460: Final Exam


I believe in a three-step process to learning something (really learning it, deeply and end...
The five adopter categories

   • Innovators - venturesome; take risks; bring innovations from outside their social circle...
2. Diffusion Networks (tt_6b.ppt)

   Define (all) and personalize (one): [DONE]

       Two types of diffusion networks

3. Consequences of Innovations (tt_7.ppt)

   Define (all) and personalize (one): [DONE]

      Three characteristics of t...
Lessons from Uncle Marshall
          • The Global Village - Electronic Information has made the world a smaller place.
Define (all) and personalize (one): [DONE]

   Four innovation-decision types
      • Optional innovation-decisions - Adop...
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O Brien, Christopher Final Exam


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O Brien, Christopher Final Exam

  1. 1. 460: Final Exam Instructions I believe in a three-step process to learning something (really learning it, deeply and enduringly): 1. Study/contemplate the thing you're learning. 2. Experience the thing for yourself. 3. Allow the thing to become part of you. In this exam, I'll ask you to do steps 1 and 2. Step 3 is optional; your choice. :-) There are two parts to each of the five exam sections: define (from step 1) and personalize (step 2). Define means just what you think it means: define/describe/explain/etc. Keep your definitions nice and tight and concise; say what you need to say then get a'hell outta there! ;-) Personalize is a bit trickier. It means to relate an experience (i.e., tell a story) from your personal life that illuminates the meaning of the defined term. For example, you might accompany your definition of "aide" with a brief anecdote about how you once served as an innovation-diffusion aide, what that felt like, etc. (If you can't think of anything relevant or illuminating from your personal life, make something up! But do so with exquisite verisimilitude so I believe it's from your real life.) Keep your personalization stories short (~50-100 words) and to the point. The exam is open-everything: book(s), web, class slideshows, etc. However, YOU MUST ANSWER IN YOUR OWN WORDS! Exceptions: (1) quoting terms or items from a list is fine (e.g., the names of the five adopter categories); (2) occasional longer quotes (for emphasis, authority, drama) are fine, as long as you cite the sources. Grading: 2.5 points per definition (x 20 definitions = 50 points); 10 points per personalization (x 5 personalizations = 50 points). Due: Friday of finals week. Have fun and show me some attitude!!! :-) :-) :-) Name: CHRISTOPHER O’BRIEN 1. Innovativeness and Adopter Categories (slideshow tt_6a.ppt) Define (all) and personalize (one): [DONE]
  2. 2. The five adopter categories • Innovators - venturesome; take risks; bring innovations from outside their social circle; • Early Adopters - Opinion Leaders; are respected as the people who “know about things”; Makes it safe for others to adopt by lessening the unknown/risk; • Early Majority - Adopt just before the rest of the society; Make deliberate decisions, but seldom lead an adoption effort; Can be up to 1/3 of the social system; long innovation- decision period; • Late Majority - Adopt just after the rest of society; Skeptical of new innovations; Can be lacking in resources to adopt innovations; Often give in to peer pressure or adopt an innovation after they perceive that “everyone else is doing it” • Laggards - Traditionalists who may value things just the way they are (or were!); Isolated within their society; Often last to adopt if they adopt at all; Extremely cautious or even suspicious of innovations; [PERSONALIZE] - I used to be an innovator. I had one of the first portable MP3 players available. I bought the latest computer hardware. And I was the first to know about a new dotcom company having an IPO. Then I found that I was accumulating a lot of junk. I had old computer parts that were still new to most people, but no friends wanted them. And most of the new companies I knew about went under. I had a major shift in perspective just realizing how much “waste” I was generating by being the first to adopt everything. And by major shift, I mean I am now in the early majority with regards to most innovations. Let someone else have the first version with all the bumps and bruises, I’ll get the next version. Adopter distribution S curve • The adopter distribution S Curve graphically depicts the innovation adoption rates of each of the five adopter categories. The X axis depicts the amount of time and the Y axis depicts the percentage of each category that have adopted the innovation. Generalizations about earlier/later adopters • There is no difference in age amongst early and late adopters • Early Adopters are more educated • Early adopters are more literate • Early Adopters have higher socio-economic status • Earlier adopters tend to be more empathic, less dogmatic, more comfortable with abstractions, more intelligent, more rational, more comfortable with change/uncertainty/ risk, more favorable towards science, less fatalistic, more efficacious, higher expectations for self realization. (From tt_6a... I could not be more concise than this slide)
  3. 3. 2. Diffusion Networks (tt_6b.ppt) Define (all) and personalize (one): [DONE] Two types of diffusion networks • Interpersonal and Mass Media Opinion leader • Individuals who influence of others; Opinion Leaders are often respected people that bring about the adoption of change by telling many people about it. Adopters closer to the Opinion Leaders in social circles are more likely to be earlier adopters. [PERSONALIZE] - I am the Opinion Leader in my family when it comes to technology. Every holiday gathering, I have numerous people in the family come to me to ask me which computers they should buy. They’re always expecting me to have a new gadget to show off. And much to my surprise, I usually have one... even though I don’t do it intentionally. I think this is because I am selective of what I show them since I know that many of them do not have a lot of money. So I don’t show them my brand new macbook pro, I show them my iPod. I believe this also keeps my “somewhat respected” status because I am not showing them things that are completely unattainable. Though the innovation might be a year old, it is still new to them and quite attainable as a special birthday present or other celebratory gift. Communication flow models • Hypodermic Needle - Mass Media’s direct injection of news concerning an innovation without the influence or need for opinion leaders. • Two Step model - Opinion Leaders obtain information from mass media and provide that information to the general populace. • (Generally it happens this way... except if the public starts to think of the mass media as Opinion Leaders... *cough* Glenn Beck *cough*... ugh) Two types of personal networks Homophily - Similar people interacting with similar people, i.e. Same socioeconomic status Heterophily - Interactions are amongst people with less similar backgrounds, i.e. social groups blending Strategies for achieving critical mass Offer incentives to Opinion Leaders and earlier adopters. Attempt to incorporate respected individuals and tell everyone that “everyone else is doing it” and imply that those without the innovation will be at a disadvantage.
  4. 4. 3. Consequences of Innovations (tt_7.ppt) Define (all) and personalize (one): [DONE] Three characteristics of the consequences of innovations • Desirability; Whether or not the innovation provided beneficial effects • Directness; Did the innovation have an immediate impact or did it cause something else to happen that then had an impact on society • Anticipation; Are the results what the innovator had intended and does society understand those results? Three intrinsic elements of an innovation • Form - observable physical appearance (a hammer should just look like a hammer) • Function - contributionusage (the hammer pounds in nails, we can hold things together) • Meaning - subjective interpretation of the innovation (hammers will change the way we build houses! They’re a gift from above!) The double-edged sword of innovation • Innovations come with positive and negative consequences. Sometimes immediate positive effects can lead to some long-term negative effects (i.e. The internal combustion engine... revolutionized the way people lived. Gave people freedom, Created the suburbs... but then in great usage began contributing to global warming and pollution.) [PERSONALIZE] - As alluded to earlier... I used to buy the latest and greatest computer parts. I’d upgrade my motherboard, then the video card, sound card, RAM, Hard drive... and then I’d start the cycle all over again. My computer was awesome. What a great hobby... But I eventually got really soured by all of the computer parts I had lying around. And I had no way to get rid of them. I had a lot of electronic junk. And it was all newer than most people’s main computer. It happened when I heard an NPR special about how we send all of our old electronic junk over to Asia and people basically live in cities made of our electronic waste. Then I saw pictures of these cities. Now I have a macbook and one not trivial reason why is because it is 100% recyclable. The level of Good • A question as to whether or not an innovation benefits all members of a society equally. Early Adopters and those of higher social status often benefit more than late adopters and those of lower classes. Oftentimes the innovation can widen the gap between classes and adopters. The digital divide • The gap between those with and those without the internet. Or more generally, those with access to information and those without.
  5. 5. Lessons from Uncle Marshall • The Global Village - Electronic Information has made the world a smaller place. Consequently, people are more aware, involved and responsible. However, it does mean that the world is a happy, utopian place. It is actually quite the opposite... due to the diverse backgrounds and experiences of those sharing information, there is quite a bit of disagreement. • The Medium is the message - The way that a message (or innovation) is communicated can have a great impact on how the innovation is perceived. Basically, Uncle Marshall truly believed that people and innovations could be radically changed by media and how information was delivered. 4. The Change Agent (tt_8.ppt) Define (all) and personalize (one): [DONE] Change agent • A Professional (paid) individual who influences others to adopt innovations. Change Agents are employed by change agencies. They manage the adoption of innovations in a society by developing a need for the innovation, bringing information, resolving problems with the innovation, implementing and fostering normal usage of the implementation. Aide • A non-professional who often holds a stable social position within the society and extensively contributes to the society’s adoption of an innovation. An Aide is more trusted than a Change Agent. [PERSONALIZE] - I definitely find myself being an aide when it comes to the iPhone. It’s somewhat unintentional. Friends and co-workers ask me how I like my phone and I begin to tell them all of the wonderful things it does for me. Even though it took me two years to actually adopt it. I don’t regret the two years when I was a slow-adopter but I wonder if that makes me even more of an aide, “I held out for two years and now I absolutely love the thing. Life wouldn’t be the same without it.” Diffusion systems • Centralized - Power is retained by central agencies (Governments, Experts) and then dispersed to the users? • Decentralized - Controlled by the users and widely diffused throughout the system, flows from the bottom up to experts. • Hybrid - Is a mix of both Centralized and Decentralized 5. Innovation in Organizations (tt_9.ppt)
  6. 6. Define (all) and personalize (one): [DONE] Four innovation-decision types • Optional innovation-decisions - Adoption choices made by an individual without consideration for society’s adoption. • Collective innovation-decisions - Adoption choices made by a society through consensus • Authority innovation-decisions - Adoption choices made by those in power • Contingent innovation-decisions - Adoption choices made only after another innovation adoption choice has been made. Innovation champion • An individual within an organization who completely supports an innovation and overcomes obstacles to ultimately adopt the innovation [PERSONALIZE] - At work I have been an Innovation Champion for numerous communication technologies. My position as a team lead allows me to use my team as “guinea pigs” for new technologies such as electronic whiteboards, video conferencing, webex presentations with desktop sharing, etc. After proving out the technology usage with my team, in three different cities (Eagan MN, Rochester NY, Bangalore India) I then show other teams and managers how easy it is to use. My team often become aides by sharing their experiences. Because of successful usage, we have invested quite heavily in video conferencing hardware and software. Subprocesses of the innovation process in organizations • Initiation - All of the work before the deciding whether or not to adopt an innovation (information, planning, advertising, etc...) • Implementation - The activities associated with the adoption and use of an innovation (purchasing, training, deployment...)