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EMOTIONAL AND
BEHAVIORAL DISORDER
(EBD) AND ACHIEVEMENTS
OF GRADE 1 PUPILS
Ernie C. Cerado and April Rose S. Ganado
Sultan...
WHAT’S EBD?
Emotional and behavioral disorder is characterized as
the: 1) inability to learn; 2) inability to build or su...
BACKGROUND
In the Philippines, despite the proclamation of
the government over the issue particularly on
ADHD, there seem...
BACKGROUND
Besides, there is a widespread observation
among elementary teachers that EBD often
disrupt routine activities...
BACKGROUND
Theoretically, the emotional and behavioral
states of children and the learning outcomes are
closely linked to...
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In particular, this study aims to satisfy these objectives:
Determine the EBD levels of the Grade ...
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Proponents Theories
Barbers (2013) Emotional and behavioral disorder have five (5) characteristics, ...
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Proponents Theories
Psych Central
(2014)
Boys who have conduct disorder are more likely to display
a...
FRAMEWORK
Emotional and
Behavioral
Disorder
- Oppositional Defiant
Disorder (ODD)
- Conduct Disorder
(CD)
- Attention Defi...
METHODOLOGY
 Descriptive-survey design
 Subjects (200 Grade 1 pupils); Respondents (10 Grade 1 teachers)
 The locale of...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
OBJECTIVE NO. 1
10
29
10
70
62
69
20
9
29
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
ODD
CD
ADHD
PERCENTAGE
EMOTIONALANDBEHAVIORAL
DISORDER...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
 The bulk of the pupils are of MODERATE Level.
 Around 19% of them have severe emotional and beha...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
 Finding almost validate Kavale et al.’s (2014) report that 20%
of the children may have mental he...
OBJECTIVE NO. 2
Table 1. School Performance of Grade 1 Pupils
Areas Mean Sd Interpretation
Curricular 87.49 3.37 Very good...
Disorders
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Std.
Coef.
t
p-
value
B SE Beta
Constant 67.342 .868 77.541 .000
ODD .011 .064 .018 ...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
It can be noted that only the
attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) has
significant rela...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The negative signs in both cases
indicate that the relationship is
opposite in direction, such tha...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
 Coincidentally, the values of R2 or
coefficient of determination for the two (2)
dependent variab...
Variables Gender Mean Sd t p-value
ODD M 21.21 5.67 4.079 .000
F 18.17 4.86
CD M 39.43 12.05 2.620 .009
F 34.99 11.94
ADHD...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
All disorders as well as the
curricular and extra-
curricular performance of
pupils indicate signi...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Obviously, the males have
demonstrated relatively
higher levels in
oppositional defiant
disorder, ...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The result is consistent with the following studies: APA’s (1994)
finding that children with ODD h...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Contrariwise, the females
dominate the male with respect
to curricular and extra-
curricular perfo...
Variables School Location Mean Sd t p-value
ODD Less Urbanized 18.66 5.61 -3.292 .001
Highly Urbanized 21.20 4.94
CD Less ...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
School location
influences pupils’
Emotional and
Behavioral Disorder, but
not curricular and extra...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Very clearly, the data and t-tests
indicate that pupils who studied in
highly urbanized places hav...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This finding is related to the claim of Cullinan (2007)
that one of the causes of mental health di...
CONCLUSIONS
The pupils’ level of emotional and behavioral disorder
cannot be categorically labeled in general terms, but
...
CONCLUSIONS
On this premise, it is more wiser to claim that
ordinarily the Grade 1 pupils are of moderate
levels in oppos...
CONCLUSIONS
Severe cases of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD) are more evident among Grade 1
pupils than Op...
CONCLUSIONS
Male pupils are more affected by ODD, CD and
ADHD than the females.
Female pupils performed better in school...
RECOMMENDATIONS
Considering the disturbing result of the
initial survey, it is suggested that further
studies will be con...
RECOMMENDATIONS
It is also encouraged to pursue a
longitudinal study across grade levels to
discreetly characterize the t...
RECOMMENDATIONS
Given the limited literature on the subject locally, it
is strongly suggested that more studies must be
c...
IMPACT
₢ Proclamation No. 472, as issued by the Philippine President in
2013 must be revisited; it may be extended to all ...
IMPACT
₢ Data from this study may be utilized as benchmark in
initiating move to design a simple intervention
program for ...
IMPACT
₢ The existing curriculum of Elementary Teacher Education
program needs to be reviewed so that possible integration...
Thank you for
listening.
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Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) and Grade I Pupils' Achievements

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Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) and Grade I Pupils' Achievements

  1. 1. EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDER (EBD) AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF GRADE 1 PUPILS Ernie C. Cerado and April Rose S. Ganado Sultan Kudarat State University Tacurong City 9800 Philippines eccphd@yahoo.com
  2. 2. WHAT’S EBD? Emotional and behavioral disorder is characterized as the: 1) inability to learn; 2) inability to build or sustain satisfactory relationships with peers and teachers; 3) inappropriate types of behavior under normal circumstances; 4) general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; 5) tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems (Barbers, 2013). BACKGROUND
  3. 3. BACKGROUND In the Philippines, despite the proclamation of the government over the issue particularly on ADHD, there seems to be an apathetic response from the stakeholders about the school children’s emotional and behavioral disorder. In fact, there is an absence of scholarly efforts that truly explore this social phenomenon among children; thus, local studies and literatures are still wanting to date.
  4. 4. BACKGROUND Besides, there is a widespread observation among elementary teachers that EBD often disrupt routine activities in the classrooms. Thus, there’s a pressing call to address it at an early developmental stage. These realities inspired the researchers to initially survey the emotional and behavioral tendency of Grade 1 pupils.
  5. 5. BACKGROUND Theoretically, the emotional and behavioral states of children and the learning outcomes are closely linked to each other. Given these premises, it is considered more practical in this study to relate the Grade 1 pupils’ curricular and extra-curricular achievements with EBD.
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY In particular, this study aims to satisfy these objectives: Determine the EBD levels of the Grade 1 pupils; Describe the pupils’ achievements in both curricular and extra-curricular engagements; Relate EBD with pupils’ achievements; and Find out the effect of pupils’ gender and school location to their EBD and achievements. This study focuses on the relationship of gender, school location, emotional and behavioral disorders and achievements of Grade 1 pupils. 1 2 3 4
  7. 7. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Proponents Theories Barbers (2013) Emotional and behavioral disorder have five (5) characteristics, such as: 1) inability to learn; 2) inability to build or sustain satisfactory relationships with peers and teachers; 3) inappropriate types of behavior under normal circumstances; 4) general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; 5) tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. Cullinan (2007) The cause of mental health disorders in children and adolescents may be biological, environmental, or a combination of both. Rippey (2013) EBD is an emotional disturbance like an educational disability. It is a broad category which is used ordinarily in schools to group a range of more specific perceived difficulties of children.
  8. 8. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Proponents Theories Psych Central (2014) Boys who have conduct disorder are more likely to display aggressive and destructive behavior than girls are. Besides, conduct disorder is more prevalent in children who live in cities than those who live in rural areas. Bos et al. (2006) Children with conduct disorder often perceive school as a place of frustration and failure. They showed inferior academic achievement and could be disliked by their teachers as well as classmates. Loe and Feldman (2007) ADHD is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased grade retention.
  9. 9. FRAMEWORK Emotional and Behavioral Disorder - Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) - Conduct Disorder (CD) - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Gender School location Pupils’ Achievement Independent Variable Moderating Variable Dependent Variable
  10. 10. METHODOLOGY  Descriptive-survey design  Subjects (200 Grade 1 pupils); Respondents (10 Grade 1 teachers)  The locale of the study: Division of South Cotabato, Philippines  Purposive and random sampling techniques were used  Emotional and Behavioral Disorder Questionnaire (ODD, CD and ADHD)  Summation, Percentage, Mean, t-test, MLRA
  11. 11. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  12. 12. OBJECTIVE NO. 1 10 29 10 70 62 69 20 9 29 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ODD CD ADHD PERCENTAGE EMOTIONALANDBEHAVIORAL DISORDER Severe (%) Moderate (%) Mild (%) 67% 19% Figure 1. Bar Graph of Emotional and Behavioral Disorder of Grade 1 Pupils by Types and Levels
  13. 13. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  The bulk of the pupils are of MODERATE Level.  Around 19% of them have severe emotional and behavioral disorder. This means that almost 2 out of 10 of the Grade 1 pupils have inability to learn without specific reason, inability to sustain satisfactory relationships with others, inappropriate types of behavior under normal situations, general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression, and tendency to develop physical symptoms related to personal or school problems.  The findings also suggest that 2 out of 10 Grade 1 pupils have severe ODD; nearly 1 out of 10 has severe CD; while nearly 3 out of 10 have severe ADHD.
  14. 14. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Finding almost validate Kavale et al.’s (2014) report that 20% of the children may have mental health disorders.  The results also confirm AACAP’s (2014) study showing that the oppositional disorder usually appears in late preschool.  The finding on ADHD is too high compared to Thompson’s (2015) latest finding that it occurs only to 7% of children worldwide and the US 2011 report of 11% ADHD cases on school-aged children.  Most possibly, the noted gap across countries is influenced by the type of tools used in every survey.
  15. 15. OBJECTIVE NO. 2 Table 1. School Performance of Grade 1 Pupils Areas Mean Sd Interpretation Curricular 87.49 3.37 Very good Extra- curricular 87.47 1.45 Very good  The pupils performed satisfactorily in both areas as they were rated “very good.”
  16. 16. Disorders Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Coef. t p- value B SE Beta Constant 67.342 .868 77.541 .000 ODD .011 .064 .018 .177 .860 CD -.008 .025 -.031 -.336 .737 ADHD -.147 .033 -.466 -4.466 .000 R2 = .224, p<.05, significant OBJECTIVE NO. 3 Table 2. Regression Analysis of Grade 1 Pupils’ EBD and their Curricular Performance Disorders Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Coef. t p- value B SE Beta Constant 28.861 .372 77.548 .000 ODD .005 .027 .018 .179 .858 CD -.004 .011 -.031 -.339 .735 ADHD -.063 .014 -.466 -4.466 .000 R2 = .224, p<.05, significant Table 3. Regression Analysis of Grade 1 Pupils’ EBD and their Extra-Curricular Performance
  17. 17. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION It can be noted that only the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has significant relationships with curricular performance and extra-curricular performance. Disorders Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Coef. t p-value ADHD -.147 .033 -.466 -4.466 .000 R2 = .224, p<.05, significant Curricular Performance Disorders Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Coef. t p-value ADHD -.063 .014 -.466 -4.466 .000 R2 = .224, p<.05, significant Extra-Curricular Performance
  18. 18. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The negative signs in both cases indicate that the relationship is opposite in direction, such that, when the pupil’s ADHD level is high, the performance tends to be lower or vice-versa. Disorders Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Coef. t p-value ADHD -.147 .033 -.466 -4.466 .000 R2 = .224, p<.05, significant Curricular Performance Disorders Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Coef. t p-value ADHD -.063 .014 -.466 -4.466 .000 R2 = .224, p<.05, significant Extra-Curricular Performance
  19. 19. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Coincidentally, the values of R2 or coefficient of determination for the two (2) dependent variables are the same, i.e., .224. It can be said therefore that merely 22.4% of the variations in curricular or extra-curricular performance of pupils can be attributed to their ODD, CD, and ADHD levels. Disorders Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Coef. t p-value ADHD -.147 .033 -.466 -4.466 .000 R2 = .224, p<.05, significant Curricular Performance Disorders Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Coef. t p-value ADHD -.063 .014 -.466 -4.466 .000 R2 = .224, p<.05, significant Extra-Curricular Performance
  20. 20. Variables Gender Mean Sd t p-value ODD M 21.21 5.67 4.079 .000 F 18.17 4.86 CD M 39.43 12.05 2.620 .009 F 34.99 11.94 ADHD M 43.53 10.71 3.533 .001 F 38.33 10.10 Curricular M 60.42 3.63 -3.503 .001 F 62.04 2.90 Extra-Curricular M 25.89 1.56 -3.503 .001 F 26.59 1.24 OBJECTIVE NO. 4 Table 4. t-test Analysis of Grade 1 Pupils’ EBD and Performance when Grouped by Gender
  21. 21. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION All disorders as well as the curricular and extra- curricular performance of pupils indicate significant differences between gender as shown by p-values that are consistently lesser than 0.05. Variables Gender Mean t p-value ODD M 21.21 4.079 .000 F 18.17 CD M 39.43 2.620 .009 F 34.99 ADHD M 43.53 3.533 .001 F 38.33 Curricular M 60.42 -3.503 .001 F 62.04 Extra- Curricular M 25.89 -3.503 .001 F 26.59
  22. 22. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Obviously, the males have demonstrated relatively higher levels in oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder than the females. Variables Gender Mean t p-value ODD M 21.21 4.079 .000 F 18.17 CD M 39.43 2.620 .009 F 34.99 ADHD M 43.53 3.533 .001 F 38.33
  23. 23. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The result is consistent with the following studies: APA’s (1994) finding that children with ODD have relatively higher in level and more often among boys than in girls; Boyle’s (1992) finding that children with CD has the male-female ratio of 3:1 implying that boys are more affected by this disorder; and Keenan’s (1994) conclusion that boys are more affected compared to girls by ADHD.
  24. 24. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Contrariwise, the females dominate the male with respect to curricular and extra- curricular performance. Variables Gender Mean t p-value Curricular M 60.42 -3.503 .001 F 62.04 Extra- Curricular M 25.89 -3.503 .001 F 26.59 This result confirms the claim of Zembar and Blume (2009) that girls perform better in school than boys.
  25. 25. Variables School Location Mean Sd t p-value ODD Less Urbanized 18.66 5.61 -3.292 .001 Highly Urbanized 21.20 4.94 CD Less Urbanized 31.93 9.36 -8.801 .000 Highly Urbanized 45.08 11.67 ADHD Less Urbanized 38.02 9.90 -4.934 .000 Highly Urbanized 45.23 10.46 Curricular Less Urbanized 61.33 2.98 .473 .637 Highly Urbanized 61.10 3.91 Extra-Curricular Less Urbanized 26.28 1.28 .475 .635 Highly Urbanized 26.19 1.67 Table 5. t-test Analysis of Grade 1 Pupils’ EBD and Performance when Grouped by School Location p<.05, significant
  26. 26. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION School location influences pupils’ Emotional and Behavioral Disorder, but not curricular and extra- curricular performance. Variables School Location Mean t p-value ODD Less Urb. 18.66 -3.292 .001 Highly Urb. 21.20 CD Less Urb. 31.93 -8.801 .000 Highly Urb. 45.08 ADHD Less Urb. 38.02 -4.934 .000 Highly Urb. 45.23 Curricular Less Urb. 61.33 .473 .637 Highly Urb. 61.10 Extra- Curricular Less Urb. 26.28 .475 .635 Highly Urb. 26.19 p<.05, significant
  27. 27. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Very clearly, the data and t-tests indicate that pupils who studied in highly urbanized places have relatively higher level of disorders than those in less urbanized areas. This result purports an impression that the intensity of activities or dynamics of people in a locality brings about adverse influence to behaviors and emotions of young children. Variables School Location Mean t p-value ODD Less Urb. 18.66 -3.292 .001 Highly Urb. 21.20 CD Less Urb. 31.93 -8.801 .000 Highly Urb. 45.08 ADHD Less Urb. 38.02 -4.934 .000 Highly Urb. 45.23
  28. 28. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This finding is related to the claim of Cullinan (2007) that one of the causes of mental health disorders in children is environment. Environmental factors may include exposure to violence, extreme stress, and the loss of an important person.
  29. 29. CONCLUSIONS The pupils’ level of emotional and behavioral disorder cannot be categorically labeled in general terms, but separately. Each disorder is unique and distinct in characteristics, such as causes, symptoms, and possible treatment; thus lumping them to come out with a common description to all is misleading.
  30. 30. CONCLUSIONS On this premise, it is more wiser to claim that ordinarily the Grade 1 pupils are of moderate levels in oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  31. 31. CONCLUSIONS Severe cases of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are more evident among Grade 1 pupils than Oppositional Defiant and Conduct disorders. Most likely, pupils with higher level of ADHD have lower curricular and extra-curricular performances.
  32. 32. CONCLUSIONS Male pupils are more affected by ODD, CD and ADHD than the females. Female pupils performed better in school than the males. School location (environment) affects the EBD levels of pupils.
  33. 33. RECOMMENDATIONS Considering the disturbing result of the initial survey, it is suggested that further studies will be conducted using a stable questionnaire to exactly portray the real emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD) status of young children.
  34. 34. RECOMMENDATIONS It is also encouraged to pursue a longitudinal study across grade levels to discreetly characterize the trend of EBD as pupils mature from one developmental stage to another.
  35. 35. RECOMMENDATIONS Given the limited literature on the subject locally, it is strongly suggested that more studies must be carried out among Filipino children and even adolescents to produce empirical data and legitimate bases for policy formulation or designing necessary program interventions.
  36. 36. IMPACT ₢ Proclamation No. 472, as issued by the Philippine President in 2013 must be revisited; it may be extended to all types of emotional and behavioral disorders of school-aged children identified in DSM- IVR. The new directive should not only be limited to awareness campaign but for a decisive and comprehensive response by the different stakeholders in basic education.
  37. 37. IMPACT ₢ Data from this study may be utilized as benchmark in initiating move to design a simple intervention program for pupils identified with severe EBD. Related literatures, though mostly foreign, can be used as good references because the issue has long been given seemly attention in these countries.
  38. 38. IMPACT ₢ The existing curriculum of Elementary Teacher Education program needs to be reviewed so that possible integration of lessons on common emotional and behavioral disorders of children, most particularly on the standard tools, causes, symptoms, and interventions, into an appropriate Professional Education course, may be carried out.
  39. 39. Thank you for listening.

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