Feudal Europe


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Feudal Europe, 2º ESO.


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Feudal Europe

  2. 2. General population, most of them peasants, lived frightened by wars and invasions. Their main worry was to survive and many of them become serfs of the feudal lords.
  3. 3. Between the 9th and 10th centuries, Normans (Vikings), Muslims and Hungarians attacked and invaded Western Europe.
  4. 4. THE RISE OF FEUDALISM • The power of the monarchy was weakened. • The kings asked the nobles and their private armies for help. • In return the king gave them land and power. • The nobles became his vassals.
  5. 5. THE RISE OF FEUDALISM A Vassal's Obligations • The vassal was required to attend the lord at his court. • Help administer justice • Contribute money if needed. • He must answer a summons to battle, bringing an agreed upon number of fighting men. • As well, he must feed and house the lord and his company when they travelled across his land. A Lord's Obligations • He had to give a land (fief) to the vassal. • He was obliged to protect the vassal, give military aid, and guard his children. • If a daughter inherited, the lord arranged her marriage. • If there were no heirs the lord disposed of the fief as he chose.
  6. 6. Feudalism (the pyramid) -The king- 1 -Claimed ownership of land 2 -Lord (Noble)-Could gain land from King -Could give and control land he got -Peasant- 4 -Worked the land for little pay -Bottom of the pyramid -Granted land to Lords (nobles) -Gave land to vassals if they fought for him 3 -Knight-Was granted land by Lord (Noble) -Could live on land as long as they fought for the lord
  8. 8. Medieval society was organized into three groups: • Nobility (Knights) were the owners of weapons, and their mission was to protect the rest of the population in the event of an attack. • Clergymen were monks and priests. They prayed to guarantee the spiritual salvation of the people. • Peasants and artisans or other workers were in charge of producing food and necessary objects.
  9. 9. KINGS • Monarchs were the representative of God on Earth. • Their mission: to govern their people and maintain a unified kingdom. • The king was recognised as “primus inter pares” (first among equals).
  10. 10. Among the king’s responsibilities are: • Leading the nobles and their armies in military campaigns. • Raising taxes for wars, coronations and weddings. • Acting as supreme judge in legal disputes.
  11. 11. • The Royal Council or Curia Regis helped the King to govern. This was a troup of nobles who advised him on making decisions.
  12. 12. • Medieval monarch had no fixed residence. They moved between their castles, accompanied by their court.
  13. 13. THE WARRIOR NOBLES • The main function of the nobility was military. • Nobles’ sons had to prepare to be knights. • Knights had to defend their territory and help the king and the feudal lords.
  14. 14. • Nobles had many privileges: they did not work and they did not pay taxes and they were the only people allowed to carry weapons. • Castles were the homes of nobles. They were also places of refuge for the population when under attack.
  15. 15. CASTLES • http://nea.educastur.princast.es/caballeros/pr incipal.swf • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wihffHYu FEU#t=46 • Kings and feudal lords lived in castles. • In the castle, nobles received their vassals, imparted justice and collected taxes from their serfs.
  16. 16. • Sometimes, banquets were held in the castle. Troubadours sang songs. • There were also tournaments and hunting. • The lady of the castle organised the household.
  17. 17. • In the centre of the castle was the keep. This tower served as a watchtower and the living quarters of the nobles.
  18. 18. PEASANTS • Peasants were more than a 90% of the population.
  19. 19. THE FIEFDOM • Property given by a king or noble to a feudal lord was called a fiefdom. • The fiefdom was divided into: – The lord’s demesne o manor. Each manor included a large house or castle, pastures, fields, and forests. It also had a village where the peasants who worked on the manor lived. – Holdings. These plots of land were given to free peasants in exchange for labour and taxes.
  20. 20. • The lord of a manor controlled everything that happened on his lands. • His word was law. • The lord resolved any disputes that arose on the manor and punished people who misbehaved. • He also collected taxes (a part of the harvest, days of obligatory labour, a small fee for using the oven, the mill, the blacksmith, bridges…) from the people who lived on his manor.
  21. 21. PEASANTS ON THE FIEFDOM • They could be: – Free peasants, who paid rent to farm their land, and could own land. They had the right to marry or leave the fiefdom. – Serfs, who were not free and were forced to work on the lord’s land.
  22. 22. • Peasants lived under a subsistence economy. They produced just enough food for themselves, but not for trade.
  23. 23. • Peasants lived in small villages or in isolated houses on the land. • Their houses were very simple with one or two rooms. Sometimes also a store and a stable.
  24. 24. • The daily lives of medieval people were influenced by religion. • The Catholic Church established religious obligations, like praying, going to mass on Sundays…
  25. 25. • As most of the population depended on agriculture, the Church went into the Countryside to evangelise. Cherches were built in every village and monasteries become important cultural centres.
  26. 26. • The Catholic Church divided the clergy into two categories: – Secular clergy consisted of the Pope, the head of the Church; cardinals and bishops; and priests. – Regular clergy consisted of the members of religious orders. Each religious orders had rules which explained its members’ duties. Monks and nuns were ruled by abbots and abbasses.
  27. 27. • Church could excomulgate anyone. • Church controlled education, help to poors and sick people and the religious ceremonies. • The Church created: – The Peace of God: sacred places could not be attacked. – The Truce of God: setting aside certain days of the year when violence was not allowed.
  28. 28. LIFE IN THE MONASTERIES • In the monasteries, books were preserved and copied and the monks taught reading and writing. • Monasteries were made up of groups of buildings such as stables and barns, the refectory, the scriptorium or library. • They also had land worked by peasants and serfs.
  29. 29. • Monks used to copy manuscripts by hand and decorated them with small illustrations.
  30. 30. • One of the main medieval orders were the Benedictines, founded in the 6th century by Saint Benedict and it spread throughout Europe. • They took vows of poverty, chastity and obedience.
  31. 31. • Dominican and Franciscan monks, also called friars, were educators and missionaires outside the monastery.
  32. 32. THE CRUSADES • Crusades were a series of military campaigns fought by Christians against Muslims in the Middle East.