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foundation of medieval europe


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foundation of medieval europe

  1. 1. Chapter VIII: Foundation of Medieval Europe (500A.D.- 1050A.D.) LAK Chansok Lecturer, Department of International Studies, RUPP Research Fellow, Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace (CICP) Department of International Studies
  2. 2. Charlemagne crowned as the Emperor of the Romans by the Pope Leo III
  3. 3. European Medieval
  4. 4. Contents • The Germanic Kingdoms • Feudal Society • Life on the Manor • The Medieval Church
  5. 5. Class Quiz • How many Germanic tribes were there? • How were Germanic tribes organized? • Why did Germanic tribes invade Rome? • Why were Germanic tribes able to invade Rome? • When did Germanic tribes take over the Western Rome?
  6. 6. The Germanic Kingdoms • How were the Germanic Kingdoms in Western Europe governed? • What did Charlemagne accomplish during his reign? • What threats did Western Europe face in the 700s and 800s?
  7. 7. • During the medieval period, many Germanic tribes set up their small kingdoms in Italy, Gaul, Spain, Britain, and North Africa. • What happened if those tribes turned to be kingdoms? –Territorial glory and wealth leading to WAR • With more military strengths, the Franks under Clovis controlled much of Western Roman empire.
  8. 8. Roman Influence on Government • Between form of Roman government and that of Germanics, which one was more complex? –Roman government • Germanic tribes had a simple form of government as follow: Rulers Officials (a few) Warriors Tax collection: unnecessary (military service)
  9. 9. • However, some Germanic tribes (e.g. Ostrogoth) followed the form of Roman government (including the laws and languages) • Some (Angels, Saxons, etc.) moving to Britain preserved Germanic custom and languages eventually evolving into “Modern English”. • The Franks controlled much of Western Roman empire in fifth century A.D. (now Germany and Belgium).
  10. 10. • Clovis, a brilliant and ruthless king, further invaded and expanded his territory. • Why did Clovis convert to follow Christianity? –Encouragement of his wife, Clotilde –Gaining more support from Church and Christians (other kingdoms belonged to Arian sect – “Heretics” or “untrue Christian” according to Catholic Church) –Gaining more support means gaining more power
  11. 11. • What happened after Clovis died in 511A.D.? –Lands divided for his four sons, and those kingdoms declined due to invasions. • One of invasions was made by Muslim. • What is Muslim?
  12. 12. • By the 700s, Muslim in Middle East, finally came to invade Frankish Kingdom. • Charles Martel, Mayor of Palace, allied with Christians and defeated Muslims. • Charles Martel created a very strong central government in Frankish kingdom. After his death, his son, Pepin, became a successor approved by the Church. • Why was the Church’s approval required?
  13. 13. –To justify or legitimize authority over politics in the kingdom • After the death of Pepin, his son Charles became the next successor. • Charles was strong and reunited the Kingdom over the Western Rome and thus called “Charlemagne” meaning “Charles the Great”
  14. 14. • In 800 A.D., Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as “Emperor of the Romans”
  15. 15. • What were his policies to strengthen the empire? –Recruited talented royal officials called “Missi Dominici” –Supervised “nobles” whether they are royal and willing to defend their own lands –Create uniform laws –Appointed judges to maintain social justice –Spread Christianity throughout the empire and other regions –Payment (tithe = 10% of income) of each Christian to the Church
  16. 16. –Invited scholars from all over the Europe to teach Charlemagne’s children and those of nobles –Ordered clergies to set up schools and libraries where many students could learn • In church, monks made copies of bibles and developed art illumination (decorated letters – capital letter and lower-case letter that are used nowadys)
  17. 17. A New Wave of Invasion • After the death of Charlemagne, other next successors lacked wisdom and forceful characters. • What happened then? –Internally, civil wars for power and divided the Frankish Kingdom into three in 843A.D. –Externally, invasions of Magyars or Hungarians from Asia, Slavs from Eastern Europe, and particularly Vikings from Scandinavia
  18. 18. • In 911, parts of Northern France given by the Frank to Vikings and named as “Normandy” (Norman means “men from the north”) • Other Vikings moved to settle in Iceland, Greenland, and about 1000 A.D. in eastern coast of North America. • Those Vikings later on were converted by Christian missionaries to follow Christianity in some parts of Western Rome.
  19. 19. Feudal Society • How were warfare and feudalism linked? • What was relationship between lords and vassals? • What was the role of noblewomen in feudal society?
  20. 20. • What is Feudalism? –The system of rule by local lords who were bound to a king by ties of royalty • What is the origin of Feudalism? –Germanic custom: warriors swore an oath of royalty to their chiefs
  21. 21. –“Lesser nobles” as knights and “greater nobles” as lords
  22. 22. • In 700A.D., the knights: –they learned the stirrup and fought on the horseback. –Protected by armors –Carried heavy weapons
  23. 23. –During Charles Martel, he had no money to pay lords/knights and thus gave them lands. • King: Gave lands and gain protection from lords/knights • Lords/knights: Gave royalty and gain the lands to support their lives • Later on, lesser lord existed called vassals in addition to powerful lord and knights • What is the structure of feudalism?
  24. 24. • What is an unwritten arrangement? • Feudal contract, based on Germanic custom and traditional practices, refers to the unwritten rules of rights and duties of people in the feudal society. • According to feudal contract, what is the relationship between lords and vassals?
  25. 25. Lords: - Provided the vassals with fief (actually lords still owned the fief but the vassals could use and pass it on to their heirs. - Protected the vassals by providing a court of justice to solve problems between and among vassals - Acted as guardian for young children if the vassals died Vassals: - Provided the lords with their military services (for about 40 days a year) - Serving the lords during holidays and special occasion (e.g. protection and participants) - Gave advise or participated in legal decisions in the lord’s court of justice - Payments: - Paid annual fees, called a relief, to the lords - Collected and paid ransom money if the lords were captured in battles - Paid fees when the lords’ elder daughter was married and/or when their elder son was knighted.
  26. 26. Don’t have much power; but perceived as the highest noble rank in the society. Had more power but owed royalty to the king in exchange for the lands given by the king Had much more power because of controlling knights and owed much royalty to their lords Defensed and owed royalty to the vassals as their commanders in chief in exchange for land Owed royalty to the king and esp. lords because they worked on the fiefs of the lords
  27. 27. • As the system developed, it became more complex. • Why? • Complex leadership leading to a web of conflicting royalties (e.g. different lords have the same vassals) • Who got importance and unimportance of warfare at that time?
  28. 28. • Despite a few external wars, lords/vassals still fought each other because: – Boundaries (territorial glory) – Inheritance rights over fiefs – Ransom (money when hostage) – Honor/reputation – Any other issues solved by warfare • However, for peasants, warfare was a disaster because: – Crops destroyed – Animals seized – Houses burnt – Sometimes peasants killed
  29. 29. What are pros and cons of castles?
  30. 30. • What is Chivalry? • It is the code of conduct for knights (Christian values + virtues of being a warrior). • Knights must: –Be brave, generous, kind and royal –Protect and respect noblewomen –Defense their family’s honor –Put on armors whenever in battles, etc.
  31. 31. • Noblemen were mostly warriors. • What were rights/duties of noblewomen? – Inherited the fief but could not rule it – Her father, husband, or eldest son as her guardian – Arranged her marriage by her father – Supervised household and entertained her husband’s guests – Commanded vassals and servants at the absence of her husband (lord) – Gained more influence when her husband had more power. – Accessed to education
  32. 32. • Skills: –Weave/spin –Cook –Medical remedies –Read and write to teach their children
  33. 33. Life on the Manor • What is manor? • Manor refers to an area including a village or several villages and the surrounding lands.
  34. 34. • Peasants: Gave lands to their lords and got the protection • Lords: Gave protection and got the lands • Peasants tied to the land were called Serfs. • What is relationship between lords and serfs?
  35. 35. Lords: - Gave a portion of land for peasants (would seize if peasants failed to fulfill their duties) - Protected the serfs Serfs: - Owned their royalty to the lords - Worked three days a week for the lords (e.g. repaired castles, farmed, etc.) - Paid: - Renting lands - Using rice millers of lords - Payment usually in forms of grain, chickens, clothes, eggs, etc.
  36. 36. • What is development of agriculture? –Crop rotation (three field system) • Crop: Wheat or rye (from fall to winter) • Crop: Oat, pea, bean, barley (from spring to summer) • The last to let the field rest (uncultivated) –Watermill/ windmill –More forests cleared to get more lands for planting crops
  37. 37. • Feudal Justice: • Two courts: –One for Vassals –Another for peasants • What if conflicts occur between lords and lords and between lords and vassals? – WARS
  38. 38. The Medieval Church • Churches became more complex and influential: –Worship place –Its own government, laws, courts, and tax system –Teaching place (school and library) One of difficult tasks of churches was to convert others to follow Christianity (e.g. Anglo-Saxon, Hungarians, Slavs, and Vikings)
  39. 39. • What were roles of Church in the feudal society? –Educated clergy as evidence in the court –Owned fiefs (high church officials as lords) –Organized Christian ceremonies –Marriage documents made before the clergies –Maintained peace (convinced lords/vassals not to wage wars and hurt commoners) –Led people to salvations –Put excommunication if disobey the church
  40. 40. • What were challenges of the Church? –Control of clergy (corruption among clergies) –Buying and selling of religious offices –Campaigns by Church against those who did not believe in its teaching –Competition between Church and king/lords to involve in politics
  41. 41. Thank you!