ACH 122 Lecture 05a (Brick Masonry)

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  • Provides for “full” bearing MASONRY UNITS IRREGULAR “ CUSHIONS” FULL BEARING Seals between masonry units WATER WIND Adheres / bonds masonry units STRUCTURAL BOND Aesthetics USUALLY 20% OF SURFACE IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION GENERALY “ MOCKUP” ARCHITECT / OWNER APP’L PRIOR TO THE START OF MASONRY
  • Pre-packaged COMES IN BAGS MIX WITH SAND AND WATER Color range ALMOST ANY COLOR GREYS MOST COMMON Testing / Specifications ASTM - SPECIFIES Curing CURES BY HYDRATION - CHEMICAL REACTION NOT “DRYING” “ Shelf” life MIX AS NEEDED < 90 MINIUTE - CAN RETEMPER > 2 1/2 HOURS - DISCARD
  • REFER TO PAGE 269 Course HORIZONTAL LAYER OF MASONRY UNITS Head & Bed Joints Wythe VERTICAL LAYER OF UNITS - ONE UNIT THICK Stretcher FACE PARALLEL TO WALL LONG DIMENSION HORIZONTAL Header LAID TO BOND TWO WYTHES TOGETHER Soldier LAID ON ITS END FACE PARALLEL TO WALL USES- VISUAL EFFECT Rowlock LAID ON ITS FACE END VISIBLE USES - CAPS, SILLS SLIDE 4280-3
  • Molding process EXTRUSION PRESSED MOLDED (HAND OR MACHINE) Color BASED ON CLAY COMPOSITION ADDITIVES / CHEMICALS FIRING PROCESS Size APPEARANCE, COST TO INSTALL Grade RESISTANCE TO WEATHERING THREE GRADES Type BASED ON THE DEGREE OF UNIFORMITY OF SHAPE DIMENSION TEXTURE COLOR HIGH UNIFORMITY TO NON-UNIFORM
  • No “standard” size SOME “COMMON” BRICK SIZES “ Normal” coursing - 3 bricks = 8” MATCH CMU COURSING Larger sizes MORE ECONOMICAL TO LAY HIGHER STRENGTH BUT - CHANGE WALL APPEARANCE Custom Shapes & Colors AVAILABLE - BUT LEAD TIME COST
  • Structural Bonds USE “HEADER” TO TIE WALL TOGETHER Cavity (Veneer) Walls BRICK DOES NOT PROVIDE STUCTURAL SUPPORT BRICK IS FOR Appearance & EXTERIOR Barrier DON’T NEED HEADERS - INFACT WOULD BE IN THE WAY OF CAVITY HEREFORE Commonly USE - Running bond Stacked bond
  • Structural Bonds USE “HEADER” TO TIE WALL TOGETHER Cavity (Veneer) Walls BRICK DOES NOT PROVIDE STUCTURAL SUPPORT BRICK IS FOR Appearance & EXTERIOR Barrier DON’T NEED HEADERS - INFACT WOULD BE IN THE WAY OF CAVITY HEREFORE Commonly USE - Running bond Stacked bond
  • Layout & Leads ESTABLISH “LINE” & “ELEVATION” LEADS - ESTABLISH WALL PLANE & COURSE HEIGHT OFTEN - CORNERS Line LITERALLY - STRETCH A LINE & LAY BRICK / BLOCK TO IT Staging HEAVY MATERIAL Difficult to USE LADDERS - NEED STAGING ESTABLISHING A WORK PLATFORM” SCAFOLD BUILT IN PLACE, ADJUSTABLE SCAFOLD, AUTOMATED SCAFOLDING Cutting Masonry HAMMER, DIAMOND BLADE (H2O COOLED) EXPENSIVE, - DESIGN ATTEMPTS TO Minimize Cleaning Masonry BRUSHED & ACID CLEANED (PROTECTION OF OTHER SURFACES)
  • ACH 122 Lecture 05a (Brick Masonry)

    1. 1. MODULE #4 MASONRY  Brick (part 1)  Concrete (part 2)  Stone (part 3)
    2. 2. MODULE #4 MASONRY M A S O N RY Definitions & History Mortar This lecture represents the intellectual property of Professor Brandi R. Shepard. These materials are made available solely for the educational purposes of Anne Arundel Community College and for students enrolled in courses through the Department of Architecture and Interior Design. These materials are protected by U.S. Copyright law and shall not be reproduced or transmitted electronically, or altered or revised without the expressed written permission of the author. No copies or printouts of this PowerPoint presentation are available for use. Closed-caption of AACC presented audio/video materials will be made available upon request. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2
    3. 3. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 WHAT IS MASONRY?  The stacking of natural or manufactured fired units to create a structural element.  Mortar joins these units  Acts in compression  Durable, fireproof  Suitable for all elements of the structural  Labor intensive; requires exact skill  Masonry is broken into units of brick, concrete, stone
    4. 4. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 THE HISTORY of MASONRY  Earliest type of masonry was native field stones piled upon one another without mortar to join them  Other types included sod or dried mud  Clay & silt were mixed with water & formed by hand into bricks  The joints were packed with mud  Kept out wind & rain  Gave a level building surface
    5. 5. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 THE HISTORY of MASONRY  Clay bricks placed in or next to a fire became harder & more weather resistant  The invention of the “kiln” by the Romans  Masons turned limestone into lime and added this to mud for mortar
    6. 6. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 THE HISTORY of MASONRY  4000 B.C.  Mesopotamians built stone and sun-dried brick buildings  3000 B.C.  Egyptians built temples and pyramids of cut stone  500 B.C.  Greeks used limestone and marble  100 A.D.  Babylonians refined arches over small openings  1100 A.D.  Romans perfected the arch and vault, built forum building, theaters, baths, aqueducts & homes
    7. 7. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Historic Masonry Structures Great Wall of China
    8. 8. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Historic Masonry StructuresRotunda at University of Virginia
    9. 9. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Historic Masonry Structures Markets of TrajanRoman Colosseum
    10. 10. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 CONTEMPORARY MASONRY  Materials  Brick  Concrete masonry units  Cut stone  Mortar  Applications  Structural  Load-bearing concrete masonry construction  Finish  Brick veneer  Thin cut stone slabs used for wall cladding  Interior applications: floor, wall, stair treads
    11. 11. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Contemporary Masonry StructuresTycon Center, Fairfax, VAbuilding unknown
    12. 12. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 MORTAR FUNCTIONS  Bind masonry units into an integral assembly (wall)  Seals against water and air infiltration  Provide a cushion and leveler between units  Seals between masonry units  Provide character & aesthetics to the masonry assembly  Joint size & type  Color  Consists of:  Portland Cement (the “binder”)  Sand (the “filler”)  Water (the mixing agent)  Lime (improves workability)
    13. 13. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 LIME MORTAR CHARACTERISTICS  Workable when plastic  Cohesive & easy to spread  Water retention  Retain water without bleeding  Only enough water as needed for absorption by units  Water tightness  Lime in mix provides  Ability to flex in hardened state, reducing cracking and related leaks  Strength  Compressive  Flexural tensile bond strength Workability of mortar Water rentivity of mortar Watertightness of masonry wall Strength of mortar and the strength of masonry wall, particularly the wall’s flexural tensile bond strength decreasesincreases
    14. 14. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 MORTAR  Pre-packaged  Color range  Testing / Specifications  Curing
    15. 15. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 MORTAR  Mortar takes up 20%± of wall area  Affects the color and texture of masonry wall  Mortar composition is specified in testing standard ASTM C-270
    16. 16. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 MORTAR TYPES  MaSoNwOrK used to label types (M, S, N, O, K)  Each type has  Specific proportion of ingredients  Specific uses based on performance characteristics
    17. 17. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 MORTAR TYPES TYPES OF MORTAR: “MaSoNwOrK”  Type "M" (High): Strength (2500 psi) High lateral and compressive loads & below grade uses  Type "S" (Medium-High): Strength (1800 psi) High flexural and normal compressive loads (most common)  Type "N" (Medium): Strength (750 psi) General above grade uses  Type "O" (Medium-Low): Strength (350 psi) Non-Load bearing walls  Type "K" (Low): Strength (75 psi) Non-Load bearing where permitted (only used in preservation work) Refer to Table 22.1 on page 547 in textbook
    18. 18. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Joint Color that “Blends” w/ Brick Color
    19. 19. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Joint Color that “Blends” w/ Brick Color
    20. 20. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Joint Color contrasted w/ Brick Color
    21. 21. MODULE #4 MASONRY 1 Terminology Manufacturing Brick Bonding and Joints Examples of Masonry Buildings BRICK MASONRY
    22. 22. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Includes:  Brick; Hollow clay tiles; Architectural terra-cotta  Composed of:  Pulverized clay & shale: oxides of silicon and aluminum  Water  Minor components include metal oxides  Clays are highly malleable  Can be shaped and molded when mixed with water  Once formed or placed into molds, then they are fired or kiln-dried BRICK MASONRY
    23. 23. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Interior or exterior applications  Durable against freeze/thaw cycles  Durable against erosion by rainwater and wind  Strength 6,000 - 10,000 psi  Fire resistant  High thermal mass  Historic associations: permanence & stability  Generally used as a façade material  Non-loadbearing applications BRICK MASONRY
    24. 24. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 GREEN MATERIALS: BRICK  Brick can be recycled  Material is pulverized and recycled with newer content  Recycled glass and other waste materials are combined  Materials have reduced:  Firing times  Temperatures  Toxic emissions  Improve brick strength & durability  Waste into landfills SOURCE: http://www.sustainablebuild.co.uk/brick- manufacture-use-construction.html
    25. 25. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 GREEN MATERIALS: BRICK  Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB’s)  Manufactured from soil that is more sand than clay  High energy efficient using up to 15 times less energy than a fired brick  Durable, ecological, economical SOURCE: http://www.sustainablebuild.co.uk/brick- manufacture-use-construction.html
    26. 26. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 GREEN MATERIALS: BRICK  “Green Brick”  Made of fly-ash (by-product of coal-fired power plants)  Takes 90% less energy to manufacture, which produces 90% less carbon emissions per “brick”  Curing process with chemical catalysts vs. kiln firing  Can be any color or texture as a traditional clay brick  Brick Industry Association does not recognize it as a “brick”, but thinks it should be called a “fly-ash modular unit” SOURCE: http://www.greenharbor.org/2009/10/new-brick-coming-to-a-construction-site- near-you/SOURCE: http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/construction_and_property/ icle6870177.ece
    27. 27. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Brick Positions:  Stretcher  Header  Soldier  Shiner  Rowlock  Sailor BRICK MASONRY Terminology
    28. 28. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Course:  Continuous layer of masonry units, bonded with mortar.  One course is equal to the thickness of masonry unit plus thickness of one mortar joint BRICK MASONRY Terminology
    29. 29. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Wythe:  Continuous vertical section of masonry  Single-wythe wall : In section, wall one brick wide  Double-wythe wall : In section, wall two bricks wide BRICK MASONRY Terminology
    30. 30. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Head Joint  Vertical mortar joint between ends of masonry units  Bed Joint  Horizontal layer of mortar into which a masonry unit is laid BRICK MASONRY Terminology
    31. 31. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Collar Joint  Interior longitudinal vertical joint between two wythes of masonry BRICK MASONRY Terminology
    32. 32. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Bed Joint Head Joint Course - horizontal layer of brick BRICK MASONRY
    33. 33. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Header - Bonds two wythes together Wythe: vertical layer 1 unit thick Soldier - Laid on its end, face parallel Rowlock - laid on face, end visible Stretcher - long dimension horizontal & face parallel to the wall BRICK MASONRY
    34. 34. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Corbel  Shelf or ledge formed by projecting successive courses of masonry out from the face of a wall BRICK MASONRY Terminology
    35. 35. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Quion  Stone blocks used to form strong corners.  Now mostly used for decorative purposes (these can be bricks, concrete or stone) BRICK MASONRY Terminology
    36. 36. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 BRICK MASONRY Terminology  Rowlock Course
    37. 37. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 BRICK MASONRY Manufacturing Process http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ar1Rh3yYyno http://www.glengerybrick.com/about/manufacturing/index.html Refer to Figures 22.13 – 22.18 on page 553 - 554 in textbook
    38. 38. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2
    39. 39. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Four Important Qualities:  Molding process  Color (firing process)  Size  Type/Grade (specified by ASTM C-216) Considerations in Choosing Brick
    40. 40. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  “Molded” or “Handmade”  solid units  pressed into fiberglass or steel molds  used to be by hand, now machines  sand or water coated molds to release bricks  usually rougher surface and edges Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Molding Process
    41. 41. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  “Extruded” or “Wire Cut”  hollow core  formed into a column and cut to size with wires  usually smoother surface and finer edges Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Molding Process
    42. 42. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Wood Mold Extruded – Wire Cut Extruded – Smooth Extruded – Raked
    43. 43. Textures available for extruded brick
    44. 44. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Soft Mud:  Oldest process  Moist clay pressed into molds (hand or machine)  20-30% water content  Dry Press:  Drying clay machine pressed into steel molds  10% water content  Used for molded bricks in steel molds by machine  Stiff Mud:  12-15% water content  Extruded through a rectangular die  Most common process used today Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Molding Process
    45. 45. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Types of Kilns:  PERIODIC:  Loaded w/ bricks, fired, cooled, & unloaded  TUNNEL KILN:  Bricks loaded onto a palette on rails, slowly moved thru oven Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Firing Process
    46. 46. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Brick Color dependent on:  Composition of the clay  Temperature & Chemistry of the kiln fire Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Firing Process
    47. 47. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  1st Stage: “Water Smoking/Dehydration”  Drives off remaining moisture in clay  2nd Stage: “Oxidation/Vitrification”  Clay is transformed into a ceramic material  (kiln temps of 2,400°)  3rd Stage: “Flashing” (optional)  Burners used to create color variations in the brick  4th Stage: “Cooling”  Slowly cooled under controlled conditions to avoid thermal cracking Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Firing Process
    48. 48. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  No standard size  Normal coursing - 3 bricks = 8”  Larger sizes  Custom Shapes & Colors Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Size
    49. 49. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2
    50. 50. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  MODULAR  STANDARD  THREE-INCH  OVERSIZE  ROMAN  NORMAN  SIX-INCH JUMBO  JUMBO UTILITY Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Size: vary due to scale, texture and design
    51. 51. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Specified dimension  Ideal final dimension of brick as specified by architect  There will always be some variation  Actual dimension  Actual size of each individual brick  Dimensional tolerance  Difference between specified dimension and actual dimension  Established by industry for each product  Nominal dimension  Includes specified dimension plus one mortar joint  Written with no inch labels Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Size: dimensions of masonry units
    52. 52. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Nominal 4 x 2-2/3 x 8  Specified 3-5/8 in x 2-1/4 in x 7-5/8 in Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Size: dimensions of masonry units Example: nominal vs. specified dimensions Sequencing masonry unit dimensions: Width X Height X Length
    53. 53. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Size: dimensions of masonry units Figures 22.22 on page 557; commonly used brick sizes.
    54. 54. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Facing brick (solid or cored)  Graded for dimensional tolerances & warpage, and durability  Building brick (solid or cored)  Graded for durability and strength only  Used in brick walls later covered with a veneer  Exposed with dimensional tolerances and warpage acceptable  Paving brick (solid)  Graded for freeze/thaw resistance and abrasion Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Grade
    55. 55. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Weatherability: evaluates how the bricks will hold up to weather exposure (freeze/thaw, rain, etc.) MOST COMMON Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Grade
    56. 56. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Facing Bricks: evaluates the uniformity of shape, dimension, texture & color Considerations in Choosing Brick Four Important Qualities Grade
    57. 57. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Cavity (Veneer) Walls  Running bond BRICK BONDS Running bond and arching action in masonry walls
    58. 58. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Cavity (Veneer) Walls  Stacked bond BRICK BONDS
    59. 59. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Joint Considerations Size Joint Tooling Joint Profile Color (blended or contrast)
    60. 60. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 BRICK JOINTS  WEATHERED  CONCAVE  (best joint, mortar compacted, shed water, most popular)  VEE  FLUSH  RAKED  STRIPPED  STRUCK
    61. 61. Mortar joint thickness (approx 3/8 inch) & profile
    62. 62. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Tooling Joints
    63. 63. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Concave Joints
    64. 64. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 “Modified” Vee Joints
    65. 65. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 “Grapevine” Joints
    66. 66. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Flush Joints
    67. 67. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Raked Joints
    68. 68. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Laying Masonry  Layout & Leads  Line
    69. 69. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2
    70. 70. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Brick Masonry ‘Mosaic’ Examples of Masonry Buildings
    71. 71. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Brick Masonry ‘Mosaic’ Examples of Masonry Buildings
    72. 72. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Masonry Buildings San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
    73. 73. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Masonry Buildings Robie House, Chicago
    74. 74. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Masonry Buildings Robie House, Chicago
    75. 75. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Masonry Buildings Oriole Park at Camden Yards, Baltimore
    76. 76. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Masonry Buildings Johnson Wax Building, Racine, Wisconsin
    77. 77. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Masonry Buildings Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, Baltimore
    78. 78. MODULE #4 MASONRY 2 Terminology: Concrete Masonry Unit Manufacturing CMU Wall Construction & Installation CONCRETE MASONRY This lecture represents the intellectual property of Professor Brandi R. Shepard. These materials are made available solely for the educational purposes of Anne Arundel Community College and for students enrolled in courses through the Department of Architecture and Interior Design. These materials are protected by U.S. Copyright law and shall not be reproduced or transmitted electronically, or altered or revised without the expressed written permission of the author. No copies or printouts of this PowerPoint presentation are available for use. Closed-caption of AACC presented audio/video materials will be made available upon request. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2
    79. 79. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Modular system  Larger unit than brick  Dimensions related to modular brick  Wide variety of size and color  Lower labor cost than brick  Also called concrete block & cinder block CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS
    80. 80. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Additional admixtures  Cinders  Pumice  Lightweight aggregates  Several shapes & forms available CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS
    81. 81. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS  Units that are precast from steel molds  Portland cement  Fine aggregate  Crushed stone or gravel  Water  Types of CMU  Hollow concrete block  Solid concrete block  Concrete brick  Split-face block
    82. 82. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS
    83. 83. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS
    84. 84. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Nominal Size  8 inches high x 16 inches long (standardized)  Only depth (thickness) changes  4”, 6”, 8” (most common), 10”, 12”  Actual size  3/8” less than nominal size in each direction  HEIGHT - 7 5/8”; LENGTH 15 5/8  Compensating for mortar joint  HEIGHT - 8” = 3 COURSES OF BRICK CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS
    85. 85. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS GRADES, TYPES & WEIGHTS
    86. 86. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Hollow Core CMU  Allow for insertion of reinforcing steel & grout  Cores - conducive for reinforcement  Increases load bearing, resist cracking  Widely used in construction  Easily laid for wall construction  More economical  Larger size - less to lay for same area  Lay similar to brick  Used as a backup wythe for brick or stone masonry  Accepts plaster, stucco, tile CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS TYPES
    87. 87. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Hollow Core CMU
    88. 88. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Typical Shape Bond Beam for Lintels Bond Beam Corner – Round & Square
    89. 89. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 CONCRETE MASONRY LINTELS
    90. 90. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Decorative Units  Variety of surfaces, shapes, textures & patterns CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS SURFACE FINISHES  Split-face block  Scored-face block  Ribbed-face block  Slump block  Striated blocks  Burnished blocks
    91. 91. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Decorative CMUs Splitface CMU
    92. 92. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Splitface (colored) and Brick
    93. 93. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Painted CMU with Split Face
    94. 94. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Splitface CMU with Brick and Ceramic Tile
    95. 95. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Splitface CMU with Special Shapes
    96. 96. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Split-face units
    97. 97. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Accent CMU GLAZED FACING AND BURNISHED (GROUND) CMU
    98. 98. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Burnished (Ground) Face
    99. 99. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Ribbed units
    100. 100. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS MANUFACTURING PROCESS  Zero-slump (dry) concrete mix formed in molds to desired shape  Mold removed immediately  Green units stacked and cured for 24 hours in warm, supersaturated air  Stored in yard until shipped
    101. 101. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS MANUFACTURING PROCESS
    102. 102. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 DETAILED PROCESS:  Raw materials are delivered to plant  Materials are weighted and mixed  Batch is molded into units  Concrete is settled by vibration & pressure  1000 units produced per hour  Molded (green) units are placed on steel curing racks  Done manually or with automated rack loader  Units are stable, but can be broken by hand CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS MANUFACTURING PROCESS
    103. 103. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Units are cured  Low-pressure Steam Curing  Done in a kiln  Rapid strength gain in units  Very common practice  High Pressure Steam Curing  Done under pressure 125 and 150 psi  Expensive, not widely used  Units are “cubed”, banded & delivered  Stacked 6 layers of 15 to 18 blocks CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS MANUFACTURING PROCESS
    104. 104. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 LAYING THE WALL
    105. 105. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Construction of a reinforced CMU wall laying block a two-handed operation LAYING THE WALL
    106. 106. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Laying a masonry wall is same for either brick or CMU, with some differences.  Concrete masonry is often reinforced  Increases bearing capacity  Resist to cracking under loading  Horizontal & vertical reinforcing  Cells are filled with grout LAYING THE WALL
    107. 107. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Laying the Block, using a Lead Line
    108. 108. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 LAYING THE WALL Lay block to string
    109. 109. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Installation of the Mortar Bed
    110. 110. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Laying the CMU on Mortar Bed
    111. 111. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 LAYING THE WALL
    112. 112. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 LAYING THE WALL
    113. 113. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 LAYING THE WALL
    114. 114. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 LAYING THE WALL
    115. 115. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Tooled Joints
    116. 116. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2
    117. 117. MODULE #4 MASONRY 3 History Quarrying Process Types of Rock Bond Patterns of Stone Masonry Installation STONE MASONRY Professor Brandi R. Shepard© ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 This lecture represents the intellectual property of Professor Brandi R. Shepard. These materials are made available solely for the educational purposes of Anne Arundel Community College and for students enrolled in courses through the Department of Architecture and Interior Design. These materials are protected by U.S. Copyright law and shall not be reproduced or transmitted electronically, or altered or revised without the expressed written permission of the author. No copies or printouts of this PowerPoint presentation are available for use. Closed-caption of AACC presented audio/video materials will be made available upon request.
    118. 118. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 HISTORY OF STONE  The “original” building material  Used as tools in early times (before Black & Decker)  One of the hardest minerals on the planet  Earliest stone masonry were chiseled and cut to form uniform units
    119. 119. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Historic Masonry StructuresParthenon, Greece (5th Century, BC) marble
    120. 120. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Stone Masonry BuildingsTaj Mahal, Angra, India marble
    121. 121. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 QUARRYING/MILLING OF STONE  Cut into Blocks  CHAIN SAWS, BELT SAWS w/ DIAMOND BLADES  HARDER STONES (GRANITE) DRILL & BLAST  Sawn into Slabs (THICKNESS DEPENDS ON STONE)  GRANITE - 3/8 to 3/4  MARBLE - 3/4 & UP  LIMESTONE - 2” & UP  Slabs fabricated to desired size and finish
    122. 122. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 QUARRYING/MILLING OF STONE  Cost-Varies ($35 -100/sf)  Lead Time  SELECT QUARRY & STONE BLOCKS  SHOP DRAWINGS  CUT, POLISH, etc.  SHIP & CUSTOMS  2-4 MONTHS
    123. 123. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Diamond belt saw divides limestone bedrock into long cuts QUARRYING PROCESS
    124. 124. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 QUARRYING PROCESS Rubber air bags are inflated to “turn the cut” Steel wedges are driven to split blocks
    125. 125. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Front-end loader removes blocks and prepares them for transport to the mill QUARRYING PROCESS
    126. 126. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 QUARRYING PROCESS
    127. 127. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 QUARRYING PROCESS Stone Quarry in Revere, MA (outside of Boston)
    128. 128. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 TYPES OF ROCK  Igneous (Magmatic)  Rock deposited in a molted state & cooled  Strongest and most dense stone, weathers slowly  Granular  Fusion of feldspar, quartz and mica  Color varies with composition of minerals  Takes a good polish IGNEOUS  SEDIMENTAR Y  METAMORPHIC
    129. 129. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Sedimentary  Rock deposited by glacial action of water and wind  Formed under water  Reacts with acids causing stains  Softer than marble or granite  Relatively easy to quarry, saw and shape  Reacts with acids causing stains  Does not take a polished finish TYPES OF ROCKIGNEOUS  SEDIMENTAR Y  METAMORPHIC
    130. 130. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Metamorphic  Igneous or sedimentary rock that has been transformed by heat & pressure  Softer, more wear & breakage  Stronger and denser than limestone, weaker than granite  Varied surface appearance: veiny, mottled or without pattern  Vulnerable to acid attack TYPES OF ROCKIGNEOUS  SEDIMENTAR Y  METAMORPHIC
    131. 131. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Composed of mica, feldspar & quartz  Very hard (strongest among common stones)  Non-porous, strong, durable  Colors in black, gray, purple, blue, green & red  Quarried in VT, VA, NY & PA TYPES OF IGNEOUS ROCK GRANITE
    132. 132. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Surface Textures  POLISHED TO ROUGH  Sources  US - East and Upper Midwest, Texas  EUROPE (Italy & Spain), Other  COST (thickness, size, finish)  Primary Uses  EXTERIOR BUILDING CLADDING  DECORATIVE WALLS & TYPES OF IGNEOUS ROCK GRANITE
    133. 133. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Polished Surface Rough Texture
    134. 134. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Texture Variations (Note the effect on appearances)
    135. 135. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Shape: Flat to Round
    136. 136. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Interior Uses: Floors and Walls
    137. 137. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Interior Uses: Countertops (Venetian Gold Granite)
    138. 138. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Interior Uses: Countertops (Tropical Green)
    139. 139. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Exterior Application
    140. 140. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Exterior Application
    141. 141. Exterior Application
    142. 142. Exterior Application
    143. 143. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 World Financial Center, New YorkGranite & Glass Cladding Examples of Stone Masonry Buildings
    144. 144. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Porous: contains ground water “quartz sap” that must be dried out  Can not accept a polish TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK LIMESTONE, SANDSTONE, TRAVERTINE
    145. 145. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Sandstone  mostly calcium & magnesium  Brownstone & Bluestone  Quarried in NY, OH, PA  Travertine  looks like marble but is richly pattern limestone TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK LIMESTONE, SANDSTONE, TRAVERTINE
    146. 146. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Limestone  Composed of calcium & magnesium (calcium carbonate)  Porous, relatively weak  absorbs water  cut in thicker slabs  Fine grain  Sometimes possesses fossil materials (little shells) TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK LIMESTONE, SANDSTONE, TRAVERTINE
    147. 147. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Color Range  WHITE TO GRAY  BUFF TO IRON OXIDE WHITE TO GRAY  BUFF TO IRON OXIDE  Surface Textures  ROUGH TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK LIMESTONE, SANDSTONE, TRAVERTINE  Sources  MISSOURI  INDIANA  EUROPE  Primary Uses  EXTERIOR CLADDING  DECORATIVE WALLS (NOT FLOORS)
    148. 148. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Limestone with Granite
    149. 149. Limestone Gardiner Museum, Toronto
    150. 150. Limestone http://www.archdaily.com/10044/gardiner-museum-renewal-kpmb- Gardiner Museum, Toronto
    151. 151. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Simulated Limestone Cladding
    152. 152. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Sandstone Veneers
    153. 153. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Stone Masonry BuildingsEast Wing of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC limestone
    154. 154. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Examples of Stone Masonry BuildingsEast Wing of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC limestone
    155. 155. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 The Getty Center Museum, Los Angeles Split-face travertine Examples of Stone Masonry Buildings
    156. 156. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Re-crystallized form of limestone  Easily carved and polished  Colors in white, black  Quarried in AL, TN, VT, GA, MO & Canada TYPES OF METAMOPHIC ROCK MARBLE, SLATE
    157. 157. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Granular aggregate of crystals  Calcite and dolomite  The “veins” are a product of sediment differences in color and size of the crystals  Can be polished to a high gloss  Comes in several different color combinations  Quarried in the Mediterranean basin  Italy, Greece, Turkey and Spain TYPES OF METAMORPHIC ROCK MARBLE
    158. 158. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 TYPES OF METAMORPHIC ROCK MARBLE
    159. 159. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 TYPES OF METAMORPHIC ROCK MARBLE SLABS
    160. 160. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Exterior Application: Marble
    161. 161. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Interior Application: Marble Flooring
    162. 162. Exterior Application: Marble Intricate exterior marble and mosaic stone archway outside of Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca, Morocco. Marble columns supporting the pediment of the Memorial Amphitheater, Arlington National Cemetery
    163. 163. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Fine-grained and flakey stone  But very tough and dense  Weather tolerant  Is not effected by changing freeze-thaw temps; will not warp or delaminate  Color is commonly muted grays and greens  quarried in England and Wales  Reds and purple slates are unusual colors  Mined in Slate Valley in Vermont & New York  Most common applications are floors and roofs  Also used for countertops, stair treads, fireplace surround & wall cladding  Exterior applications include signs, plates, memorials, pavers TYPES OF METAMORPHIC ROCK SLATE
    164. 164. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Exterior Application: Slate Roofing
    165. 165. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Interior Application: Slate Flooring
    166. 166. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Interior Application: Slate Shower Surround & Flooring
    167. 167. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Exterior Application: Slate Pool Surround
    168. 168. Exterior Application: Slate Pool Surround
    169. 169. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Fieldstone  Rubble Stone  Dimension Stone Bond Patterns in Stone Masonry
    170. 170. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Bond Patterns in Stone Masonry  RUBBLE  Random non-rectilinear shapes  Rounded, river-washed stones  Laid like brick, mason must carefully select stone pieces  Can be laid RANDOM
    171. 171. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Bond Patterns in Stone Masonry  RUBBLE  Random non-rectilinear shapes  Rounded, river-washed stones  Laid like brick, mason must carefully select stone pieces  Can be laid RANDOM or COURSED
    172. 172. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Bond Pattern: RANDOM RUBBLE
    173. 173. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Bond Patterns in Stone Masonry  ASHLAR  Rectilinear shapes with continuous horizontal mortar joints  Rounded, river-washed stones  Very similar to brickwork  Mortar joints are raked to prevent uneven settlement  Can be laid RANDOM
    174. 174. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Bond Patterns in Stone Masonry  ASHLAR  Rectilinear shapes with continuous horizontal mortar joints  Rounded, river-washed stones  Very similar to brickwork  Mortar joints are raked to prevent uneven settlement  Can be laid RANDOMor COURSED
    175. 175. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Similarities:  Both stacked  Mortar Joints  Differences:  Shape:  Brick is molded  Stone is Cut and Carved  Physical Properties:  Brick is made/controlled  Stone is provided by nature INSTALLATION STONE vs BRICK
    176. 176. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2  Laid in Mortar (like bricks) OR  Mechanically fastened in large sheets to a support system INSTALLATION STONE vs BRICK
    177. 177. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Installation: Stone Mechanically Fastened
    178. 178. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Installation: Stone Mechanically Fastened
    179. 179. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 SUSTAINABILITY of MASONRY MATERIALS  Local production  Reusability  Recyclability  No VOC emissions  Thermal mass can be used to conserve energy  Mining raw materials causes soil erosion and habitat loss  Quarry pits can be reclaimed as lakes
    180. 180. ACH 122-Construction Technology 2 Resources Stone Sampler By: Studio Marmo (Text by Marco Campagna) Publisher: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003 Stone Style By: Michael Reis and Jennifer Adams Publisher: Gibbs Smith, 2002 In Chapter 25, review section on Glass Masonry Units (GMU)

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