects.
Requires a firm grasp of content, PROCESS and PRODUCT. Animoto makes it easy to create short videos with still images..there’s even an educator’s version http://animoto.com/Publishing…via the web or from desktop software, publishing requires a firm grasp of the content but also the process and product.Review Alan Levine’s CogDogRoo Storytelling wiki for a complete overview of tools…what they are and how they are useful http://cogdogroo.wikispaces.com/StoryTools
There are so many choices and options for storytelling. It can be incorporated into many subject areas….this assignment allows you time to investigate what would be most useful in your content area and grade level.
Unit 6 powerpoint
Designing Learning Activities for Evaluating and Creating<br />Unit 6<br />
Objectives<br />Design guided learning activities at the Evaluating and Creating cognitive levels utilizing the 4-step process of backward design<br />Differentiate between the kinds of digital tools for teaching and learning during the Guided Learning Activities in your classroom that use the cognitive levels of evaluating and creating<br />Analyze scaffolding techniques to phase out student support in order to develop independent learners<br />
Review Chapter 7<br />Review the ideas you learned in Unit 5 from Chapter 7 from Integrating Technology into Teaching . You will continue thinking about designing learning activities that are constructivist in nature and that help students master the learning you chose for this unit.<br />
Step 2: Selecting Instructional Strategies<br />In previous units, learning activities and learning targets focused on constructing knowledge as they remembered, developed understanding, analyzed or applied.<br />In this unit, learning activities are utilizing all that constructed knowledge to evaluate or create something new<br />
Answering the essential questions<br />www.flickr.com/photos/cyron/10813776/<br />
At this phase of backward design, you must pause to check that the supports for learning are gradually “fading” away…that the learning includes students learning how to think independently<br />
How will I provide varied and differentiated experiences so that all learners develop the requisite skills, procedures and knowledge they require in the medium of the culminating performance? <br />
How will I provide the coaching and support to help students move from initial modeling and shaping of skills and procedures I am teaching toward increasing levels of independent use and creative self-expression?<br />
How will I encourage my students to be self-reflective and self-evaluative as they explore and express themselves in the culminating project and as they answer the essential questions?<br />
How will I build into their learning experiences opportunities to revisit, revise, refine, and rethink what they are doing and how they are doing it?<br />
How will I build in options for peer coaching and peer critique? <br />
It is the intentional scaffolding of activities that brings the student to the place where they can successfully perform the most complex task required in the Culminating Performance and as they answer the essential questions.<br />
Blogging with commenting and reflecting<br />Posting<br />Moderating<br />Collaborating and networking<br />Validating<br />Using graphic organizers or advanced organizers<br />Simluations<br />Evaluating<br />
Blogging with commenting and reflecting<br />Blogger<br />Drupal<br />Edublogs<br />Typepad<br />Wordpress<br />
Posting <br />Moving beyond the simple answer requires students to analyze and evaluate what is being said in the conversation.<br />It must be responsive to others<br />Reveals deeper connections to ideas beyond the “I agree” or “I think that’s good” level<br />Wikis provide a place to collaboratively work on writing, incorporating peer evaluations and sharing<br />
Moderating<br />Evaluating other people’s posts and comments puts students in position of higher level critical thinking<br />Voicethread is one of the easiest ways for students to generate content and then moderate the responses that are posted.<br />Wikis and blogs can also function in this way…but it is more difficult for teachers to monitor<br />
Collaborating and networking<br />Students can work with not only other students in their classroom, but other people that might share their interests<br />Good opportunity for students to work real-world content experts<br />
Validating<br />Verify the accuracy and authority of websites by critically analyzing the web site’s authors<br />Cybersmarthas an excellent lesson to incorporate here<br />K-1 Explore what makes a good website<br />2-3 Explore and compare websites<br />4-5 Discuss and apply rating information to sites<br />6-8 Using criteria, students grade websites<br />9-12 Applying key criteria to multiple websites<br />
Graphic organizers and advanced organizers<br />Explicit clues<br />Rubrics=excellent advanced organizers<br />Build visual literacy using concept mapping software throughout unit. Use differently depending on cognitive level<br />
Using simulations <br />Marzano studies show a gain of 43 percentile points when students manipulated this kind of digital learning tool<br />Examples include <br />National Library of Virtual Manipulatives<br />Gizmos<br />Concord Consortium<br />Shodor<br />
Creating<br />Programming macros, developing games or multimedia applications<br />Filming, videocasting, podcasting, screencasting,re-mixing<br />Animating<br />Publishing<br />
Programming original content<br />Scratch<br />Alice<br />Squeak<br />
Digital images mixing and remixing <br />Students capture, create, mix and remix digital images to communicate their ideas and viewpoint<br />Write, create storyboards, explain ideas, create settings and props, edit digital images (incorporating feedback from peers), adding music, writing credits and saving/sharing resulting product<br />
Publishing <br />Done via the web or from desktop software<br />Like the previous kind of digital activity, publishing is multi-step and requires scaffolding to ensure successful culminating performance<br />Wikis or blogs good choices<br />Animoto<br />CogDogRoo Storytelling<br />
Assignments and Activities for Unit 6<br />Post what you learned about using a social networking site on your Moodle blog. <br />Complete the Online Discussion about learning targets at the Evaluating and Creating levels. <br />As you finalize the learning targets from the Online Discussion, post those to your wiki page.<br />Review CogDogRoo Storytelling tools. Pick out 1 or 2 to discuss in Online Discussion with your classmates.<br />
Learning Target Discussion<br />Complete the Online Discussion about learning targets at the Evaluating and Creating levels. You should post your learning targets by Wednesday, September 23rd so that your classmates can read and comment on what you've drafted<br /> Then you should comment and dialog with everyone so they can fine tune their learning targets and integrated technology. This online discussion will be due by Saturday, September 26th.<br />As you finalize the learning targets from the Online Discussion, post those to your wiki page. This is due by Sunday, September 27th.<br />
Storytelling Tools Review<br />Read through the CogDogRoo Storytelling website. <br />Pick one tool from two categories to share with your classmates<br />Original post due by Wednesday, September 23rd.<br />Comments are due by Saturday, September 26th.<br />Slideshow<br />Timeline<br />Mixer<br />Comic/Sketch<br />Collage<br />Map<br />Flickr Tools<br />Audio Tools<br />Video Tools<br />Presentation Tools<br />Categories <br />