Classification of stone masonry(interior design student work)

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Classification of stone masonry(interior design student work)

  1. 1. 1 Project Report On CLASSIFICATION OF STONE MASONRY &DRESSING OF STONE At Dezyne E’cloe College Submitted To Dezyne E’cloe College For the The Partial Fulfilment Of The Bachelor of Science Interior Design By Mrs. Yasmeen. S Dezyne E’cole College 106/10 CIVIL LINES, AJMER Tel: 0145-2624679 www.dezyneelcole.com Session-2013-14
  2. 2. 2 Acknowledgement The project CLASSIFICATION OF STONE MASONRY &DRESSING OF STONE has enlightened me about the various aspects of Construction of building Masonry is basically a wall material. Whereas dressing means to trim the stones in a particular shape and size in an order to use for any particular purpose. I give my sincere thanks to Dezyne E’cole College, to my mentors who gave me the opportunity to learn about the various aspects of CLASSIFICATION OF STONE MASONRY &DRESSING OF STONE and at last but not the least my Spouse and my dear Kids whose time I have taken to complete this project. Hereby I am preparing this project
  3. 3. 3 Contents TOPIC PAGE 1. MASONRY 2. STONE MASONRY 3. RUBBLE MASONRY 4. UNCOURSED RUBBLE MASONRY 5. RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY 6. COURSED RUBBLE MASONRY 7. DRY RUBBLE MASONRY 8. ASHLAR MASONRY 9. ASHLAR FINE 10. ASHLAR ROUGH TOOL 11. ASHLAR CHAMFERED 12. ASHLAR FACING 13. SELECTION OF STONE FOR MASONRY 14. DRESSING OF STONES 15. HAMMER DRESSED OR QUARRY-FACED SURFACE 16. ROUGH TOOLED SURFACE. 17. TOOLED SURFACE 18. CUT STONE SURFACE 19. RUBBED SURFACE 20. POLISHED SURFACE 21. BIBLIOGRAPHY 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9
  4. 4. 4 CLASSIFICATION OF STONE MASONRY &DRESSING OF STONE MASONRY: Construction of building units bonded together, Masonry is basically a wall material. Masonry walls are divided into three categories, they are 1. Load bearing walls 2. Non-load bearing walls 3. Retaining walls Depending upon the type of material used, Masonry can be broadly classified into following categories: 1. Stone masonry 2. Brick masonry 3. Reinforced brick masonry 4. Composite masonry 5. Hallow concrete block masonry 6. Load bearing wall tile masonry STONE MASONRY: From times immemorial, stone has been used both for residential as well as public buildings. Historical buildings that stand today are the living examples of the strength, durability and the excellent weather resisting qualities of stone masonry. Because of high crushing strength, stone is used in the construction of piers, docks, dams and other marine structures. But dressing and placing of stone requires a great deal of time and extra labour. Depending upon the degree of refinement used in shaping the stone, the finishing adopted and the arrangement of the stone in the construction, stone masonry can be broadly classified in the following two types: 1. Rubble masonry 2. Ashlar masonry RUBBLE MASONRY: It is further sub-divided in the following categories 1. Uncoursed rubble masonry 2. Random rubble masonry 3. Coursed rubble masonry 4. Dry rubble masonry UNCOURSED RUBBLE MASONRY: This is the poorest form of stone masonry. The stones to be used are directly obtained from quarry, after merely knocking off weak corner and edges
  5. 5. 5 With the masons hammer. The Face stones selected from the heap should have uniform colour, uniform bed and greater size. RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY: This form is slightly superior to uncoursed rubble masonry in this form the stones used in the work are hammer or chisel dressed. The stone are not suitably shaped or finished and as such the elevation of this type masonry show irregular shape stones with non uniform joints. In good work the face stones are of uniform colour and equal. COURSED RUBBLE MASONRY: This is the form of masonry which is commonly adopted in residential building, public building, piers and abutments for ordinary bridges. Considering the dressing and finishing of stones it is further subdivided into 1st class, 2nd class and 3rd class. In first class masonry, generally all the courses are of the same height and the minimum height of the course is limited to 15 cm. The face stones are hammer dressed. The beds of the face stone or hammer or chisel dressed and rendered true and square. DRY RUBBLE MASONRY: The construction of this form is similar to that of ordinary rubble masonry without mortar. ASHLAR MASONRY: The work built from carefully dressed stones with accurate bedding and jointing is termed as ashlars masonry. This construction is further subdivided into various types they are
  6. 6. 6 1. Ashlar fine 2. Ashlar rough tool 3. Ashlar chamfered 4. Ashlar facing ASHLAR FINE: In this type of masonry, all the stones are fine tooled; all bed and side joint faces are rendered perfectly true to pattern desired. The height of the courses is never less than 30 cm. The bed and the side joint in this type of work should never exceed 3mm in thickness. ASHLAR ROUGH TOOL: In this type of masonry the exposed faces of stone generally have a fine dressed chisel drafting all round the edges. The portion the face stone enclosed by the chisel draft is rough tooled. The thickness should never exceed 6mm. ASHLAR CHAMFERED: This type masonry is similar to the one described above with the only difference that the edges around the exposed faces of stone are bevelled off at an angle of 45O for depth of 25mm or more
  7. 7. 7 ASHLAR FACING: In this type of masonry the faces of stone are rough tooled, and chamfered and the stones are provided in face work only. The backing may be made in brick, concrete, or rubble as desired. The composite construction reduces the cost of work appreciably the height of the course is never kept less than 20cm. SELECTION OF STONE FOR MASONRY Recommended Use of Common Types of Stone S. No Situation Types of Stones Used 1. For face work of building. Marble, granite and close-grained sand stone. 2. For curved or ornamental works. Soft sand stone and marble. 3. For masonry work in industrial town exposed to smoke and chemical fumes. Granite, compact sandstone and quartzite. 4. For road metal. Basalt and coarse-grained granite. 5. For railway ballast. Sand stone, granite and quartzite. 6. For paving’s, door sills and steps. Marble, slates and sand stones. 7. For bridges, piers, docks and other marine structure Fine-grained granite and gneisses. 8. For fire resistant masonry Compact sand stone. DRESSING OF STONES Building stones has to quarried out from the rock formation before it can be put into use quarry of the stone may be done either by hand tool or with the help explosives. In large quarries, a machine has to be used for the purpose. Rough block of stone are obtained from quarry are irregular in shape and non uniform in size and as such they cannot be used in without proper dressing and cutting.
  8. 8. 8 The commonly used tools and implements for the cutting and dressing of stone blocks are 1. Pick 2. Face hammer 3. Scabbling hammer 4. Mallet 5. Sutke 6. Mash hammer 7. Spalling hammer 8. Pitching tool 9. Punch 10. Chisel 11. Toothed chisel 12. Claw chisel 13. Jumper 14. Drag 15. Saw for soft stone 16. Crosscut saw (1).HAMMER DRESSED OR QUARRY-FACED SURFACE This is the roughest form of surface finish. Stone as removed from the quarry has large projections which are knocked off with the quarry hammer and it is finally broken up into blocks of suitable size and shape such as khandi, quoin, or rectangular blocks. (2). ROUGH TOOLED SURFACE. In this type of surface finish, the projection of the stone block is removed by means of chisels and the surface is nearly dressed true. (3). TOOLED SURFACE In this type of surface finish continuous parallel chisel marks are produced throughout the width of the stone. The parallel corrugations or chisel marks are made at closer intervals rendering the surface truly planned. (4). CUT STONE SURFACE In this type of surface finish the surface is dressed by using a sharp chisel so that the chisel marks are practically imperceptible. (5). RUBBED SURFACE This type of surface finish is obtained by grinding or rubbing a cut stone surface by hand or machine until it gets perfectly smooth (6). POLISHED SURFACE The Rubbed surfaces of granite, marble of lime stones are polished to enhance their texture. Polishing may be done by manual labour using sand and water, pumice stone etc. Or by rubbing machine.
  9. 9. 9 Bibliography The project would not have been successful without the guidance of my mentors and reference books: 1. Text book of Building Construction By Sushil Kumar 2. Building Construction By Dr. B.C. Punmia
  10. 10. 10 Thank you Yasmeen. S B-Sc I.D 2nd Sem.

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