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Stone masonry


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types of stone masonry,history and tools used...etc

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Stone masonry

  1. 1. Stone masonry
  2. 2. Def :-The craft of shapping rocks into accurate geometric shapes,mostly simple but some are considerably complex and then arranging the resulting stones,often together with mortar .
  3. 3. Quarrymen :-split veins,sheets of rock,and extract the resulting blocks of stone from ground Sawyers:-cut these rough blocks in to cubes Banker masons:- are workshop based, and specialize in carving stones into intricate geometrical shapes required by a building's design. They can produce anything from stones with simple chamfers to tracery windows, detailed mouldings and the more classical architectural building masonry.. The basic tools, methods and skills of the banker mason have existed as a trade for thousands of years.
  4. 4. Carvers:- cross the line from craft to art, and use their artistic ability to carve stone into foliage, figures, animals or abstract designs. Fixer masons:-specialize in the fixing of stones onto buildings, using lifting tackle, and traditional lime mortars and grouts. Sometimes modern cements, mastics and epoxy resins are used, usually on specialist applications such as stone cladding.The precise tolerances necessary make this a highly skilled job.
  5. 5. Memorial masons or Monumental masons:- carve gravestones and inscriptions. The modern stonemason undergoes comprehensive training, both in the classroom and in the working environment. Hands-on skill is complemented by intimate knowledge of each stone type, its application and best uses, and how to work and fix each stone in place. The mason may be skilled and competent to carry out one or all of the various branches of stonemasonry. In some areas the trend is towards specialization, in other areas towards adaptability.
  6. 6. Types of stone Stonemasons use all types of natural stone: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary; while some also use artificial stone as well. Igneous stones:- Granite is one of the hardest stones, and requires such different techniques to sedimentary stones that it is virtually a separate trade. With great persistence, simple mouldings can and have been carved into granite, for example in many cornish churches and the city of aberdeen. Generally, however, it is used for purposes that require its strength and durability, such as kerbstones, countertops, flooring, and breakwaters
  7. 7. Igneous stone ranges from very soft rocks such as pumice and scoria to somewhat harder rocks such as tuff and hard rocks such as granite and basalt. Metamorphic:-Marble is a fine stone easily workable, that comes in various colours, mainly white. It has traditionally been used for carving statues, and for facing many Byzantine and Renaissance Italian buildings. The first and most admirable marble carvers and sculptors were the Greeks, namely Antenor (6th c. BC), Phidias and Critias (5th c. BC), Praxiteles (4th c. BC) and others who used mainly the marble.
  8. 8. of paros and thassos islands, the whitest and brightest of all, although not the finest, and also the pentilikon marble. The traditional home of the marble industry is the area around carrara in italy,from where a bright and fine, whitish marble is extracted in vast quantities. slate is a popular choice of stone for memorials and inscriptions, as its fine grain and hardness means it leaves details very sharp. Meanwhile, its tendency to split into thin plates has made it a popular roofing material.
  9. 9. Sedimentary:- Many of the world's most famous buildings have been built of sedimentary stone, from durham cathedral to st.peters in romeThere are two main types of sedimentary stone used in masonry work, limestones and sandstones. Examples of limestones include Bath and portland stone. yorkstone and sydney sand stone are well- known sandstones.
  10. 10. Types of stonemasonry Rubble Masonry:- When roughly dressed stones are laid in a mortar the result is a stone rubble masonry Ashlar Masonry:- Stone masonry using dressed (cut) stones is known as ashlar masonry. Stone Veneer:- stone venner is used as a protective and decorative covering for interior or exterior walls and surfaces.
  11. 11. The veneer is typically 1 inch (2.54 cm) thick and must weigh less than 15 lb per square foot (73 kg m−2) so that no additional structural supports are required. The structural wall is put up first, and thin, flat stones are mortared onto the face of the wall. Metal tabs in the structural wall are mortared between the stones to tie everything together, to prevent the stonework from separating from the wall. Slipform Stonemasonry:- It is a method for making stone walls with the aid of formwork to contain the rocks and mortar while keeping the walls straight.
  12. 12. Training of stone masons Traditionally medieval stonemasons served a seven- year apprenticeship. A similar system still operates today. A modern apprenticeship lasts four years. This combines on-site learning through personal experience, the experience of the tradesmen and college work where apprentices are given an overall experience of the building, hewing and theory work involved in masonry. In some areas colleges offer courses which teach not only the manual skills but also related fields such as drafting and blueprint reading or construction conservationism.
  13. 13. Bavarian stonemasons, c. 1505
  14. 14. Tools • Stonemasons use a wide variety of tools to handle and shape stone blocks and slabs into finished articles. The basic tools for shaping the stone are a malets,chisels,and a metal straight edge.With these one can make a flat surface - the basis of all stonemasonry. • Chisels come in a variety of sizes and shapes, dependent upon the function for which they are being used and have many different names depending on locality.
  15. 15. Chisels and Mallets
  16. 16. A masons hammer has a long thin head and is called a Punch Hammer. It would be used with a chisel or splitter for a variety of purposes Stonemasons use a lewis together with a crane or Block and tackle to hoist building stones into place. Today power tools such as compressed-air chisels, abrasive spinners and angle grinders are much used: these save time and money, but are hazardous and require just as much skill as the hand tools that they augment. But many of the basic tools of stonemasonry have remained virtually the same throughout vast amounts of time, even thousands of years.
  17. 17. Spliting a block of marble with plug and feathers A french stone mason using a straightedge and chisel
  18. 18. Bush hammer Lewis (lifting machine)
  19. 19. Modern tools Angle grinder Gauges and Mallet
  20. 20. Stonemason’s hammer Diamond blade
  21. 21. History Stonemasonry is one of the earliest trades in civilisation's history. During the time of the neolithic revolution and domestication of animals, people learned how to use fire to create quicklime, plasters, and mortars. They used these to fashion homes for themselves with mud, straw, or stone, and masonry was born. The Ancients heavily relied on the stonemason to build the most impressive and long lasting monuments to their civilizations.
  22. 22. The egyptians built their pyramids, the civilizations of Central America had their step pyramids, the persians their palaces, the greeks their temples, and the Romans their public works and wonders. Among the famous ancient stonemasons is sophroniscus, the father ofsocrates, who was a stone-cutter. When the western roman empire fell, building in dressed stone decreased in much of western europe, and there was a resulting increase in timber-based construction. Stone work experienced a resurgence in the 9th and 10th centuries in Europe, and by the 12th century religious fervour resulted in the construction of thousands of impressive churches and cathedrals in stone across Western Europe.
  23. 23. Stone buildings Edin burg castle,scotland Newgrange,ireland
  24. 24. Medieval stonemason’s skills were in high demand, and members of the guild, gave rise to three classes of stonemasons: apprentices,journeymen and master masons. Apprentices were indentured to their masters as the price for their training, journeymen had a higher level of skill and could go on journeys to assist their masters, and master masons were considered freemen who could travel as they wished to work on the projects of the patrons. During the renaissance, the stonemason's guild admitted members who were not stonemasons, and eventually evolved into the Society of free masonry; fraternal groups which observe the traditional culture of stonemasons, but are not
  25. 25. A medieval stonemason would often carve a personal symbol onto their block to differentiate their work from that of other stonemasons. This also provided a simple ‘quality assurance’ system. The Renaissance saw stonemasonry return to the prominence and sophistication of the classical age. The rise of the humanist philosophy gave people the ambition to create marvelous works of art. The centre stage for the Renaissance would prove to be Italy, where city-states such as florence erected great structures, including the Cathedral santa maria del fiore, the fountain of neptune, and the laurentian library which was planned and built by michelangelo buonarroti, a famous stonemason of the Renaissance.
  26. 26. In the 20th century, stonemasonry saw its most radical changes in the way the work is accomplished. Prior to the first half of the century, most heavy work was executed by draft animals or human muscle power. With the arrival of the internal combustion engine, many of these hard aspects of the trade have been made simpler and easier. Cranes and forklifts have made moving and laying heavy stones relatively easy for the stonemasons. Motor powered mortar mixers have saved much in time and energy as well. Compressed air powered tools have made working of stone less time-intensive. petrol and electric powered abrasive saws can cut through stone much faster and with more precision than chiseling alone. carbide-tipped chisels can stand up to much more abuse than the steel and iron chisels made by blacksmiths of old.
  27. 27. Dry-stone wall Dry stone is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together. Dry stone structures are stable because of their unique construction method, which is characterized by the presence of a load-bearing façade of carefully selected interlocking stones. Dry stone technology is best known in the context of wall construction, but dry stone artwork, buildings, bridges, and other structures also exist.
  28. 28. Materials used in stone masonry • Marble • Granite • Sandstone • Slate • Artificial stone • Brick • Cast stone • Decorative stones • Fieldstone • Flagstone • Gabions • Dimension stone • Mortar and limestone
  29. 29. Humaiyns tomb in delhi was built in sand stone Taj mahal in agra is cladded in marble
  30. 30. Chile house in hamburg,germany is constructed in bricks The outer layers of the christ of redemeer sculpture are made of soapstone.
  31. 31. Fine slate tile work, Saint Leonhard's Church, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Chad house,Pennsylvania, U nited States showing field stone
  32. 32. Portage Park in Chicago is known for its flagstone decorations. Bridge abutment with gabions.
  33. 33. Life-size elephant and other creatures carved In granite; Mahabalipuram, India. Large blocks of granite dimension stone being loaded at Teignmouth in 1827
  34. 34. THE END