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nanotechnology in food packaging

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nanotechnology in food packaging

  1. 1. 1in Food PackagingPreeti BirwalM.Tech (FPEM)
  2. 2.  Introduction Application in food processing Application in food packaging Companies Nanotechnology in India Conclusion References2
  3. 3. NNI defines nanotechnology as“The understanding and control of matter atdimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometres” The word “nano” comes from the Greek for “dwarf”. Richard Feynman invented as an idea in 1954. Norio Taniguchi coined the name “nanotechnology”in 1974.3
  4. 4. 1 nm=10-9mOnenanometre is60000 timessmaller than ahuman hairin diameterA red bloodcell is about2,000 to 5,000nmProtein is of10nmAtom is of0.1nmDNA is of2.5 nmTypical sheetof paperis about100,000 nmthick4
  5. 5. When we go for “top-down” & “bottom-up” process i.e.arrangement of nanomolecules to get desire structure,the surface area increases and this leads to increase inreactivity as reactivity is a function of surface area. For same amount of reactivityneed lesser quantity.5
  6. 6.  Surface area of 100 g of lead: Conventional particle size (2.6 cm diameter) = 0.002 m2 50 nm particle size = 1,000 m26
  7. 7. 7ENCAPSULATION & DELIVERY SYSTEMNANOSTRUCTURED MATERIAL
  8. 8. Nanocomposites/barrier packagingActive packagingIntelligent/smart packagingBiodegradable and Ediblepackaging8
  9. 9. Functions Provides barrier properties• Oxygen• Light• Moisture• UV rays Provides excellent mechanical properties• Strength• Elasticity• Durability Thermal stability Flammability reduction Lighter in weight9
  10. 10. Two approaches for nanomaterial making Top-down:- by breaking up bulk material &nanolithography Bottom-up:- allows nanostructures to be built fromindividual atomsExamples: nanoaluminums, nanotitanium,nanosilver, ZnO, MgO, nanoclays, nanofibres,nanotubes10POLYMER NANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITE
  11. 11.  Basically montmorillonites (MMT) has been used. Polylactic acid + MMT = increased thermal resistance Polyvinylchloride + MMT = improved optical resistance Polyethylene + MMT/SiO2 = improved durability Polyamide+multi wall carbon nanotubes = significantflame resistance11
  12. 12. Others•Nanofibres: barrier and mechanical properties, italso displayed high transparency properties•Silica nanoparticles: improve mechanical or barrierproperties of composites•Starch nanocrystals: mechanical properties•Titanium dioxide nanoparticulate: block UV lightand provide a longer shelf-life for food12
  13. 13.  Solution method in-situ/interlamellar polymerisation13
  14. 14.  A novel type of packaging “Active” refers to the packaging which has the ability toremove undesirable tastes and flavor, and improve thecolor or smell of the packed food by interacting withinternal gas environment. Aims at extending the shelf-life or maintaining orimproving the condition of packaged food by deliberatelyincorporating components that release or absorbsubstances of packaged food or the environmentsurrounding food.14
  15. 15. Functions Oxygen scavenging Water vapour removal Ethylene removal Ethanol release Self healing composites Temperature regulator Antimicrobial nanocomposites15
  16. 16. Nanotechnology in activepackaging Oxygen scavengers Ferrous iron powder: contained in oxygen permeablesachet normally used. Titanium dioxide (TiO2): nanocrystalline act by aphotocatalytic mechanism under UV rays. Iron-based nanoclay with LDPE,HDPE,PET16
  17. 17. Self healing: nanomaterials respond to stresses,fractures, tears, puncture. Nanoparticles migrationwithin a composite material to the damage part andremake the bonds and healed.17Punctured Healed
  18. 18.  Temperature regulator: nanoporous calciumsilicate loaded with phase change material(paraffin)which mitigate the effect of an increase in externaltemperature Ethylene absorber: Ag nanoparticles are usedwhich presently showing extraordinary absorption. Ethanol releaser: the nanoporous silica gel usedin which ethanol is absorbed whichhas a bactericidal effect and according torequirement released in required quantity.18
  19. 19. Antimicrobial compositesControl the growth of pathogenic and spoilagemicroorganisms.Act as:1. Growth inhibitor2. Killing agent19Source:-Nanotechnology in Food Industries:An Opportunities
  20. 20. Ag-nanoparticles Having larger surface area available for interactionwith microbial cells, result in better bactericidal effect Ag particles Degrade lipolysaccharides, penetrateinside bacterial cell wall and damage the DNA Nanostructured calcium-silicate(NCS)used to absorb Ag+ from solutionof 1 mg/kg20
  21. 21.  TiO2: inactivate several food related pathogens byperoxidation of polyunsaturated phospholipids of cellwall membrane Carbon nanotube(CNT): fatal for E.Coli as long andthin tube puncture the cell.21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23.  Monitors the condition of packaged food or theenvironment surrounding the foodHello23
  24. 24.  Sensors Oxygen sensor Time-Temperature sensor Gases sensor Ethylene Ripeness sensor Biosensor Leakage Indicator RFID24
  25. 25.  Oxygen sensor: TiO2 NPs in polymer with bluedye(blue color indicate exposure to O2) Gas sensors: conducting polymernanocomposites/electronic tongue, resistance changesof sensors produce pattern of respective gases. Electrochemical nonosensors: detect ethylene25
  26. 26.  Confirm that processed food have been kept at theappropriate temperature throughout the supply chain. Dye which is time-temperature dependent migratethrough nanoporous silica.26
  27. 27. Ripeness sensor:React with aromas released by fruit as it ripens27http://www.ripesense.com/ripesense_why.html
  28. 28. Leakage indicators:Dye changes color in presence of air. ( TiO2nanoparticles are used)28
  29. 29.  Assists data quick and in accurate way. RFIDs incorporating polymeric transistors that usenanoscale organic thin-film technology and willprovide exception reports for temperature, short-lifespan products Conducting inks with metal nano particles Some research groups are exploring the use of carbonnanotubes as antenna29
  30. 30. Biosensors:MWNT based biosensor, detect microorganisms, toxicproteins, or spoilage of foods and some beverages.Ex:- nanostructured silk, the silk fibrils can be shapedinto ‘lenses’ and modified with various biomolecules,which when bound to targets (such as microbialproteins) alter the shape of the silk lens resulting in acolour change. As the silk is biodegradable and edible.30
  31. 31. Shortcoming Poor mechanical properties Low thermal stability Relative humidity dependancy Permeable to water31
  32. 32.  Cellulose, starch, zein(from corn) when synthesized asnanofibers obtain superior properties like; Increased heat resistance High thermal stability improved barrier properties Improved permeable properties32
  33. 33.  Edible films are around 5 nm thin Used for cheese, fruits, confectionary, bakerygoods and fast foods etc Provide barrier to moisture and gas. Act as vehicle to:Colors, flavours, antioxidants ,antibrowningagents Increase shelf life Ex. Mango puree reinforced with nano cellulose33
  34. 34.  Imperm (Nanocor Inc): in multilayer PETbottles Duretham (Bayer): nylon nanocomposite forfilms and paper coating, Aegis® OX (Honeywell): a polymerisednanocomposite film Baby Dream A-DO Global Plantic Technologies Rohm and Haas34
  35. 35. • Cadbury Schweppes• Cargill• DuPont• General Mills• H.J. Heinz• Nestlé• PepsiCo• Syngenta• Unilever• Kraft35
  36. 36.  Have great potential Innovation getting strengthened because of youngcountry Massive requirement forcrops, fruits,processing, storage, packaging.36
  37. 37.  Department of Science and Technology (DST), CoE(19) have been spread across 14 distinctinstitutions Council of Scientific and Industrial Research(CSIR), anetwork of 38 laboratories Science and Engineering Research Council(SERC) toohas aided projects on nanotechnology37
  38. 38. The International Science and TechnologyDirectorate (ISAD) of the CSIR that aims to havecollaborative projects with international partners likeSouth Africa, France, South Korea, China, Japan in thearea of nanoscience and nonotechnology38
  39. 39. Potential role of nanoparticles in plant Pathogendetection at early Stage and waste management(University of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh) Nano ZnO for smart packaging1. Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology(Bhubaneshwar)2. Indian Institute of Chemical Technology,(Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh)39
  40. 40.  Nanotechnology is an active area of research and rapidcommercialization. Food packaging has been targeted as a potential recipient ofnanotechnology The new properties that nanoscale may exhibit, may be unexpectedand unpredictable by same material at same material in bulk40
  41. 41.  Anand M,Balakrishnan M,Batra V,Das P,Noronha L,Sarma S Nidhi Srivastava:Nanotechnology developments in India – a status report. The Energy and ResourcesInstitute 2009, Project Report No. 2006ST21: D5. Azeredo HMC: Nanocomposites for food packaging applications.Food ResearchInternational 42 (2009) 1240–1253 Brody A L, Bugusu B, Han J H, Sand C K, AND Mchugh T H: Innovative Food PackagingSolutions. Journal of Food Science-Vol. 73, Nr. 8, 2008 Chaudhry Q, Scotter M, Blackburn J, Ross B, Boxall A, Castle L, Aitken R, & WatkinsR:Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector. Food Additivesand Contaminants, March 2008; 25(3): 241–258. Chaudhry Q: Applications of Nanoparticles for the Food Industry and Potential SafetyIssues.ICoMST –Copenhagen August 2009 Cushena M, Kerryb J, Morrisc M, Cruz-Romerob M and Cummins E: Nanotechnologiesin the food industry Recent developments, risks and regulation.Trends in Food Science& Technology 24 (2012) 30e46.41
  42. 42.  Duncan TV: Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety:Barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors. Journal of Colloid and InterfaceScience 2011 ; 363( 1 ): 1-24. Espitia P J P & Soares N F F & Coimbra J S R & Andrade N J & Cruz R S & Medeiros E A A: Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, AntimicrobialActivity and Food Packaging Applications. Food Bioprocess Technol (2012) 5:1447–1464 García M , Forbe T, Gonzalez E:Potential applications of nanotechnology in theagro-food sector.Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 30(3): 573-581, jul.-set. 2010 Joseph T and Morrison M: Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food.Institute ofNanotechnology,May 2006 Henriette M C, Azeredo, Mattoso L H C, Delilahwood, Williams T G, Avena-bustillos R J, & Mchugh T H: Nanocomposite Edible Films from MangoPuree Reinforced with Cellulose Nanofibers. Journal of food science-Vol. 74, Nr. 5,2009.42
  43. 43.  Huyghebaert A,Huffel X V,Houins G: Nanotechnology in the Food ChainOpportunities & Risks. International symposium, Organised by theFederal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain in the framework of theBelgian EU Presidency, 24th November 2010. Lagaron JM:Novel layered nanocomposites Higher barriers and better performance. Food engineering & ingredients, May 2006 Nanotechnology in packaging: a revolution is waiting. Food Engineering &Ingredients, September 2008 Vol. 33 Issue 3. Robinson D K R, Zadrazilova GS:Nanotechnology for Biodegradable andEdible Food Packaging. Biodegradable and Edible Food Packaging.Working Paper Version, April 2010. Robinson D K R and Morrison M J:Nanotechnologies for food packaging.Reporting the science and technology research trends: Report for theObservatory Nano. August 2010. Ray S , Quek S Y, Easteal A, Chen XD: The Potential Use of Polymer-ClayNanocomposites in Food Packaging. International Journal of Food Engineering Volume 2, Issue 4 2006 Article 5.43
  44. 44.  Schäfer A:NanotechnologyRegulatory aspects related to Foodcontact materials, 11.03.2010. Sekhon B S: Food nanotechnology – an overview.Nanotechnology, Science and Applications ,5 May,2010. Smolander M: Possibilities of nanotechnology in food processing and packaging applications. Workshop on Convergingtechnologies for Food: Nanotech, Bioinfo. CognitiveSciences 20December 2005.44
  45. 45. 45
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