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PRESENTED BY YASIR HUSSAIN
ARCHITECTURE 5Th
Email id
yasir8480@yahoo.com

Types Of Masonry
MATERIAL & COSTRUCTION-III
DEPA...
masonry




Masonry is generally a highly durable form
of construction. However, the materials
used, the quality of the ...
Masonry History
Rich History
–Through

the mid-1800s

–Primary Building Materials

Late 1800s
–New Products Developed
–End...
Masonry History


20th Century Developments
– Steel Reinforced Masonry
– High Strength Mortars
– High Strength Masonry Un...
Masonry - Primary Uses Today


Concrete Masonry Units (CMU)
Foundation Walls
Structural Support Walls (low rise)
Backup W...
Brick Masonry - Uniqueness
•

Fire Resistance

•

Size

•

Durability

6
masonry
Masonry is the building of structures from individual
units laid in and bound together by mortar; the term
masonry...
Applications






Masonry is commonly used for the walls of
buildings, retaining walls and monuments.
Brick and concre...
Solid Walls


Masonry units laid close together
with all joints filled solidly with
mortar. Solid walls are structurally
...
Veneered Walls


Masonry is used as a facing material.
In this case, the masonry does not
act structurally. It serves to ...
Reinforced Masonry Walls


Similar to a reinforced concrete wall,
a reinforced masonry wall
incorporates steel to provide...
Cavity Walls


A cavity wall is composed of two
wythes of either solid or hollow
masonry separated by a continuous
air sp...
Cavity Walls










The continuous air space provides
insulation value and a place
where additional insulation may...
MORTAR
Mortar is a pasty material formed by the addition of water to
a mixture composed of an aggregate (sand) and a
bindi...
Brick Masonry


Brick masonry is construction in which
uniform units (“bricks”), small enough to be
placed with one hand,...
Brick house
Brick Positions:
 Stretcher
 Header
 Soldier
 Shiner
 Rowlock
 Sailor
Course: Continuous layer
Wythe: Continuous vertical section
Basic BrickworkTerminology
Head
Joint
Bed
Joint

Course - horizontal layer of brick
Basic Brickwork
Terminology
Header - Bonds two wythes together
Wythe: vertical layer 1 unit thick

Rowlock laid on face,
e...
Considerations in Choosing Brick
Molding process
 Color
 Size
 Grade
 Type

Brick Bonds
Structural Bonds
 Cavity (Veneer) Walls


– Running bond
– Stacked bond

27
Brick Joints


WEATHERED



CONCAVE



VEE



FLUSH



RAKED



STRIPPED



STRUCK
Extruded – Wire Cut

Wood Mold

Extruded – Smooth

Extruded – Raked
Joint Color that “Blends” w/ Brick Color
Concave Joints
Flush Joints
Racked Joints
Layout & Leads
 Line

Stationary Scaffolding
Tooling Joints
Cleaning Masonry
Steel Lintel
Façade Brick Wall
(Non Load Bearing Wall)
Hollow Concrete Block Wall
(Non Load Bearing Wall)
BRICK’S BONDING










Stretcher Bond
English Bond
Flemish Bond
Raking Bond
English Garden Wall Bond
Common / ...
Bond
Bonding in brickwork in an arrangement of bricks,
usually overlapping between courses in order to
distribute load and...
Header
A brick which is laid in
a way that only the
short end is visible in
the wall

Stretcher
A brick which is laid
in a...
Stretcher Bond
Easiest bond to lay & minimizes the amount of
cutting required Originally used for single brick
walls, now ...
English Bond
Alternative courses of headers and
stretchers; one header placed centrally above
each stretcher.
This is a ve...
Flemish Bond
Alternate bricks are placed as header and
stretcher in every course. Each header is
placed centrally between ...
Raking Bond
Herringbone and diagonal bonds can be
effective within an exposed framed
construction, or contained within
res...
English Garden Wall Bond
An alternative version of English bond
with header courses being inserted at
every fourth or sixt...
Common/ American Bond
A brickwork pattern in which all rows
are stretchers, except an eighth row of
headers
Flemish Garden Wall Bond
In this variant of Flemish bond, one
header is placed at every third stretcher
Running Bond
Consist of all stretchers no header
used in this bond so metal ties are
used Cavity wall construction &
venee...
Herringbone Bond
It is a purely decorative bond.
It is used in floor and wall panels.
Header Bond
A masonry bond consisting of header
courses exclusively. Header bond
was sometimes used to help make a
buildin...
Racking Bond


Herringbone and diagonal bonds can be
effective within an exposed framed
construction, or contained within...
ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes
Brick Masonry:
8.3 Masonry Dimensioning


1. The small retail building whose ...
ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes
Brick Masonry:
8.3 Masonry Dimensioning
Brick masonry dimensioning is illustra...
ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes
Brick Masonry:
8.3 Masonry Dimensioning
2. The ceiling of this building will b...
ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes
Brick Masonry:
8.3 Masonry Dimensioning

2. The ceiling of this building will ...
ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes
Brick Masonry:
8.3 Masonry Dimensioning

2. The ceiling of this building will ...
ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes
Brick Masonry:
8.3 Masonry Dimensioning

2. The ceiling of this building will ...
ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes
Brick Masonry:
8.4 Lintels and Arches

1. Draw in both elevation and section ...
ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes
Brick Masonry:
8.4 Lintels and Arches
See Figures 8.25 through 8.33 for exampl...
ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes
Brick Masonry:
8.4 Lintels and Arches


2. A window opening in a downtown apa...
ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes
Brick Masonry:
8.4 Lintels and Arches




2. A window opening in a downtown ...
Defects in Brick Masonry
1. Sulphate attack:
This is a common defect, at locations where
the brick work is exposed. The su...
Defects in Brick Masonry
2. Crystallization of salts from
bricks:
If the bricks are manufactured from earth
containing exc...
Defects in Brick Masonry
3. Corrosion of embedded
fixtures:
Iron, steel fixtures (pipes, holdfasts etc.) and
reinforcement...
Defects in Brick Masonry
5. Quality of brick:
Use of interior quality bricks will also caused
expansion and cracking in br...
Maintenance of Brick Masonry
1. Repainting Brickwork:
The painted walls should be repainted to
prevent spelling of bricks....
Maintenance of Brick Masonry
4. Removal of Efflorescence:
Efflorescence - soluble salts when dried get
deposited on the su...
Hollow Concrete Masonry
Concrete Hollow Blocks is an excellent replacement
of clay bricks. The block masonry is load beari...
Hollow Concrete Masonry
Concrete blocks can be used like any other
masonry unit to build foundations, walls, arches and
co...
The advantages of using
blocks are as follows:


Highly Durable



Low Maintenance, Color and brilliance of
masonry with...
The advantages of using
blocks are as follows:
7. Environment Friendly, flash used as one of the raw
materials.
8. Low ins...
CAVITY WALL






“A wall constructed in 2 leaves / skins with
a
space / cavity between them”
“A type of building wall ...
Cavity Wall


Brick Wall Crack


Brick Wall Failure At The Roof Level


Cracked Wall


Failure In Brick Wall
Masonry of Building
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Masonry of Building
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Masonry of Building

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Masonry is generally a highly durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, and the pattern in which the units are assembled can significantly affect the durability of the over all masonry construction.

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Masonry of Building

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY YASIR HUSSAIN ARCHITECTURE 5Th Email id yasir8480@yahoo.com Types Of Masonry MATERIAL & COSTRUCTION-III DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, BUITEMS
  2. 2. masonry   Masonry is generally a highly durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, and the pattern in which the units are assembled can significantly affect the durability of the over all masonry construction. Masonry units, such as brick, tile, stone, glass brick or concrete block generally conform[where?] to the requirements specified in the 2003 International Building Code (IBC) Section 2103.
  3. 3. Masonry History Rich History –Through the mid-1800s –Primary Building Materials Late 1800s –New Products Developed –Ended Masonry’s Dominance
  4. 4. Masonry History  20th Century Developments – Steel Reinforced Masonry – High Strength Mortars – High Strength Masonry Units – Variety of Sizes, Colors, Textures & Coatings
  5. 5. Masonry - Primary Uses Today  Concrete Masonry Units (CMU) Foundation Walls Structural Support Walls (low rise) Backup Walls for Exterior Facing  Brick & Stone Facing Materials - Veneers Decorative Walls
  6. 6. Brick Masonry - Uniqueness • Fire Resistance • Size • Durability 6
  7. 7. masonry Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are Brick Stone Marble Granite Limestone Cast Stone Concrete Block Glass block Stucco, and Tile.
  8. 8. Applications    Masonry is commonly used for the walls of buildings, retaining walls and monuments. Brick and concrete block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks, especially those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction. They generally provide great compressive strength, and are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of the cores with concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement (typically rebar) offers much greater tensile and lateral strength to structures
  9. 9. Solid Walls  Masonry units laid close together with all joints filled solidly with mortar. Solid walls are structurally bonded by metal ties, masonry headers or by joint reinforcement. Where solid masonry walls are used, insulation and mechanical equipment are often installed within a furred space on the interior side of the wall. Below grade, insulation is often placed on the exterior side of the wall.
  10. 10. Veneered Walls  Masonry is used as a facing material. In this case, the masonry does not act structurally. It serves to perform as a weather barrier and as a finish material. Insulation and mechanical equipment is normally located between studs.
  11. 11. Reinforced Masonry Walls  Similar to a reinforced concrete wall, a reinforced masonry wall incorporates steel to provide resistance to tension, shear, and compression forces. Reinforcing bars are placed vertically in walls and tied to horizontal bars. Insulation and mechanical equipment is placed similar to that in a solid wall
  12. 12. Cavity Walls  A cavity wall is composed of two wythes of either solid or hollow masonry separated by a continuous air space, and bonded together with metal ties or joint reinforcement. The cavity offers important advantages in areas of severe exposure:
  13. 13. Cavity Walls      The continuous air space provides insulation value and a place where additional insulation may be installed. The continuous air space acts as a barrier to moisture penetration. In cavity walls, insulation and mechanical equipment are often installed within the cavity, or within a furred space on the interior of the wall.
  14. 14. MORTAR Mortar is a pasty material formed by the addition of water to a mixture composed of an aggregate (sand) and a binding material (cement or lime) which may be handled with a trowel. The mortar units the individual bricks together. Generally, following types of mortar are in use, o Mud mortar o Cement mortar o Lime mortar o Cement lime mortar Mud mortar is used for the temporary construction. Cement mortar is used for permanent structures. In order to select a suitable type of mortar for a given construction, we must know the type of desired finish, the magnitude and nature of super-imposed load, the effect of weathering agencies and the importance of structure.
  15. 15. Brick Masonry  Brick masonry is construction in which uniform units (“bricks”), small enough to be placed with one hand, are laid in courses with mortar joints to form walls. Bricks are kiln baked from various clay and shale mixtures. The chemical and physical characteristics of the ingredients vary considerably. These characteristics and the kiln temperatures combine to produce brick in a variety of colors and harnesses.
  16. 16. Brick house
  17. 17. Brick Positions:  Stretcher  Header  Soldier  Shiner  Rowlock  Sailor
  18. 18. Course: Continuous layer Wythe: Continuous vertical section
  19. 19. Basic BrickworkTerminology Head Joint Bed Joint Course - horizontal layer of brick
  20. 20. Basic Brickwork Terminology Header - Bonds two wythes together Wythe: vertical layer 1 unit thick Rowlock laid on face, end visible Stretcher - long dimension horizontal & face parallel to the wall Soldier - Laid on its end, face parallel
  21. 21. Considerations in Choosing Brick Molding process  Color  Size  Grade  Type 
  22. 22. Brick Bonds Structural Bonds  Cavity (Veneer) Walls  – Running bond – Stacked bond 27
  23. 23. Brick Joints  WEATHERED  CONCAVE  VEE  FLUSH  RAKED  STRIPPED  STRUCK
  24. 24. Extruded – Wire Cut Wood Mold Extruded – Smooth Extruded – Raked
  25. 25. Joint Color that “Blends” w/ Brick Color
  26. 26. Concave Joints
  27. 27. Flush Joints
  28. 28. Racked Joints
  29. 29. Layout & Leads  Line 
  30. 30. Stationary Scaffolding
  31. 31. Tooling Joints
  32. 32. Cleaning Masonry
  33. 33. Steel Lintel
  34. 34. Façade Brick Wall (Non Load Bearing Wall)
  35. 35. Hollow Concrete Block Wall (Non Load Bearing Wall)
  36. 36. BRICK’S BONDING          Stretcher Bond English Bond Flemish Bond Raking Bond English Garden Wall Bond Common / American Bond Flemish Garden Wall Bond Running Bond Herringbone Bond
  37. 37. Bond Bonding in brickwork in an arrangement of bricks, usually overlapping between courses in order to distribute load and provide stability. Bonding can also be used for decorative purposes. In general brickwork should not be less than quarter bonded. Brick bond
  38. 38. Header A brick which is laid in a way that only the short end is visible in the wall Stretcher A brick which is laid in a way that allows only the longer side of the brick to be exposed.
  39. 39. Stretcher Bond Easiest bond to lay & minimizes the amount of cutting required Originally used for single brick walls, now called 1/2 brick walls it became the obvious choice for cavity walls as less cutting was required.
  40. 40. English Bond Alternative courses of headers and stretchers; one header placed centrally above each stretcher. This is a very strong bond when the wall is 1 brick thick(or thicker). One of the strongest brickwork bond patterns.
  41. 41. Flemish Bond Alternate bricks are placed as header and stretcher in every course. Each header is placed centrally between the stretcher immediately above and bellow. This is not as strong as the English bond at 1 brick thick. Can be successfully applied in cavity wall.
  42. 42. Raking Bond Herringbone and diagonal bonds can be effective within an exposed framed construction, or contained within restraining brick courses.
  43. 43. English Garden Wall Bond An alternative version of English bond with header courses being inserted at every fourth or sixth course. This is a correspondingly weaker bond. Suitable for free standing wall.
  44. 44. Common/ American Bond A brickwork pattern in which all rows are stretchers, except an eighth row of headers
  45. 45. Flemish Garden Wall Bond In this variant of Flemish bond, one header is placed at every third stretcher
  46. 46. Running Bond Consist of all stretchers no header used in this bond so metal ties are used Cavity wall construction & veneered walls of brick.
  47. 47. Herringbone Bond It is a purely decorative bond. It is used in floor and wall panels.
  48. 48. Header Bond A masonry bond consisting of header courses exclusively. Header bond was sometimes used to help make a building look bigger. Civic buildings and the odd town-house can be found in Header bond. It's also used where there is a lot of ornamental detail, presumably to avoid a lot of unsightly and costly cutting.
  49. 49. Racking Bond  Herringbone and diagonal bonds can be effective within an exposed framed construction, or contained within restraining brick courses.
  50. 50. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Brick Masonry: 8.3 Masonry Dimensioning  1. The small retail building whose plan is drawn below is to be built of modular bricks.  Before construction can begin, you must work out exact dimensions to guide masons.  Count squares to determine each dimension approximately, then fill in the exact dimensions of the brickwork, accurate to the nearest 1/8" or 1 mm, in such a way that only full bricks and half bricks need be used in the stretcher courses. Check your work by adding each chain of short dimensions and comparing the sum to the corresponding overall dimension. Brick masonry dimensioning is illustrated in Figure 8.22 of the text, and further discussed on pages 65 – 66 of the Exercises workbook.
  51. 51. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Brick Masonry: 8.3 Masonry Dimensioning Brick masonry dimensioning is illustrated in Figure 8.22 of the text, and further discussed on pages 65 – 66 of the Exercises workbook.
  52. 52. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Brick Masonry: 8.3 Masonry Dimensioning 2. The ceiling of this building will be flat and constructed of wood joists. If a ceiling height of approximately 9'-6" (2896 mm) is desired, figure the number of courses and the exact height of the wall for each of the following types of masonry units:
  53. 53. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Brick Masonry: 8.3 Masonry Dimensioning 2. The ceiling of this building will be flat and constructed of wood joists. If a ceiling height of approximately 9'-6" (2896 mm) is desired, figure the number of courses and the exact height of the wall for each of the following types of masonry units:   a. Modular brick a) For nominal 2 1/4” brick, 3 courses (3 bricks plus 3 mortar joints) = 8”, so the height of one course = 8” / 3 courses = 2.67” b) 9’ – 6” = 114”; 114” / 2.67” per course = 42.7 courses; say 43 c) Height = 43 x 2.67” = 114.81” = 9’ – 6 3/4” 43 courses, 9’ – 6 3/4” b. Engineer Standard brick a) 1 course is 2 3/4” brick + 3/8” mortar joint = 3 1/8” b) 114” / 3.125” per course = 36.5 courses; say 37 c) Height = 37 x 3.125” = 115.625” = 9’ – 7 5/8” 37 courses, 9’–7 5/8”
  54. 54. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Brick Masonry: 8.3 Masonry Dimensioning 2. The ceiling of this building will be flat and constructed of wood joists. If a ceiling height of approximately 9'-6" (2896 mm) is desired, figure the number of courses and the exact height of the wall for each of the following types of masonry units:  c. Closure Standard brick a) 1 course = 3.625” + .375” = 4” b) 114” / 4” = 28.5”; say 29 c) Height = 29 x 4” = 116” = 9’ – 8” d) Or, 28 courses: 116” – 4” = 112” = 9’ – 4” 29 courses, 9’–8”, or 28 courses, 9’–4”  d. Roman brick a) 1 course = 1.625” + .375” = 2” b) 114” / 2” = 57 courses exactly c) Height is exactly 114” 57 courses, 9’–6”  e. Norman brick See modular brick solution 43 courses, 9’–6 3/4”
  55. 55. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Brick Masonry: 8.3 Masonry Dimensioning 2. The ceiling of this building will be flat and constructed of wood joists. If a ceiling height of approximately 9'-6" (2896 mm) is desired, figure the number of courses and the exact height of the wall for each of the following types of masonry units:    f. King Size brick, 2 5/8” high a) 1 course = 2.625” + .375” = 3” b) 114” / 3” = 38 courses exactly c) Height is exactly 114” 38 courses, 9’–6” g. 8” x 8” x 16” concrete block a) Indicated block size is nominal: 1 course = 8” b) 114” / 8” = 14.25; say 14 courses c) 14 x 8” = 112” = 9’ – 4” h. Arizona adobe brick 4” x 12” x 8”, with 1/2” joints a) Assume indicated brick size is actual, not nominal: 1 course = 4” + 1/2” = 4.5” b) 114” / 4.5” = 25.33, say 25 c) 25 x 4.5” = 112.5” = 9’ – 4 1/2” 25 courses, 9’–4 1/2”
  56. 56. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Brick Masonry: 8.4 Lintels and Arches  1. Draw in both elevation and section an appropriate design to span each of these openings: See Figures 8.25 through 8.33 for examples of various techniques for spanning wall openings.  a. Doorway in a garden wall of Flemish Bond modular brickwork two wythes thick. Draw yourself to scale, standing in the opening, before you start designing the opening. You may use special brick shapes if you wish.
  57. 57. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Brick Masonry: 8.4 Lintels and Arches See Figures 8.25 through 8.33 for examples of various techniques for spanning wall openings.  a. Doorway in a garden wall of Flemish Bond modular brickwork two wythes thick. Draw yourself to scale, standing in the opening, before you start designing the opening. You may use special brick shapes if you wish.
  58. 58. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Brick Masonry: 8.4 Lintels and Arches  2. A window opening in a downtown apartment building built of Closure Standard bricks is two wythes thick. Draw yourself to scale in the window, and pay attention to how you detail the brickwork at the sill and jambs. Use any bond you wish, and special brick shapes as you see fit.
  59. 59. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Brick Masonry: 8.4 Lintels and Arches   2. A window opening in a downtown apartment building built of Closure Standard bricks is two wythes thick. Draw yourself to scale in the window, and pay attention to how you detail the brickwork at the sill and jambs. Use any bond you wish, and special brick shapes as you see fit .
  60. 60. Defects in Brick Masonry 1. Sulphate attack: This is a common defect, at locations where the brick work is exposed. The sulphate salts present in brick react with aluminum salts of cement. Due to the reaction, increase in the volume of mortar takes lace, which results in cracking, chipping and spelling of bricks. This may also cause failure of brickwork.
  61. 61. Defects in Brick Masonry 2. Crystallization of salts from bricks: If the bricks are manufactured from earth containing excessive soluble salts. These salts dissolved in water (due to rain or due to the entry of moisture) and appear in the form of fine whitish crystals on the exposed brick surface. This is also known as efflorescence. The masonry surface will give an ugly appearance.
  62. 62. Defects in Brick Masonry 3. Corrosion of embedded fixtures: Iron, steel fixtures (pipes, holdfasts etc.) and reinforcement etc., embedded in brick masonry gets corroded in presence of moisture. The corrosion results in increased volume, which caused cracks in brick masonry. 4. Dry shrinkage: When moisture penetrates the brick work it swells. On evaporation of moisture the brick shrinks resulting in development of cracks in the masonry joints frequent swelling and shrinkage may cause failure of masonry.
  63. 63. Defects in Brick Masonry 5. Quality of brick: Use of interior quality bricks will also caused expansion and cracking in brickwork. 6. Weather/ Climate action: In snow bound areas if water is present in the brickwork cause freezing of water. The increase in volume may cause cracking in brickwork.
  64. 64. Maintenance of Brick Masonry 1. Repainting Brickwork: The painted walls should be repainted to prevent spelling of bricks. 2. Repointing old brickwork: Repointing is carried out to improve the appearance of old brickwork and to make it water tight. 3. Cleaning brickwork: Brick work can be cleaned with steam or steam and hot water jets. This type of treatment is useful for fine textured and hard burnt bricks.
  65. 65. Maintenance of Brick Masonry 4. Removal of Efflorescence: Efflorescence - soluble salts when dried get deposited on the surface of the bricks as a white layer. Efflorescence can be removed by scrubbing the wall with water and a stiff brush. If this is not successful, a 10% solution of muriatic acid may be used. After this treatment the walls rinsed with pure water immediately.
  66. 66. Hollow Concrete Masonry Concrete Hollow Blocks is an excellent replacement of clay bricks. The block masonry is load bearing and there are several advantages of using blocks. The blocks have been in existence all over the world for more than 100 years. Concrete hollow blocks have holes, which are horizontally aligned. This allows moisture to seep through. Blocks are made of concrete, which absorbs very little water. At the same time, they have vertically aligned holes, which do not allow moisture to seep through.
  67. 67. Hollow Concrete Masonry Concrete blocks can be used like any other masonry unit to build foundations, walls, arches and corbels, etc. A typical concrete block is equivalent to 4.5 bricks, thus construction is faster than with other masonry units. The mortar is also less which results in cost saving. Concrete blocks have been extensively used in combination with conventional roofing systems like RCC, RBC, GI sheets, ACC sheets etc. They are also compatible with other materials like fired bricks, dressed stone and compressed earth blocks for composite wall construction.
  68. 68. The advantages of using blocks are as follows:  Highly Durable  Low Maintenance, Color and brilliance of masonry withstands outdoor elements.  Load Bearing, strength can be specified as per the requirement.  Fire Resistant  Provide thermal and sound insulation  Economical
  69. 69. The advantages of using blocks are as follows: 7. Environment Friendly, flash used as one of the raw materials. 8. Low insurance rates 9. Popular for foundation walls. 10. Do not require formwork 11. Blocks are fairly inexpensive 12. Work can be stopped and started as needed
  70. 70. CAVITY WALL    “A wall constructed in 2 leaves / skins with a space / cavity between them” “A type of building wall construction consisting of an outer wall fastened to inner wall separated by an air space” FUNCTION To prevent the penetration of rain to the internal surface of the wall
  71. 71. Cavity Wall
  72. 72.  Brick Wall Crack
  73. 73.  Brick Wall Failure At The Roof Level
  74. 74.  Cracked Wall
  75. 75.  Failure In Brick Wall

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